Three yeast proteins related to the human candidate tumor suppressor p33(ING1) are associated with histone acetyltransferase activities.
ABSTRACT: Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins (Yng1/YOR064c, Yng2/YHR090c, and Pho23) and two Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins (Png1/CAA15917 and Png2/CAA21250) share significant sequence identity with the human candidate tumor suppressor p33(ING1) in their C-terminal regions. The homologous regions contain PHD finger domains which have been implicated in chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation. We show that GFP-Yng2, like human Ing1, is localized in the nucleus. Deletion of YNG2 results in several phenotypes, including an abnormal multibudded morphology, an inability to utilize nonfermentable carbon sources, heat shock sensitivity, slow growth, temperature sensitivity, and sensitivity to caffeine. These phenotypes are suppressed by expression of either human Ing1 or S. pombe Png1, suggesting that the yeast and human proteins are functionally conserved. Yng1- and Pho23-deficient cells also share some of these phenotypes. We demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation tests that Yng2 interacts with Tra1, a component of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We further demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation that HA-Yng1, HA-Yng2, HA-Pho23, and HA-Ing1 are associated with HAT activities in yeast. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicate that the Yng2-associated HAT is Esa1, suggesting that Yng2 is a component of the NuA4 HAT complex. These studies suggest that the yeast Ing1-related proteins are involved in chromatin remodeling. They further suggest that these functions may be conserved in mammals and provide a possible mechanism for the human Ing1 candidate tumor suppressor.
Project description:In yeast, NuA3 histone acetyltransferase (NuA3 HAT) promotes acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) and transcription of a subset of genes through interaction between the Yng1 plant homeodomain (PHD) finger and H3K4me3. Although NuA3 HAT has multiple chromatin binding modules with distinct specificities, their interdependence and combinatorial actions in chromatin binding and transcription remain unknown. Modified peptide pulldown assays reveal that the Yng1 N-terminal region is important for the integrity of NuA3 HAT by mediating the interaction between core subunits and two methyl-binding proteins, Yng1 and Pdp3. We further uncover that NuA3 HAT contributes to the regulation of mRNA and lncRNA expression dynamics by antagonizing the histone deacetylases (HDACs) Rpd3S and Rpd3L. The Yng1 N-terminal region, the Nto1 PHD finger and Pdp3 are important for optimal induction of mRNA and lncRNA transcription repressed by the Set2-Rpd3S HDAC pathway, whereas the Yng1 PHD finger-H3K4me3 interaction affects transcriptional repression memory regulated by Rpd3L HDAC. These findings suggest that NuA3 HAT uses distinct chromatin readers to compete with two Rpd3-containing HDACs to optimize mRNA and lncRNA expression dynamics.
Project description:The yeast NuA4 complex is a histone H4 and H2A acetyltransferase involved in transcription regulation and essential for cell cycle progression. We identify here a novel subunit of the complex, Yng2p, a plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger protein homologous to human p33/ING1, which has tumor suppressor activity and is essential for p53 function. Mass spectrometry, immunoblotting, and immunoprecipitation experiments confirm the stable stoichiometric association of this protein with purified NuA4. Yeast cells harboring a deletion of the YNG2 gene show severe growth phenotype and have gene-specific transcription defects. NuA4 complex purified from the mutant strain is low in abundance and shows weak histone acetyltransferase activity. We demonstrate conservation of function by the requirement of Yng2p for p53 to function as a transcriptional activator in yeast. Accordingly, p53 interacts with NuA4 in vitro and in vivo, an interaction reminiscent of the p53-ING1 physical link in human cells. The growth defect of Delta yng2 cells can be rescued by the N-terminal part of the protein, lacking the PHD-finger. While Yng2 PHD-finger is not required for p53 interaction, it is necessary for full expression of the p53-responsive gene and other NuA4 target genes. Transcriptional activation by p53 in vivo is associated with targeted NuA4-dependent histone H4 hyperacetylation, while histone H3 acetylation levels remain unchanged. These results emphasize the essential role of the NuA4 complex in the control of cell proliferation through gene-specific transcription regulation. They also suggest that regulation of mammalian cell proliferation by p53-dependent transcriptional activation functions through recruitment of an ING1-containing histone acetyltransferase complex.
