Influence of Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotype on Helicobacter pylori Proton Pump Inhibitor-Amoxicillin-Clarithromycin Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis
ABSTRACT: Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the first-line treatment for acid-related diseases. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of PPIs, however, are influenced by genetic factors such as variants in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450 2C19 [CYP2C19]) and drug transporters. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the influence of CYP2C19 genotype and PPI class, PPI dose, treatment duration and clarithromycin dose on the cure rate of PPI-containing Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Methods: Randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating cure rates using a PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin regimen among different CYP2C19 genotypes through May 2021 were included. Results: A total of 25 studies (5,318 patients) were included. The overall eradication rate in the intention-to-treat analysis was 79.0% (3,689/4,669, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8–80.2%), and that in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizer (IMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs) was 77.7% (1,137/1,464, 95% CI: 75.3–79.6%), 81.2% (1,498/1,844, 95% CI: 79.3–83.0%) and 86.8% (644/742, 95% CI: 83.9–88.9%), respectively. Meta-analysis showed that the relaTakashitive risk of failed eradication in CYP2C19 EMs compared with IMs and PMs was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06–1.39, P = 0.006) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.27–1.94, P < 0.001), respectively, in the fixed-effects model. The cure rate of omeprazole and lansoprazole-containing eradication regimens differed among CYP2C19 genotypes (P < 0.05), while that of rabeprazole and esomeprazole-containing regimens was similar. Conclusion: The cure rates of PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin H. pylori eradication regimen, especially those containing omeprazole and lansoprazole, differ among CYP2C19 genotypes. Therefore, selection of a second-generation PPI or tailored treatment may achieve higher eradication rates than first-generation PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple regimen.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication using standard triple therapy (STT) with proton pump inhibitors (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin (CLA) has been the standard in Latin America. However, CLA resistance is a rising problem affecting eradication rates. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19, a PPI metabolizer may also affect eradication. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of clarithromycin resistance on H. pylori eradication in a population from Santiago, and to establish the pooled clarithromycin resistance in Santiago, Chile. Symptomatic adult patients attending a tertiary hospital in Santiago were recruited for this study. CLA resistance and the polymorphisms of CYP2C19 were determined on DNA extracted from gastric biopsies, using PCR. The STT was indicated for 14 days and eradication was determined by a urea breath test 4-6 weeks after therapy. A meta-analysis of CLA resistance studies among adult residents in Santiago was performed. Seventy-three out of 121 consecutive patients had positive rapid urease test (RUT) and received STT. Sixty-nine patients (95%) completed the study. The H. pylori eradication rate was 63% and the prevalence of CLA resistance was 26%. According to the CYP2C19 polymorphisms, 79.5% of the RUT-positive patients were extensive metabolizers. Multivariable analyses showed that only CLA resistance was significantly and inversely associated with failure of eradication (OR: 0.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.04-0.49). A meta-analysis of two previous studies and our sample set (combined n?=?194) yielded to a pooled prevalence of CLA resistance of 31.3% (95% CI 23.9-38.7). Our study shows that CLA resistance is associated with failure of H. pylori eradication. Given the high pooled prevalence of CLA resistance, consideration of CLA free therapies in Santiago is warranted. We could recommend bismuth quadruple therapy or high-dose dual therapy, according to bismuth availability. Further studies need to evaluate the best therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Significant heterogeneity was observed in previous trials that assessed the efficacies of sequential therapy for 10?days (S10) versus triple therapy for 14?days (T14) in the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to compare the efficacy of S10 and T14 and assess the factors affecting their efficacies. DESIGN:We conducted this open-label randomised multicentre trial in eight hospitals and one community in Taiwan. 