Production of IL-6 and Phagocytosis Are the Most Resilient Immune Functions in Metabolically Compromised Human Monocytes
ABSTRACT: At sites of inflammation, monocytes carry out specific immune functions while facing challenging metabolic restrictions. Here, we investigated the potential of human monocytes to adapt to conditions of gradually inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) under glucose free conditions. We used myxothiazol, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, to adjust two different levels of decreased mitochondrial ATP production. At these levels, and compared to uninhibited OXPHOS, we assessed phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidase (NOX), expression of surface activation markers CD16, CD80, CD11b, HLA-DR, and production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in human monocytes. We found phagocytosis and the production of IL-6 to be least sensitive to metabolic restrictions while surface expression of CD11b, HLA-DR, production of TNF-α, IL-1β and production of ROS through NOX were most compromised by inhibition of OXPHOS in the absence of glucose. Our data demonstrate a short-term hierarchy of immune functions in human monocytes, which represents novel knowledge potentially leading to the development of new therapeutics in monocyte-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic) and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory) monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured. For TLR4+896A/G variant allele carriers with severe sepsis, high plasma endotoxin/IL-10 inhibits HLA-DR expression and impaired phagocytosis were noted in their classical monocyte. In the same group, increased non-classical monocyte subset, enhanced LPS-stimulated TLR4 expression and TNF?/nitrite production, and systemic inflammation [high plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14) and total nitric oxide (NOx) levels] were noted. For CD14-159C/T variant allele carriers with severe sepsis, persist endotoxemia inhibited mCD14/HLA-DR expression and impaired phagocytosis of their classical monocyte. In the same group, increased non-classical monocyte subset up-regulated TLR4-NF?B-iNOS and p38MAPK pathway, stimulated TNF?/nitrite production and elicited systemic inflammation. In febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients, TLR4+896A/G and CD14-159C/T polymorphisms-related non-classical and classical monocytes dysfunction resulted in increased severe sepsis risk. Malnutrition, high plasma endotoxin and sCD14 levels, single TLR4+896A/G or CD14-159C/T variant allele carriers and double variant allele carriers are significant predictive factors for the development of severe sepsis among them.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and M2 monocytes/macrophages are two types of suppressive myeloid antigen presenting cells that have been shown to promote tumor progression and correlate with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Tumor antigen specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have emerged as important agents for cancer therapy. In addition to the direct inhibition of tumor growth, the Fc portions of the therapeutic mAbs, such as the IgG1 portion of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mAb cetuximab, might interact with the Fc-gamma receptors (Fc?R) on myeloid cells and modulate their suppressive activity.Patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on the UPCI 08-013 NCT01218048 trial were treated with single-agent cetuximab before surgery. Blood were collected pre- and post-cetuximab treatment to analyze frequency of monocytic MDSC (CD11b(+)CD14(+)HLA-DR(lo/-)), granulocytic MDSC (LIN(-)CD11b(+)CD15(+)) and CD11b(+)CD14(+)HLA-DR(hi) monocytes by flow cytometry. Besides, CD11b(+)CD14(+)HLA-DR(hi) monocytes were sorted for qPCR analysis of IL-10 and IL-12B transcripts. MDSC were generated in vitro with or without coated hIgG1 and tested for suppressive activity in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Naïve monocytes from HNSCC patients co-cultured with tumor cell lines in the presence of cetuximab or hIgG1 were analyzed for M1/2 surface markers and cytokines.We observed significantly increased monocytic MDSC in non-responders and decreased granulocytic MDSC in responders after cetuximab treatment. In addition, circulating CD11b(+)CD14(+)HLA-DR(hi) monocytes of cetuximab responders displayed attenuated M2 polarization, with decreased CD163(+) expression and IL-10 transcripts after cetuximab treatment. This beneficial effect appeared to be Fc?R dependent, since CD16 ligation reproduced the reversal of suppressive activity of MDSC in vitro. CD14(+) naïve monocytes from the co-cultures of tumor cells, cetuximab and HNSCC patient PBMC or purified monocytes were skewed to an M1-like phenotype, with increased expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and production of IL-12 p70. Likewise, reduced M2 features (expression of CD163 and production of IL-10) were found after crosslinking CD16 on the surface of monocytes to cetuximab-coated tumor cells.Our studies demonstrate a novel function of cetuximab in ameliorating suppressive phenotypes of Fc?R bearing myeloid cells in cancer patients, which is associated with better clinical outcome of cetuximab-treated patients.#NCT01218048. Registered 7 October 2010.
