International comparison of trends in cancer mortality: Japan has fallen behind in screening-related cancers.
ABSTRACT: While the age-standardized mortality rate in Japan is decreasing for all cancers as a whole, this is not the case for some major site-specific cancers. We descriptively compared trends in all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality in Japan and selected countries. Data on age-standardized cancer mortality rates in six countries (Japan, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and the Republic of Korea) in 1980-2016 were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. While stomach and liver cancer mortality rates in Japan and Korea were initially much higher than those in non-Asian countries, they have rapidly decreased over the long term. By contrast, colorectal, pancreatic and cervical cancer mortality rates in Japan, which were initially lower than those in other countries, have increased such that they are now similar or higher than the rates in non-Asian countries. For male lung cancer, Japan's initially lower mortality rate is now comparable to that in non-Asian countries as a result of slower decline. Meanwhile, the mortality rate of female breast cancer in Japan and Korea has increased and is nearing the rates observed in non-Asian countries, which by contrast have shown a steady decrease. Thus, while Japan has been successful in reducing the burden of stomach and liver cancers, it is falling behind in reducing the mortality rate of screening-related cancers such as colorectal, female breast and cervical cancers. Control measures for these cancers need to be strengthened.
Project description:Reproductive system cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide which threatens women's health and lives. Breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer have the higher incidence and mortality among a series of gynecology malignant tumor. We aimed to compare and assess the temporal trends of common female malignances on breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer mortality in developed regions of Asia including Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore and analyze the detached effects of chronological age, time period, and birth cohort by age-period-cohort (APC) analysis.The mortality data for these three cancers were collected from the WHO Mortality Database in Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1954 to 2013, from 1989 to 2013, and from 1964 to 2013, respectively. We fitted an age-period-cohort model and intrinsic estimator method to estimate the independent effect of each age, time period, and birth cohort on cancer mortality and describe the secular changes in three Asian countries.For the overall trends of breast cancer, the ASMRs of breast cancer showed a general increasing trend among three countries during the study periods while the change pattern in Singapore was different from the rest of the two countries for cervical and ovarian cancer. By APC analysis, the three cancer mortality risks generally increased with age and decreased with birth cohort. For period effects of breast and ovarian cancer, increasing effects with time were observed; however, for period effects of cervical cancer, converse change pattern was presented among three countries.Our study shows that the ASMRs of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer remain high in Singapore compared to Japan and Korea. Generally speaking, the mortality risk of three cancers increased with age, and period and cohort effects may collectively affect the common female malignances mortality for East Asian women.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate uterine and ovarian cancer mortality trends in East Asian countries.<h4>Methods</h4>For three Asian countries and one region (Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong), we extracted number of deaths for each year from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database, focusing on women ?20 years old. The WHO population data were used to estimate person-years at risk for women. The annual age-standardized, truncated rates were evaluated for four age groups. We also compared age-specific mortality rates during three calendar periods (1979 to 1988, 1989 to 1998, and 1999 to 2010). Joinpoint regression was used to determine secular trends in mortality. To obtain cervical and uterine corpus cancer mortality rates in Korea, we re-allocated the cases with uterine cancer of unspecified subsite according to the proportion in the National Cancer Incidence Databases.