Project description:We have used EM and biochemistry to characterize the structure of NuA4, an essential yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex conserved throughout eukaryotes, and we have determined the interaction of NuA4 with the nucleosome core particle (NCP). The ATM-related Tra1 subunit, which is shared with the SAGA coactivator complex, forms a large domain joined to a second region that accommodates the catalytic subcomplex Piccolo and other NuA4 subunits. EM analysis of a NuA4-NCP complex shows the NCP bound at the periphery of NuA4. EM characterization of Piccolo and Piccolo-NCP provided further information about subunit organization and confirmed that histone acetylation requires minimal contact with the NCP. A small conserved region at the N terminus of Piccolo subunit enhancer of Polycomb-like 1 (Epl1) is essential for NCP interaction, whereas the subunit yeast homolog of mammalian Ing1 2 (Yng2) apparently positions Piccolo for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A tails. Taken together, these results provide an understanding of the NuA4 subunit organization and the NuA4-NCP interactions.
Project description:Posttranslational histone modifications participate in modulating the structure and function of chromatin. Promoters of transcribed genes are enriched with K4 trimethylation and hyperacetylation on the N-terminal tail of histone H3. Recently, PHD finger proteins, like Yng1 in the NuA3 HAT complex, were shown to interact with H3K4me3, indicating a biochemical link between K4 methylation and hyperacetylation. By using a combination of mass spectrometry, biochemistry, and NMR, we detail the Yng1 PHD-H3K4me3 interaction and the importance of NuA3-dependent acetylation at K14. Furthermore, genome-wide ChIP-Chip analysis demonstrates colocalization of Yng1 and H3K4me3 in vivo. Disrupting the K4me3 binding of Yng1 altered K14ac and transcription at certain genes, thereby demonstrating direct in vivo evidence of sequential trimethyl binding, acetyltransferase activity, and gene regulation by NuA3. Our data support a general mechanism of transcriptional control through which histone acetylation upstream of gene activation is promoted partially through availability of H3K4me3, "read" by binding modules in select subunits.
Project description:We have investigated the genome-wide occupancy of Sas3p by ChIP-Chip, using tiled microarrays. Using this technique, it has been described that H3K14 and H3K9 acetylation is enriched at promoter regions and transcriptional start sites of active genes. Considering that Sas3p is a HAT whose main target in vitro is H3K14 we expected to detect Sas3 binding largely to promoter regions of genes. Surprisingly, we found that Sas3p is associated to the coding regions of genes, with a peak enrichment located) within the 5’ half of the ORF, and this enrichment drops substantially toward the 3’ region of the ORF. This result is very similar to that obtained for Yng1 genome-wide occupancy, also a component of the NuA3 complex, suggesting that this complex could be involved in transcriptional elongation, at least, in an initial step of the process. Overall design: The experiments described in this study compare ChIP with an anti-HA antibody of a SAS3-HA tagged strain (BQS1217) to a control ChIP with an anti-HA antibody of a wild type strain (BY4742). Budding yeast samples were analyzed in exponential growing conditions (YPD). 2 biological replicates were performed.
Project description:Efg1 is essential for hyphal development and virulence in the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. How Efg1 regulates gene expression is unknown. Here, we show that Efg1 interacts with components of the nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex in both yeast and hyphal cells. Deleting YNG2, a subunit of the NuA4 HAT module, results in a significant decrease in the acetylation level of nucleosomal H4 and a profound defect in hyphal development, as well as a defect in the expression of hypha-specific genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, Efg1 and the NuA4 complex are found at the UAS regions of hypha-specific genes in both yeast and hyphal cells, and Efg1 is required for the recruitment of NuA4. Nucleosomal H4 acetylation at the promoters peaks during initial hyphal induction in an Efg1-dependent manner. We also find that Efg1 bound to the promoters of hypha-specific genes is critical for recruitment of the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex during hyphal induction. Our data show that the recruitment of the NuA4 complex by Efg1 to the promoters of hypha-specific genes is required for nucleosomal H4 acetylation at the promoters during hyphal induction and for subsequent binding of Swi/Snf and transcriptional activation.
Project description:The ING family of tumor suppressors acts as readers and writers of the histone epigenetic code, affecting DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The best characterized member of the ING family, ING1,interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a UV-inducible manner. ING1 also interacts with members of the14-3-3 family leading to its cytoplasmic relocalization. Overexpression of ING1 enhances expression of the Bax gene and was reported to alter mitochondrial membrane potential in a p53-dependent manner. Here we show that ING1 translocates to the mitochondria of primary fibroblasts and established epithelial cell lines in response to apoptosis inducing stimuli, independent of the cellular p53 status. The ability of ING1 to induce apoptosis in various breast cancer cell lines correlates well with its degree of translocation to the mitochondria after UV treatment. Endogenous ING1 protein specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic BCL2 family member BAX, and colocalizes with BAX in a UV-inducible manner. Ectopic expression of a mitochondria-targeted ING1 construct is more proficient in inducing apoptosis than the wild type ING1 protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the yeast interactome indicates that yeast ING proteins interact with 64 mitochondrial proteins. Also, sequence analysis of ING1 reveals the presence of a BH3-like domain. These data suggest a model in which stress-induced cytoplasmic relocalization of ING1 by14-3-3 induces ING1-BAX interaction to promote mitochondrial membrane permeability and represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of ING1 function in the cytoplasm and its contribution to apoptosis [corrected].