Project description:Monocytes play a crucial role in antimicrobial host defence, but the mechanisms by which they protect the host during intestinal infection remains poorly understood. Here we show that depletion of CCR2(+) monocytes results in impaired clearance of the intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. After infection, the de novo recruited CCR2(+) monocytes give rise to CD11c(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+)CD103(-) intestinal macrophages (MPs) within the lamina propria. Unlike resident intestinal MPs, de novo differentiated MPs are phenotypically pro-inflammatory and produce robust amounts of IL-1β (interleukin-1β) through the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Intestinal MPs from infected mice elicit the activation of RORγt(+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in an IL-1β-dependent manner. Deletion of IL-1β in blood monocytes blunts the production of IL-22 by ILC3 and increases the susceptibility to infection. Collectively, these studies highlight a critical role of de novo differentiated monocyte-derived intestinal MPs in ILC3-mediated host defence against intestinal infection.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Stroke patients are at risk of acquiring secondary infections due to stroke-induced immune suppression (SIIS). Immunosuppressive cells comprise myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and immunosuppressive interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing monocytes. MDSCs represent a small but heterogeneous population of monocytic, polymorphonuclear (or granulocytic), and early progenitor cells ("early" MDSC), which can expand extensively in pathophysiological conditions. MDSCs have been shown to exert strong immune-suppressive effects. The role of IL-10-producing immunosuppressive monocytes after stroke has not been investigated, but monocytes are impaired in oxidative burst and downregulate human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) on the cell surface. <b>Objectives:</b> The objective of this work was to investigate the regulation and function of MDSCs as well as the immunosuppressive IL-10-producing monocytes in experimental and human stroke. <b>Methods:</b> This longitudinal, monocentric, non-interventional prospective explorative study used multicolor flow cytometry to identify MDSC subpopulations and IL-10 expression in monocytes in the peripheral blood of 19 healthy controls and 27 patients on days 1, 3, and 5 post-stroke. Quantification of intracellular STAT3p and Arginase-1 by geometric mean fluorescence intensity was used to assess the functionality of MDSCs. In experimental stroke induced by electrocoagulation in middle-aged mice, monocytic (CD11b<sup>+</sup>Ly6G<sup>-</sup>Ly6C<sup>high</sup>) and polymorphonuclear (CD11b<sup>+</sup>Ly6G<sup>+</sup>Ly6C<sup>low</sup>) MDSCs in the spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. <b>Results:</b> Compared to the controls, stroke patients showed a relative increase in monocytic MDSCs (percentage of CD11b<sup>+</sup> cells) in whole blood without evidence for an altered function. The other MDSC subgroups did not differ from the control. Also, in experimental stroke, monocytic, and in addition, polymorphonuclear MDSCs were increased. The numbers of IL-10-positive monocytes did not differ between the patients and controls. However, we provide a new insight into monocytic function post-stroke since we can report that a differential regulation of HLA-DR and PD-L1 was found depending on the IL-10 production of monocytes. IL-10-positive monocytes are more activated post-stroke, as indicated by their increased HLA-DR expression. <b>Conclusions:</b> MDSC and IL-10<sup>+</sup> monocytes can induce immunosuppression within days after stroke.
