Characterization of p53 From the Marine Crab Portunus trituberculatus and Its Functions Under Low Salinity Conditions
ABSTRACT: Portunus trituberculatus, or the swimming crab, is tolerant of reduced salinity; however, the molecular mechanism of this tolerance is not clear. Cells can be damaged by hyperosmotic salinity. The protein p53, sometimes referred to as “the guardian of the genome,” displays versatile and important functions under changing environmental conditions. Herein, the P. trituberculatus p53 gene (designated as Ptp53) was cloned and studied. The full-length Ptp53 cDNA comprised 1,544bp, with a 1,314bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative polypeptide of 437 amino acids. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays revealed ubiquitous expression of Ptp53 in all tissues examined, with the gills showing the highest expression level. Extensive apoptosis was detected under low salinity conditions using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end-labeling staining. Oxidative stress was induced under low salinity conditions, consequently leading to apoptosis. Low salinity stress caused significant upregulation of Ptp53 mRNA and protein levels in the gills. Moreover, compared with that in the control group, the mortality of Ptp53-silenced crabs under low salinity stress was enhanced significantly. Taken together, our findings suggest that Ptp53, via regulation of apoptosis and antioxidant defense, played important functions in the low salinity stress response of the swimming crab.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, which is naturally distributed in the coastal waters of Asia-Pacific countries, is an important farmed species in China. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors that influence not only the distribution and abundance of crustaceans, it is also an important factor for artificial propagation of the crab. To better understand the interaction between salinity stress and osmoregulation, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the gills of Portunus trituberculatus challenged with salinity stress, using the Illumina Deep Sequencing technology.<h4>Results</h4>We obtained 27,696,835, 28,268,353 and 33,901,271 qualified Illumina read pairs from low salinity challenged (LC), non-challenged (NC), and high salinity challenged (HC) Portunus trituberculatus cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 94,511 unigenes, with an average length of 644 bp. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1,705 genes differentially expressed in salinity stress compared to the controls, including 615 and 1,516 unigenes in NC vs LC and NC vs HC respectively. GO functional enrichment analysis results showed some differentially expressed genes were involved in crucial processes related to osmoregulation, such as ion transport processes, amino acid metabolism and synthesis processes, proteolysis process and chitin metabolic process.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This work represents the first report of the utilization of the next generation sequencing techniques for transcriptome analysis in Portunus trituberculatus and provides valuable information on salinity adaptation mechanism. Results reveal a substantial number of genes modified by salinity stress and a few important salinity acclimation pathways, which will serve as an invaluable resource for revealing the molecular basis of osmoregulation in Portunus trituberculatus. In addition, the most comprehensive sequences of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in the crab.
Project description:Low salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors that directly affect the abundance of the swimming crab, <i>Portunus trituberculatus</i>. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping could be helpful in identifying the markers and genes involved in low salinity tolerance. In this study, two QTLs of low salt tolerance were mapped on linkage group 17 (LG17, 2.6-5.2 cM) based on a high-density linkage map. Ninety-five markers related to low salinity tolerance were identified <i>via</i> association analysis, and seventy-nine low salt-related candidate genes (including ammonium transport, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and glucosyltransferase) were screened from draft genome of the species <i>via</i> these markers. This represents the first report of QTL mapping for low salinity tolerance in the swimming crab, which may be useful to elucidate salinity adaptation mechanisms.