1300 adult subjects with H pylori infection naïve to treatment were randomised (1:1) to receive S10 (lansoprazole and amoxicillin for the first 5?days, followed by lansoprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole for another 5?days) or T14 (lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for 14?days). All drugs were given twice daily. Successful eradication was defined as negative 13C-urea breath test at least 6?weeks after treatment. Our primary outcome was the eradication rate by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. Antibiotic resistance was determined by agar dilution test. RESULTS:The eradication rates of S10 and T14 were 87.2% (567/650, 95% CI 84.4% to 89.6%) and 85.7% (557/650, 95% CI 82.8% to 88.2%) in the ITT analysis, respectively, and were 91.6% (556/607, 95% CI 89.1% to 93.4%) and 91.0% (548/602, 95% CI 88.5% to 93.1%) in the PP analysis, respectively. There were no differences in compliance or adverse effects. The eradication rates in strains susceptible and resistant to clarithromycin were 90.7% and 62.2%, respectively, for S10, and were 91.5% and 44.4%, respectively, for T14. The efficacy of T14, but not S10, was affected by CYP2C19 polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS:S10 was not superior to T14 in areas with low clarithromycin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01607918.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Helicobacter pylori eradication containing the potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan, achieves a higher eradication rate than therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Because vonoprazan is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4/5, CYP genotype may affect the eradication rate. We investigated the influence of antibiotic susceptibility and CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C19 genotypes on the eradication rates. METHODS:A total of 307 Japanese who were genotyped for CYP3A4 *1/*22, CYP3A5 *1/*3 and CYP2C19 *1/*2/*3/*17, and investigated for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, received vonoprazan-containing regimens: (1) With amoxicillin and clarithromycin as the first-line treatment; (2) with amoxicillin and metronidazole as the second-line treatment; or (3) with amoxicillin and sitafloxacin as the third-line treatment. RESULTS:The eradication rate was 84.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.9-89.1%) using first-line, 92.6% (95% CI: 82.1-97.9%) using second-line and 87.5% (95% CI: 73.1-95.8%) using third-line treatment. Infection with clarithromycin-resistant strains was a predictive factor for failed eradication (odds ratio: 5.788, 95% CI: 1.916-17.485, p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rate of regimens among CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS:Genotyping for CYP3A4 *1/*22, CYP3A5 *1/*3 and CYP2C19 *1/*2/*3/*17 before vonoprazan-containing eradication treatment may not be useful for predicting clinical outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Sequential therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and amoxicillin followed by a PPI, clarithromycin, and an imidazole agent reportedly have a better rate of curing Helicobacter pylori infection than PPI, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin triple therapy. The concomitant administration of these 4 drugs (concomitant therapy) is also an effective treatment strategy. We compared the efficacies of sequential and concomitant therapy and analyzed the effects of antibiotic resistance in patients with H pylori infection.<h4>Methods</h4>In a randomized trial of 232 H pylori-infected patients from 3 hospitals in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, patients were given 10 days of sequential (n = 115) or concomitant (n = 117) therapy. H pylori status was confirmed by endoscopy or urea breath test.<h4>Results</h4>Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated similar eradication rates for sequential (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.5%-97.1%) and concomitant therapy (93.0%; 95% CI, 88.3%-97.7%)(P = .83). Per-protocol eradication results were similar for sequential (93.1%; 95% CI, 90.7%-95.5%) and concomitant therapy (93.0%; 95% CI, 88.3%-97.7%) (P = .99). Univariate analysis showed that compliance and resistance to clarithromycin were independent determinants of eradication. Dual resistance did not influence the level of eradication in the concomitant group, but significantly affected that of the sequential therapy group. Clarithromycin resistance was less frequent than expected.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sequential or concomitant therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and an imidazole agent are equally effective and safe for eradication of H pylori infection. Resistance to clarithromycin, compliance, and adverse events reduced the level of eradication. Concomitant therapy may be more suitable for patients with dual resistance to antibiotics.