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, uterine cancer mortality has decreased in each of the Asian regions. In Korea, corrected cervical cancer mortality has declined since 1993, at an annual percentage change (APC) of -4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], -5.3 to -4.4). On the other hand, corrected uterine corpus cancer mortality has abruptly increased since 1995 (APC, 6.7; 95% CI, 5.4 to 8.0). Ovarian cancer mortality was stable, except in Korea, where mortality rates steadily increased at an APC of 6.2% (95% CI, 3.4 to 9.0) during 1995 to 2000, and subsequently stabilized.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although uterine cancer mortality rates are declining in East Asia, additional effort is warranted to reduce the burden of gynecologic cancer in the future, through the implementation of early detection programs and the use of optimal therapeutic strategies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study aimed to evaluate the updated burden and temporal trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Asian countries.<h4>Methodology</h4>The data used in this study were retrieved from the Global Cancer Observatory, <i>Cancer Incidence in Five Continents</i> volumes I-XI, and the <i>World Health Organization</i> mortality database. These data were used to calculate the Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) by joinpoint regression analysis to determine the epidemiological trend in the past decade.<h4>Results</h4>In 2020, the cancer incidence in Asia was 169.1 per 1 00 000, accounting for 49.3% of the global cancer incidence. The most common cancers included lung (13.8%), breast (10.8%) and colorectal (10.6%) cancers. Its mortality was 101.6 per 1 00 000 (58.3% of the global cancer death) with lung (19.2%), liver (10.5%) and stomach (9.9%) cancers being the most common causes of cancer death. The cancer incidence had been increasing in female population, with Korea (AAPC = 5.73, 95% CI [5.30, 6.17], <i>P</i> < .001), Japan (AAPC = 2.67, 95% CI [2.12, 3.23], <i>P</i> < .001) and Kuwait (AAPC = 2.08, 95% CI [.49, 3.69], <i>P</i> = .016) showing the most significant increases in the past decade. The incidence increase was also observed among population aged <40 years old, with Korea (female AAPC = 8.42, 95% CI [7.40, 9.45], <i>P</i> < .001; male AAPC = 5.28, 95% CI [4.23, 6.33], <i>P</i> <.001), China (female AAPC = 2.94, 95% CI [2.07, 3.81], <i>P</i> < .001; male AAPC = 1.37, 95% CI [.57, 2.18], <i>P</i> = .004) and Japan (female AAPC = 2.88, 95% CI [1.88, 3.88], <i>P</i> = .016; male AAPC = 1.59, 95% CI [.40, 2.78], <i>P</i> = .015) showing the most significant increases. However, there was an overall decreasing trend of cancer mortality.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was a substantial burden of cancer incidence and mortality in Asia. Although there was a decreasing trend in cancer mortality, its incidence had been increasing especially among female and younger populations. Future studies could be done to further investigate the potential reasons for these epidemiologic trends.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population.<h4>Methods</h4>Sex- and cancer-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of ever-smoking and second-hand smoking in 1989 among Korean adults, respectively, and the relative risks were estimated from the meta-analysis of studies performed in the Korean population for ever-smoking and in the Asian population for passive smoking. National cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and national cancer mortality data from Statistics Korea for the year 2009 were used to estimate the cancer cases and deaths attributable to tobacco smoking.<h4>Results</h4>Tobacco smoking was responsible for 20,239 (20.9%) cancer incident cases and 14,377 (32.9%) cancer deaths among adult men and 1,930 (2.1%) cancer incident cases and 1,351 (5.2%) cancer deaths among adult women in 2009 in Korea. In men, 71% of lung cancer deaths, 55%-72% of upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx) cancer deaths, 23% of liver, 32% of stomach, 27% of pancreas, 7% of kidney and 45% of bladder cancer deaths were attributable to tobacco smoking. In women the proportion of ever-smoking-attributable lung cancer was 8.1%, while that attributable to second-hand smoking among non-smoking women was 20.5%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Approximately one in three cancer deaths would be potentially preventable through appropriate control of tobacco smoking in Korean men at the population level and individual level. For Korean women, more lung cancer cases and deaths were attributable to second-hand than ever-smoking. Effective control programs against tobacco smoking should be further developed and implemented in Korea to reduce the smoking-related cancer burden.