Project description:The Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) is an important gene in ion transport. In order to elucidate its function, and regulatory mechanisms, in salinity acclimation, the complete cDNA sequence of NKCC (4218 bp) from Portunus trituberculatus (PtNKCC) was first cloned and characterized. It was found to encode 1055 amino acids containing conserved AA-permease and SLC12 motifs. Results show that PtNKCC is expressed to the greatest extent in gills. High salinity stress exposure led to significant increases (9.6-fold) of PtNKCC mRNA expression in the gills 12 h after treatment, declining to less than the levels seen in the control group between 48 and 72 h. During low salinity stress, expression levels of PtNKCC in gills were found to be upregulated at each sampling time, reaching their peak after 6 h (a 12.4-fold increase). Eyestalk ablation also triggered an 11.3-fold increase in PtNKCC mRNA, while re-injection with eyestalk homogenates significantly reduced the expression of PtNKCC mRNA. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the PtNKCC open reading frame, and one SNP was associated with salt tolerance. Our results indicate that PtNKCC plays an important role in the salinity acclimation of P. trituberculatus, while there may be a compound present in the XOSG that inhibits the expression of PtNKCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is an important commercial species in China and is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia-Pacific countries. Despite increasing interest in swimming crab research, a high-quality chromosome-level genome is still lacking. FINDINGS:Here, we assembled the first chromosome-level reference genome of P. trituberculatus by combining the short reads, Nanopore long reads, and Hi-C data. The genome assembly size was 1.00 Gb with a contig N50 length of 4.12 Mb. In addition, BUSCO assessment indicated that 94.7% of core eukaryotic genes were present in the genome assembly. Approximately 54.52% of the genome was identified as repetitive sequences, with a total of 16,796 annotated protein-coding genes. In addition, we anchored contigs into chromosomes and identified 50 chromosomes with an N50 length of 21.80 Mb by Hi-C technology. CONCLUSIONS:We anticipate that this chromosome-level assembly of the P. trituberculatus genome will not only promote study of basic development and evolution but also provide important resources for swimming crab reproduction.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. To understand the underlying mechanisms behind the molecular response of the crab to low salt-stress, high-throughput Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technology was used to investigate the expression profiles of miRNAs under low salinity challenged. Two mixed RNA pool libraries of gill tissues from low salinity challenged (LC) and the control groups (NC) were sequenced on the Illumina platform. A total of 6,166,057 and 7,032,973 high-quality reads were obtained from the NC and LC libraries, respectively. Sixty-seven miRNAs consisting of 16 known and 51 novel ones were identified, among which, 12 miRNAs were differentially expressed in LC compared to NC. Thirty-four of the target genes predicted were differentially expressed in the opposite direction to the miRNAs, which were involved in crucial processes related to osmoregulation by gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis, such as anion transport processes (GO:0006820) and chitin metabolic process (GO:0006030). These results provide a basis for further investigation of the miRNA-modulating networks in osmoregulation of Portunus trituberculatus.
Project description:Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a highly conserved and multi-functional molecular chaperone that plays an essential role in both cellular metabolism and stress response. Portunus trituberculatus is an important marine fishery and aquaculture species, and water salinity condition influenced its artificial propagations significantly. In order to investigate the function of P. trituberculatus HSP60 against osmotic stress, P. trituberculatus HSP60 gene was firstly cloned. The full-length cDNA of PtHSP60 contains 1,743 nucleotides encoding 577 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 61.25 kDa. Multiple alignments indicated that the deduced amino acid sequences of PtHSP60 shared a high level of identity with invertebrate and vertebrate HSP60 sequence including shrimp, fruit fly, zebrafish, and human. The expression profiles of PtHSP60 at mRNA and protein levels under salinity treatment were investigated by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. It was found that the mRNA transcripts of PtHSP60 gene varied among different tissues under normal salinity conditions, and the antennal gland showed the highest expression level among the tissues tested. As for low salinity challenge, the mRNA expression of PtHSP60 gene was higher in the gill and appendicular muscle compared with other tissues, and gill and hypodermis represented the higher gene expressions during the hyperosmotic stress, which indicated that those tissues were salinity-sensitive tissues. In addition, salinity challenges significantly altered the expression of PtHSP60 at mRNA and protein level in a salinity- and time-dependent manner in P. trituberculatus gill tissue. The results indicate that PtHSP60 played important roles in mediating the salinity stress in P. trituberculatus.