Project description:The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors.To estimate risk of H. pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment.Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H. pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011.Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy.Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up.Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P = .03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31-6.13; P = .01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.35 per child; P = .03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%-83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%-83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%-81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P = .61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%-81.5%). In a single-treatment course analysis that ignored the effects of re-treatment, the percentage of UBT-negative results at 1 year was 72.4% (95% CI, 69.9%-74.8%) and was significantly associated with study site (P < .001), adherence to initial therapy (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42; P < .001), male sex (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25-2.13; P < .001), and age (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.27 per decade; P = .02). One-year effectiveness among all 1463 enrolled participants, considering all missing UBT results as positive, was 72.7% (95% CI, 70.3%-74.9%).One year after treatment for H. pylori infection, recurrence occurred in 11.5% of participants who had negative posttreatment UBT results. Recurrence determinants (ie, nonadherence and demographics) may be as important as specific antibiotic regimen in determining the long-term success of H. pylori eradication interventions. Study findings are relevant to the feasibility of programs for the primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-incidence regions of Latin America.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01061437.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine the efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB)-based first-line eradication therapy with bismuth compared with that of proton pump inhibitor-based first-line therapy with bismuth.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Eradication-naive <i>H. pylori</i>-infected patients were consecutively enrolled from January to November 2020. Before approval of the P-CAB-based eradication therapy, twice daily administration of a regimen containing lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and bismuth potassium citrate 300 mg was prescribed for 7 days. After approval, lansoprazole was replaced with tegoprazan (50 mg). Clarithromycin resistance was examined in patients who underwent gastroscopic biopsy at our center. Efficacy was assessed via the <sup>13</sup>C-urea breath test.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 381 eradication-naive patients, eradication was successful in 88.3% (151/171) treated with tegoprazan and 82.8% (140/169) treated with lansoprazole in per-protocol analysis (<i>p</i>=0.151). In intention-to-treat analysis, eradication rates were 78.8% (152/193) in the tegoprazan and 74.5% (140/188) in the lansoprazole group (<i>p</i>=0.323). Clarithromycin resistance was observed in 30 (20.1%) of the 148 patients (74 from each group), and only four of the 16 clarithromycin-resistant patients in the tegoprazan group achieved successful eradication. Clarithromycin resistance [odds ratio (OR)=42.1, 95% confidence intervals (CIs)=12.6-141.0] and poor patient compliance (OR=17.1, 95% CIs=1.6-189.1) were independent risk factors for eradication failure.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In eradication-naive patients, eradication success rates for 7-day first-line triple therapy regimen exceeded 82% with bismuth administration. In clarithromycin-resistant patients, neither tegoprazan 50 mg nor lansoprazole 30 mg achieved acceptable eradication rates when administered twice daily for 7 days.
Project description:Background:Whether adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may improve the efficacy of triple therapy in the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of 14-day triple therapy with or without NAC for the first-line treatment of H. pylori. Material and methods:Between 1 January 2014 and 30 June 2018, 680 patients with H. pylori infection naïve to treatment were enrolled in this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive triple therapy with NAC [NAC-T14, dexlansoprazole 60?mg four times daily (q.d.); amoxicillin 1?g twice daily (b.i.d.), clarithromycin 500?mg b.i.d., NAC 600?mg b.i.d.] for 14?days, or triple therapy alone (T14, dexlansoprazole 60?mg q.d.; amoxicillin 1?g b.i.d., clarithromycin 500?mg b.i.d.) for 14?days. Our primary outcome was the eradication rates by intention to treat (ITT). Antibiotic resistance and CYP2C19 gene polymorphism were determined. Results:The ITT analysis demonstrated H. pylori eradication rates in NAC-T14 and T14 were 81.7% [276/338, 95% confidence interval (CI): 77.5-85.8%] and 84.3% (285/338, 95% CI 80.4-88.2%), respectively. In 646 participants who adhered to their assigned therapy, the eradication rates were 85.7% and 88.0% with NAC-T14 and T14 therapies, respectively. There were no differences in compliance or adverse effects. The eradication rates in subjects with clarithromycin-resistant, amoxicillin-resistant, or either clarithromycin/amoxicillin resistant strains were 45.2%, 57.9%, and 52.2%, respectively, for NAC-T14, and were 66.7%, 76.9%, and 70.0%, respectively, for T14. The efficacy of NAC-T14 and T14 was not affected by CYP2C19 polymorphism. Conclusion:Add-on NAC to triple therapy was not superior to triple therapy alone for first-line H. pylori eradication [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02249546].
Project description:Ten-day sequential therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and amoxicillin followed by a PPI, clarithromycin, and an imidazole typically achieves Helicobacter pylori eradication rates of 90-94% (Grade B success).We tested whether prolonging treatment and continuing amoxicillin throughout the 14-day treatment period would produce a ? 95% result.This was a multicenter pilot study in which H. pylori-infected patients received a 14-day sequential-concomitant hybrid therapy (esomeprazole and amoxicillin for 7 days followed by esomeprazole, amoxicillin clarithromycin, and metronidazole for 7 days). H. pylori status was examined 8 weeks after therapy. Success was defined as achieving ? 95% eradication by per-protocol analysis.One hundred and seventeen subjects received hybrid therapy. The eradication rate was 99.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 97.3-100.0%) by per-protocol analysis and 97.4% by intention-to-treat analysis (95% CI, 94.5-100.0%). Adverse events were seen in 14.5%; drug compliance was 94.9%.Fourteen-day hybrid sequential-concomitant therapy achieved > 95%H. pylori eradication (Grade A result). Further studies are needed 1, in regions with different patterns and frequencies of resistance to confirm these findings, and 2, to examine whether Grade A success is maintained with hybrid therapy shorter than 14 days.