Project description:The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has more metazoan-like features than the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet it has similarly facile genetics. We present a large-scale verified binary protein-protein interactome network, "StressNet," based on high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screens of interacting proteins classified as part of stress response and signal transduction pathways in S. pombe. We performed systematic, cross-species interactome mapping using StressNet and a protein interactome network of orthologous proteins in S. cerevisiae. With cross-species comparative network studies, we detected a previously unidentified component (Snr1) of the S. pombe mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 pathway. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that Snr1 interacted with Sty1 and that deletion of snr1 increased the sensitivity of S. pombe cells to stress. Comparison of StressNet with the interactome network of orthologous proteins in S. cerevisiae showed that most of the interactions among these stress response and signaling proteins are not conserved between species but are "rewired"; orthologous proteins have different binding partners in both species. In particular, transient interactions connecting proteins in different functional modules were more likely to be rewired than conserved. By directly testing interactions between proteins in one yeast species and their corresponding binding partners in the other yeast species with yeast two-hybrid assays, we found that about half of the interactions that are traditionally considered "conserved" form modified interaction interfaces that may potentially accommodate novel functions.
Project description:Ricin A chain (RTA) undergoes retrograde trafficking and is postulated to use components of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated degradation (ERAD) pathway to enter the cytosol to depurinate ribosomes. However, it is not known how RTA evades degradation by the proteasome after entry into the cytosol. We observed two distinct trafficking patterns among the precursor forms of wild type RTA and nontoxic variants tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at their C-termini in yeast. One group, which included wild type RTA, underwent ER-to-vacuole transport, while another group, which included the G83D variant, formed aggregates in the ER and was not transported to the vacuole. Peptide: N-glycanase (Png1), which catalyzes degradation of unfolded glycoproteins in the ERAD pathway affected depurination activity and toxicity of wild type RTA and G83D variant differently. PreG83D variant was deglycosylated by Png1 on the ER membrane, which reduced its depurination activity and toxicity by promoting its degradation. In contrast, wild type preRTA was deglycosylated by the free pool of Png1 in the cytosol, which increased its depurination activity, possibly by preventing its degradation. These results indicate that wild type RTA has a distinct requirement for Png1 compared to the G83D variant and is deglycosylated by Png1 in the cytosol as a possible strategy to avoid degradation by the ERAD pathway to reach the ribosome.
Project description:Histone acetylation, balanced by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes, affects dynamic transitions of chromatin structure to regulate transcriptional accessibility. However, little is known about the interplay between HAT and HDAC complexes in Fusarium graminearum, a causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) that uniquely contains chromosomal regions enriched for house-keeping or infection-related genes. In this study, we identified the ortholog of the human inhibitor of growth (ING1) gene in F. graminearum (FNG1) and found that it specifically interacts with the FgEsa1 HAT of the NuA4 complex. Deletion of FNG1 led to severe growth defects and blocked conidiation, sexual reproduction, DON production, and plant infection. The fng1 mutant was normal in H3 acetylation but significantly reduced in H4 acetylation. A total of 34 spontaneous suppressors of fng1 with faster growth rate were isolated. Most of them were still defective in sexual reproduction and plant infection. Thirty two of them had mutations in orthologs of yeast RPD3, SIN3, and SDS3, three key components of the yeast Rpd3L HDAC complex. Four mutations in these three genes were verified to suppress the defects of fng1 mutant in growth and H4 acetylation. The rest two suppressor strains had a frameshift or nonsense mutation in a glutamine-rich hypothetical protein that may be a novel component of the FgRpd3 HDAC complex in filamentous fungi. FgRpd3, like Fng1, localized in euchromatin. Deletion of FgRPD3 resulted in severe growth defects and elevated H4 acetylation. In contract, the Fgsds3 deletion mutant had only a minor reduction in growth rate but FgSIN3 appeared to be an essential gene. RNA-seq analysis revealed that 48.1% and 54.2% of the genes with altered expression levels in the fng1 mutant were recovered to normal expression levels in two suppressor strains with mutations in FgRPD3 and FgSDS3, respectively. Taken together, our data showed that Fng1 is important for H4 acetylation as a component of the NuA4 complex and functionally related to the FgRpd3 HDAC complex for transcriptional regulation of genes important for growth, conidiation, sexual reproduction, and plant infection in F. graminearum.