Background Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer demonstrate suboptimal oral chemotherapy adherence, increasing their risk of cancer relapse. It is unclear how everyday time-varying contextual factors (eg, mood) affect their adherence, stalling the development of personalized mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Poor engagement is also a challenge across mHealth trials; an effective adherence intervention must be engaging to promote uptake.
Objective This protocol aims to determine the temporal associations between daily contextual factors and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) adherence and explore the proximal impact of various engagement strategies on ecological momentary assessment survey completion.
Methods At the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma who are prescribed prolonged maintenance chemotherapy that includes daily oral 6-MP are eligible, along with their matched caregivers. Participants will use an ecological momentary assessment app called ADAPTS (Adherence Assessments and Personalized Timely Support)—a version of an open-source app that was modified for AYAs with cancer through a user-centered process—and complete surveys in bursts over 6 months. Theory-informed engagement strategies will be microrandomized to estimate the causal effects on proximal survey completion.
Results With funding from the National Cancer Institute and institutional review board approval, of the proposed 30 AYA-caregiver dyads, 60% (18/30) have been enrolled; of the 18 enrolled, 15 (83%) have completed the study so far.
Conclusions This protocol represents an important first step toward prescreening tailoring variables and engagement components for a just-in-time adaptive intervention designed to promote both 6-MP adherence and mHealth engagement.
International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/32789