Project description:CD4(+) Th17 are heterogeneous in terms of cytokine production and capacity to initiate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we demonstrate that experimental priming of encephalitogenic Th cells expressing RORγt and T-bet and producing IL-17A, IFN-γ and GM-CSF but not IL-10 (Th1/Th17), is dependent on the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX) at the time of immunization. PTX induces early production of IL-1β by CD11b(+)CCR2(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells, which are rapidly recruited to antigen-draining lymph nodes. PTX-induced generation of Th1/Th17 cells is impaired in IL-1β- and ASC-deficient mice and in mice in which myeloid cells are depleted or fail to migrate to lymph nodes and requires expression of IL-1R1 and MyD88 on both T cells and non-T cells. Collectively, these data shed light on the enigmatic function of PTX in EAE induction and suggest that inflammatory monocytes and microbial infection can influence differentiation of pathogenic Th1/Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases through production of IL-1β.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing health burden worldwide, and paramount to this bacterium's pathogenesis is the production of virulence factors, including pore-forming leukotoxins. Leukocidin A/B (LukAB) is a recently discovered toxin that kills primary human phagocytes, though the underlying mechanism of cell death is not understood. We demonstrate here that LukAB is a major contributor to the death of human monocytes. Using a variety of in vitro and ex vivo intoxication and infection models, we found that LukAB activates Caspase 1, promotes IL-1β secretion and induces necrosis in human monocytes. Using THP1 cells as a model for human monocytes, we found that the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC are required for LukAB-mediated IL-1β secretion and necrotic cell death. S. aureus was shown to kill human monocytes in a LukAB dependent manner under both extracellular and intracellular ex vivo infection models. Although LukAB-mediated killing of THP1 monocytes from extracellular S. aureus requires ASC, NLRP3 and the LukAB-receptor CD11b, LukAB-mediated killing from phagocytosed S. aureus is independent of ASC or NLRP3, but dependent on CD11b. Altogether, this study provides insight into the nature of LukAB-mediated killing of human monocytes. The discovery that S. aureus LukAB provokes differential host responses in a manner dependent on the cellular contact site is critical for the development of anti-infective/anti-inflammatory therapies that target the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Project description:Monocytes differentiate into M1 and M2 macrophages, which are classically activated by microbial products such as LPS or IFN-γ and interleukins (e.g., the anti-inflammatory and T<sub>h</sub>2 promoting IL-4), respectively. The contribution of nutrients or nutrient-based substances such as ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and resveratrol (Res) on the differentiation and function of M1 and M2 macrophages was evaluated. THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated into M1 and M2 cells and activated with LPS/IFN-γ or IL-4/IL-13. Macrophage lineage specific surface determinants (e.g., CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD206, CD209, CD274, HLA-DR, CCR7, CCR2) were analysed by cytofluorometry. Res and ω-3 PUFAs altered CD14, CD206, CD274 and HL-DR surface expression patterns in M1 and M2 macrophages differentiated from PBMC. LPS/IFN-γ or IL-14/IL-13 activated macrophages subpopulations, which secreted cytokines and chemokines as measured by multiplex ELISA. Res and ω-3 PUFA reduced IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL13/MCP-4 and CCL20/MIP-3α in LPS/IFN-γ activated human leukaemia THP-1 cells, which is indicative of a dampening effect on M1 macrophages. However, Res increased M1 prototypic cytokines such as IL-1β or IL-6 in macrophages derived from PBMCs and also modified the expression of IL-12p70. Collectively, Res and ω-3 PUFAs distinctly promoted the differentiation and function of M1 and M2 macrophages. We conclude that these substances strengthen the macrophage-mediated effects on the innate and adaptive immune response.