Project description:Total or red meat intake has been shown to be associated with a higher risk of mortality in Western populations, but little is known of the risks in Asian populations.We examined temporal trends in meat consumption and associations between meat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia.We used ecological data from the United Nations to compare country-specific meat consumption. Separately, 8 Asian prospective cohort studies in Bangladesh, China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan consisting of 112,310 men and 184,411 women were followed for 6.6 to 15.6 y with 24,283 all-cause, 9558 cancer, and 6373 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. We estimated the study-specific HRs and 95% CIs by using a Cox regression model and pooled them by using a random-effects model.Red meat consumption was substantially lower in the Asian countries than in the United States. Fish and seafood consumption was higher in Japan and Korea than in the United States. Our pooled analysis found no association between intake of total meat (red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood) and risks of all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality among men and women; HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality from a comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile were 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) in men and 0.93 (0.86, 1.01) in women.Ecological data indicate an increase in meat intake in Asian countries; however, our pooled analysis did not provide evidence of a higher risk of mortality for total meat intake and provided evidence of an inverse association with red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As a higher proportion of adults live beyond 85 years, their cancer burden is expected to increase. While trends among the oldest old are established for major epithelial cancers (breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers), they are less studied for minor cancers. This study describes age trends of cancer mortality, with emphasis on individuals aged 85+ years. RESULTS:Overall cancer mortality peaked at 85 years old and decreased or stabilized for all countries except the USA, France, and Japan, in which mortality continued to increase after age 85 years. For most countries, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, liver, and larynx have a similar flat trend patterns across all ages. Bladder and kidney cancers as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia showed a decreasing pattern after 85 years for UK, Germany, Italy and Poland. Lung cancer peaked at 80 years, although the age-specific peak among women did not follow the same pattern among all countries. Breast and prostate cancers increased after 85 years. CONCLUSION:Mortality stabilized or decreased after age 85, particularly for non-hormonal cancers. Whether this reflects a true biological levelling of mortality rates, or lower validity of cancer registration among the oldest old, remains open to discussion. METHODS:Completed death data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) for eight countries (2000 to 2014). Age-specific mortality rates were calculated for each 5-year age group above age 64. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends by age.
Project description:In an international comparison of recent mortality statistics among G7 countries, Japan had the longest average life expectancy, primarily due to remarkably low mortality rates from ischemic heart disease and cancer (particularly breast and prostate). As recently as the 1960s, life expectancy in Japan was the shortest among the G7 countries, owing to relatively high mortality from cerebrovascular disease-particularly intracerebral hemorrhage-and stomach cancer. Mortality rates for these diseases subsequently decreased significantly while the already low rates for ischemic heart disease and cancer also decreased, resulting in Japanese life expectancy becoming the longest. The low mortality rates from ischemic heart disease and cancer are thought to reflect the low prevalence of obesity in Japan; low intake of red meat, specifically saturated fatty acids; and high intakes of fish, specifically n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, plant foods such as soybeans, and nonsugar-sweetened beverages such as green tea. The decreasing mortality rates from cerebrovascular disease are thought to reflect the increases in animal foods, milk, and dairy products and consequently in saturated fatty acids and calcium, together with a decrease in salt intake which may have led to a decrease in blood pressure. This decrease in salt and highly salted foods also seems to account for the decrease in stomach cancer. The typical Japanese diet as characterized by plant food and fish as well as modest Westernized diet such as meat, milk and dairy products might be associated with longevity in Japan.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Despite cancer being a leading cause of death worldwide, scant research has been carried out on the validity of the cancer transition theory, the idea that as nations develop, they move from a situation where infectious-related cancers are prominent to one where noninfectious-related cancers dominate.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine whether cancer transitions exist in the US, select European countries, and Japan.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>In this cross-sectional study, annual cause-of-death data from the 1950s to 2018 for the US, England and Wales, France, Sweden, Norway, and Japan were extracted from the Human Mortality Database and the World Health Organization (WHO). Statistical analysis was performed from April 2020 to February 2021.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Age-standardized death rates for all ages and both sexes combined were estimated for cancers of the stomach, cervix, liver, lung, pancreas, esophagus, colorectum, breast, and prostate.<h4>Results</h4>The results of the analysis show that for all countries in this study except for Japan, mortality from infectious-related cancers has declined steadily throughout the period, so that by the end of the period, for Norway, England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, rates were approximately 20 deaths per 100 000 population. Regarding noninfectious-related cancers, at the beginning of the period, all countries exhibited an increasing trend in rates, with England and Wales having the greatest peak of 215.1 deaths per 100 000 population (95% CI 213.7-216.6 deaths per 100 000 population) in 1985 followed by a decline, with most of the other countries reaching a peak around 1990 and declining thereafter. Furthermore, there is a visible crossover in the trends for infectious-related and noninfectious-related cancers in Japan and Norway. This crossover occurred in 1988 in Japan, when the rates for both types of cancers stood at 116 per 100 000 population (95% CI, 115.0-116.5 per 100 000 population), and in 1955 in Norway, when they passed each other at 100 per 100 000 population (95% CI, 96.4-105.3 per 100 000 population).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that cancer mortality patterns parallel the epidemiological transition, which states that as nations develop, they move from a stage where infectious diseases are prominent to one where noninfectious diseases dominate. An implication is that the epidemiological transition theory as originally formulated continues to be relevant, despite some researchers arguing that there should be additional stages beyond the original 3.