Project description:Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein and plays important roles in salinity stress response. Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important fishery species, and water salinity conditions influence its commercial farming significantly. In order to research the function of calreticulin under salinity stress, the full-length cDNA sequence of calreticulin from P. trituberculatus (PtCRT) was firstly cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of PtCRT is 1676 bp with 1218 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 405 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the deduced acid amino sequences of PtCRT shared the highest homology to CRT of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (89%). Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that PtCRT was expressed in all detected tissues and showed the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. In addition, salinity challenge significantly influenced the expression level of PtCRT in gill. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in cDNA sequence of PtCRT, and one SNP was associated with the salt tolerant trait. All results indicated that PtCRT plays an important role in mediating the salinity adaption of P. trituberculatus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is one of the most commonly farmed crustaceans in China. As one of the most widely known and high-value edible crabs, it crab supports large crab fishery and aquaculture in China. Only large and sexually mature crabs can provide the greatest economic benefits, suggesting the considerable effect of reproductive system development on fishery. Studies are rarely conducted on the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the development of the reproductive system during the mating embrace stage in this species. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to sequence all transcriptomes of the P. trituberculatus reproductive system. RESULTS:Transcriptome sequencing of the reproductive system produced 81,688,878 raw reads (38,801,152 and 42,887,726 reads from female and male crabs, respectively). Low-quality (quality <20) reads were trimmed and removed, leaving only high-quality reads (37,020,664 and 41,021,030 from female and male crabs, respectively). A total of 126,188 (female) and 164,616 (male) transcripts were then generated by de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity. Functional annotation of the obtained unigenes revealed that a large number of key genes and some important pathways may participate in cell proliferation and signal transduction. On the basis of our transcriptome analyses and as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, a number of genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development and reproduction of P. trituberculatus were identified: ADRA1B, BAP1, ARL3, and TRPA1. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report on the whole reproductive system transcriptome information in stage II of P. trituberculatus gonadal development and provides rich resources for further studies to elucidate the molecular basis of the development of reproductive systems and reproduction in crabs. The current study can be used to further investigate functional genomics in this species.
Project description:The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important crab species in East Asia countries. Gonadal development is a physiological process of great significance to the reproduction as well as commercial seed production for P. trituberculatus. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms governing the developmental processes of gonads in this species. To open avenues of molecular research on P. trituberculatus gonadal development, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was employed to develop deep-coverage transcriptome sequencing data for its gonads. Illumina sequencing generated 58,429,148 and 70,474,978 high-quality reads from the ovary and testis cDNA library, respectively. All these reads were assembled into 54,960 unigenes with an average sequence length of 879 bp, of which 12,340 unigenes (22.45% of the total) matched sequences in GenBank non-redundant database. Based on our transcriptome analysis as well as published literature, a number of candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development of P. trituberculatus were identified, such as FAOMeT, mPR?, PGMRC1, PGDS, PGER4, 3?-HSD and 17?-HSDs. Differential expression analysis generated 5,919 differentially expressed genes between ovary and testis, among which many genes related to gametogenesis and several genes previously reported to be critical in differentiation and development of gonads were found, including Foxl2, Wnt4, Fst, Fem-1 and Sox9. Furthermore, 28,534 SSRs and 111,646 high-quality SNPs were identified in this transcriptome dataset. This work represents the first transcriptome analysis of P. trituberculatus gonads using the next generation sequencing technology and provides a valuable dataset for understanding molecular mechanisms controlling development of gonads and facilitating future investigation of reproductive biology in this species. The molecular markers obtained in this study will provide a fundamental basis for population genetics and functional genomics in P. trituberculatus and other closely related species.
Project description:An 8-weeks feeding trial with swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, was conducted to investigate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on the lipid classes, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial energy metabolism relevant genes expression. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), palm oil (PO), rapeseed oil (RO), soybean oil (SO), and linseed oil (LO), respectively. A total of 270 swimming crab juveniles (initial weight 5.43 ± 0.03 g) were randomly divided into six diets with three replications, each consisted of 45 juvenile crabs. The results revealed that crabs fed KO had highest lipid content in hepatopancreas and free fatty acids in serum among all diets. The anabolic pathway relevant genes: fas and acc were up-regulated in KO diet. The catabolic pathway relevant genes, hsl, was up-regulated in LO diet, while cpt1 was up-regulated in KO diet. Whereas, the genes involved in the transport and uptake of fatty acids such as fabp1 and fatp4 were down-regulated in crab fed PO and RO diets. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of transcription factors: srebp-1 and hnf4? in KO and SO diets were the highest among all diets. FO and KO diets had significantly higher unsaturation index of mitochondrial membrane than others. The genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as Atpase6, sirt1, and sirt3 were significantly up-regulated in KO and SO diets. In summary, dietary KO and SO supplementation could improve the lipid metabolism, promote energy production for juvenile swimming crab and improve physiological process and function including molting. These findings could contribute to deepen the understanding of the physiological metabolism of dietary fatty acids for swimming crab.