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The rs1143679 variant of ITGAM, encoding the R77H variant of CD11b (part of complement receptor 3; CR3), is among the strongest genetic susceptibility effects in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors aimed to demonstrate R77H function in ex-vivo human cells. METHODS:Monocytes/monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers homozygous for either wild type (WT) or 77H CD11b were studied. The genotype-specific expression of CD11b, and CD11b activation using conformation-specific antibodies were measured. Genotype-specific differences in iC3b-mediated phagocytosis, adhesion to a range of ligands and the secretion of cytokines following CR3 ligation were studied. The functionality of R77H was confirmed by replicating findings in COS7 cells expressing variant-specific CD11b. RESULTS:No genotype-specific difference in CD11b expression or in the expression of CD11b activation epitopes was observed. A 31% reduction was observed in the phagocytosis of iC3b opsonised sheep erythrocytes (sRBC(iC3b)) by 77H cells (p=0.003) and reduced adhesion to a range of ligands: notably a 24% reduction in adhesion to iC3b (p=0.014). In transfected COS7 cells, a 42% reduction was observed in phagocytosis by CD11b (77H)-expressing cells (p=0.004). A significant inhibition was seen in the release of Toll-like receptor 7/8-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from WT monocytes when CR3 was pre-engaged using sRBC(iC3b), but no inhibition in 77H monocytes resulting in a significant difference between genotypes (interleukin (IL)-1? p=0.030; IL-6 p=0.029; tumour necrosis factor alpha p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS:The R77H variant impairs a broad range of CR3 effector functions in human monocytes. This study discusses how perturbation of this pathway may predispose to SLE.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori may cause chronic gastritis, gastric cancer, or lymphoma. Myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are most likely involved in the induction and expression of the underlying inflammatory responses. To study the interaction of human APC subsets with H. pylori, we infected monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived (classically activated; M1) macrophages with H. pylori and analyzed phenotypic alterations, cytokine secretion, phagocytosis, and immunostimulation. Since we detected CD163(+) (alternatively activated; M2) macrophages in gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori-positive patients, we also included monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in the study. Upon H. pylori infection, monocytes secreted interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12p40 (partially secreted as IL-23) but not IL-12p70. Infected DCs became activated, as shown by the enhanced expression of CD25, CD80, CD83, PDL-1, and CCR7, and secreted IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and IL-23. However, infection led to significantly downregulated CD209 and suppressed the constitutive secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). H. pylori-infected M1 macrophages upregulated CD14 and CD32, downregulated CD11b and HLA-DR, and secreted mainly IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-23. Activation of DCs and M1 macrophages correlated with increased capacity to induce T-cell proliferation and decreased phagocytosis of dextran. M2 macrophages upregulated CD14 and CD206 and secreted IL-10 but produced less of the proinflammatory cytokines than M1 macrophages. Thus, H. pylori affects the functions of human APC subsets differently, which may influence the course and the outcome of H. pylori infection. The suppression of MIF in DCs constitutes a novel immune evasion mechanism exploited by H. pylori.
Project description:Chronic inflammation promotes cancer progression by affecting the tumor cells and their microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that a continuous stimulation (~6 weeks) of triple-negative breast tumor cells (TNBC) by the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) + interleukin 1β (IL-1β) changed the expression of hundreds of genes, skewing the cells towards a proinflammatory phenotype. While not affecting stemness, the continuous TNFα + IL-1β stimulation has increased tumor cell dispersion and has induced a hybrid metabolic phenotype in TNBC cells; this phenotype was indicated by a transcription-independent elevation in glycolytic activity and by increased mitochondrial respiratory potential (OXPHOS) of TNBC cells, accompanied by elevated transcription of mitochondria-encoded OXPHOS genes and of active mitochondria area. The continuous TNFα + IL-1β stimulation has promoted in a glycolysis-dependent manner the activation of p65 (NF-kB), and the transcription and protein expression of the prometastatic and proinflammatory mediators sICAM-1, CCL2, CXCL8 and CXCL1. Moreover, when TNBC cells were stimulated continuously by TNFα + IL-1β in the presence of a glycolysis inhibitor, their conditioned media had reduced ability to recruit monocytes and neutrophils in vivo. Such inflammation-induced metabolic plasticity, which promotes prometastatic cascades in TNBC, may have important clinical implications in treatment of TNBC patients.