Project description:Background:Expanded newborn screening (ENBS) utilizing tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for inborn metabolic diseases (IMDs), such as organic acidemias (OAs), fatty acid oxidation disorders, (FAODs), and amino acid disorders (AAs), is increasingly popular but has not yet been introduced in many Asian countries. This study aimed to determine the incidence rates of OAs, FAODs, and AAs in Asian countries and Germany using selective screening and ENBS records. Materials and methods:Selective screening for IMDs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and MS/MS was performed among patients suspected to be afflicted in Asian countries (including Japan, Vietnam, China, and India) between 2000 and 2015, and the results from different countries were compared. Similarly, ENBS results from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Germany were compared. Additionally, the results of selective screening and ENBS in Japan were compared. Results:Among 39,270 patients who underwent selective screening, IMDs were detected in 1170. Methylmalonic acidemia was frequently identified in several countries, including Japan (81/377 diagnosed IMDs), China (94/216 IMDs), and India (72/293 IMDs). In Vietnam, however, ?-ketothiolase deficiency was particularly frequent (33/250 IMDs). ENBS yielded differences in overall IMD rates by country: 1:8557 in Japan, 1:7030 in Taiwan, 1:13,205 in South Korea, and 1:2200 in Germany. Frequently discovered diseases included propionic acidemia (PPA) and phenylketonuria (PKU) in Japan, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCCD) and PKU in Taiwan, MCCD and citrullinemia type I in South Korea, and PKU and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Germany. Furthermore, in Japan, selective screening and ENBS yielded respective PPA frequencies of 14.7% and 49.4% among all organic acidemias. Conclusion:The incidence rates of IMDs vary by country. Moreover, the disease spectra of IMDs detected via selective screening differ from those detected via ENBS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Marked reductions in childhood cancer mortality occurred over the last decades in high-income countries and, to a lesser degree, in middle-income countries. This study aimed to monitor mortality trends in the Americas and Australasia, focusing on areas showing unsatisfactory trends.<h4>Methods</h4>Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 children (aged 0-14 years) from 1990 to 2017 (or the last available calendar year) were computed for all neoplasms and 8 leading childhood cancers in countries from the Americas and Australasia, using data from the World Health Organization database. A joinpoint regression was used to identify changes in slope of mortality trends for all neoplasms, leukemia, and neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) for major countries.<h4>Results</h4>Over the last decades, childhood cancer mortality continued to decrease by approximately 2% to 3% per year in Australasian countries (ie, Japan, Korea, and Australia), by approximately 1.5% to 2% in North America and Chile, and 1% in Argentina. Other Latin American countries did not show any substantial decrease. Leukemia mortality declined in most countries, whereas less favorable trends were registered for CNS neoplasms, particularly in Latin America. Around 2016, death rates from all neoplasms were 4 to 6 per 100,000 boys and 3 to 4 per 100,000 girls in Latin America, and 2 to 3 per 100,000 boys and approximately 2 per 100,000 girls in North America and Australasia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Childhood cancer mortality trends declined steadily in North America and Australasia, whereas they were less favorable in most Latin American countries. Priority must be given to closing the gap by providing high-quality care for all children with cancer worldwide.<h4>Lay summary</h4>Advances in childhood cancer management have substantially improved the burden of these neoplasms over the past 40 years, particularly in high-income countries. This study aimed to monitor recent trends in America and Australasia using mortality data from the World Health Organization. Trends in childhood cancer mortality continued to decline in high-income countries by approximately 2% to 3% per year in Japan, Korea, and Australia, and 1% to 2% in North America. Only a few Latin American countries showed favorable trends, including Argentina, Chile, and Mexico, whereas other countries with limited resources still lagged behind.