Project description:A gastric juice-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was established to identify Helicobacter pylori infection, clarithromycin susceptibility and human CYP2C19 genotypes and to guide the choice of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin treatment for tailored H. pylori eradication therapy. From January 2013 to November 2014, 178 consecutive dyspeptic patients were enrolled for collection of gastric biopsy samples and gastric juice by endoscopy at the Peking University Third Hospital; 105 and 73 H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, respectively, were included in this study. H. pylori infection was defined as samples with both a strongly positive rapid urease test (RUT) and positive H. pylori histology. A series of primers and probes were distributed into four reactions for identifying the H. pylori cagH gene coupled with an internal control (Rnase P gene), A2142G and A2143G mutants of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G681A of CYP2C19*2 and G636A of CYP2C19*3. The E-test and DNA sequencing were used to evaluate the H. pylori clarithromycin susceptibility phenotype and genotype. The SNPs CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 were also evaluated by nucleotide sequencing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of this gastric juice-based real-time PCR assay were evaluated by comparing with the same measures obtained through gastric biopsy-based PCR and culture. The H. pylori diagnostic sensitivities of the culture, PCR, and gastric biopsy- and gastric juice-based real-time PCR assays were 90.48% (95/105), 92.38% (97/105), 97.14% (102/105) and 100% (105/105), respectively; the specificities of the above methods were all 100%. Higher false-negative rates were found among the gastric biopsy samples assessed by culture (10.48%, 11/105), PCR (7.62%, 8/105) and real-time PCR (2.86%, 3/105) than in gastric juice by real-time PCR. Regarding clarithromycin susceptibility, a concordance of 82.98% (78/94) and discordance of 17.02% (16/94) were observed among the different methods, discrepancies that mainly represent differences between the H. pylori clarithromycin susceptibility phenotype and genotype. Three coinfections of susceptible and resistant strains were detected, with resistant-to-susceptible ratios of 1.16, 3.44, and 8.26. The CYP2C19 genotyping results from gastric juice by real-time PCR were completely in accordance with those obtained from biopsy samples by conventional PCR. This gastric juice-based real-time PCR assay is a more accurate method for detecting H. pylori infection, clarithromycin susceptibility and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. The method may be employed to inform the choice of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin treatment for tailored H. pylori eradication therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Evidence from Europe, Asia, and North America suggests that standard three-drug regimens of a proton-pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin are significantly less effective for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection than are 5-day concomitant and 10-day sequential four-drug regimens that include a nitroimidazole. These four-drug regimens also entail fewer antibiotic doses than do three-drug regimens and thus could be suitable for eradication programmes in low-resource settings. Few studies in Latin America have been done, where the burden of H pylori-associated diseases is high. We therefore did a randomised trial in Latin America comparing the effectiveness of four-drug regimens given concomitantly or sequentially with that of a standard 14-day regimen of triple therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Between September, 2009, and June, 2010, we did a randomised trial of empiric 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for H pylori in seven Latin American sites: Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico (two sites). Participants aged 21-65 years who tested positive for H pylori by a urea breath test were randomly assigned by a central computer using a dynamic balancing procedure to: 14 days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (standard therapy); 5 days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant therapy); or 5 days of lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5 days of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential therapy). Eradication was assessed by urea breath test 6-8 weeks after randomisation. The trial was not masked. Our primary outcome was probablity of H pylori eradication. Our analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number NCT01061437.<h4>Findings</h4>1463 participants aged 21-65 years were randomly allocated a treatment: 488 were treated with 14-day standard therapy, 489 with 5-day concomitant therapy, and 486 with 10-day sequential therapy. The probability of eradication with standard therapy was 82·2% (401 of 488), which was 8·6% higher (95% adjusted CI 2·6-14·5) than with concomitant therapy (73·6% [360 of 489]) and 5·6% higher (-0·04% to 11·6) than with sequential therapy (76·5% [372 of 486]). Neither four-drug regimen was significantly better than standard triple therapy in any of the seven sites.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Standard 14-day triple-drug therapy is preferable to 5-day concomitant or 10-day sequential four-drug regimens as empiric therapy for H pylori infection in diverse Latin American populations.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US National Institutes of Health.