Comparative analysis of default mode networks in major psychiatric disorders using resting-state EEG.
ABSTRACT: Default mode network (DMN) is a set of functional brain structures coherently activated when individuals are in resting-state. In this study, we constructed multi-frequency band resting-state EEG-based DMN functional network models for major psychiatric disorders to easily compare their pathophysiological characteristics. Phase-locking values (PLVs) were evaluated to quantify functional connectivity; global and nodal clustering coefficients (CCs) were evaluated to quantify global and local connectivity patterns of DMN nodes, respectively. DMNs of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia (SZ), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were constructed relative to their demographically-matched healthy control groups. Overall DMN patterns were then visualized and compared with each other. In global CCs, SZ and AD showed hyper-clustering in the theta band; OCD, MCI, and AD showed hypo-clustering in the low-alpha band; OCD and MDD showed hypo-clustering and hyper-clustering in low-beta, and high-beta bands, respectively. In local CCs, disease-specific patterns were observed. In the PLVs, lowered theta-band functional connectivity between the left lingual gyrus and the left hippocampus was frequently observed. Our comprehensive comparisons suggest EEG-based DMN as a useful vehicle for understanding altered brain networks of major psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Default mode network (DMN) has been reported altered in schizophrenia (SZ) using static connectivity analysis. However, the studies on dynamic characteristics of DMN in SZ are still limited. In this work, we compare dynamic connectivity within DMN between 82 healthy controls (HC) and 82 SZ patients using resting-state fMRI. Firstly, dynamic DMN was computed using a sliding time window method for each subject. Then, the overall connectivity strengths were compared between two groups. Furthermore, we estimated functional connectivity states using K-means clustering, and then investigated group differences with respect to the connectivity strengths in states, the dwell time in each state, and the transition times between states. Finally, graph metrics of time-varying connectivity patterns and connectivity states were assessed. Results suggest that measured by the overall connectivity, HC showed stronger inter-subsystem interaction than patients. Compared to HC, patients spent more time in the states with nodes sparsely connected. For each state, SZ patients presented relatively weaker connectivity strengths mainly in inter-subsystem. Patients also exhibited lower values in averaged node strength, clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency than HC. In summary, our findings indicate that SZ show impaired interaction among DMN subsystems, with a reduced central role for posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC) hubs as well as weaker interaction between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem and medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem. For SZ, decreased integration of DMN may be associated with impaired ability in making self-other distinctions and coordinating present mental states with episodic decisions about future.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Schizophrenia affects around 1% of the global population. Functional connectivity extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has previously been used to study schizophrenia and has great potential to provide novel insights into the disorder. Some studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) of individuals with schizophrenia, and more recent studies have shown abnormal dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in individuals with schizophrenia. However, DMN dFC and the link between abnormal DMN dFC and symptom severity have not been well-characterized. <b>Method:</b> Resting-state fMRI data from subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) across two datasets were analyzed independently. We captured seven maximally independent subnodes in the DMN by applying group independent component analysis and estimated dFC between subnode time courses using a sliding window approach. A clustering method separated the dFCs into five reoccurring brain states. A feature selection method modeled the difference between SZs and HCs using the state-specific FC features. Finally, we used the transition probability of a hidden Markov model to characterize the link between symptom severity and dFC in SZ subjects. <b>Results:</b> We found decreases in the connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and increases in the connectivity between the precuneus (PCu) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (i.e., PCu/PCC) of SZ subjects. In SZ, the transition probability from a state with weaker PCu/PCC and stronger ACC connectivity to a state with stronger PCu/PCC and weaker ACC connectivity increased with symptom severity. <b>Conclusions:</b> To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate DMN dFC and its link to schizophrenia symptom severity. We identified reproducible neural states in a data-driven manner and demonstrated that the strength of connectivity within those states differed between SZs and HCs. Additionally, we identified a relationship between SZ symptom severity and the dynamics of DMN functional connectivity. We validated our results across two datasets. These results support the potential of dFC for use as a biomarker of schizophrenia and shed new light upon the relationship between schizophrenia and DMN dynamics.
Project description:Characterization of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), like other psychiatric disorders, suffers from heterogeneities in its symptoms and therapeutic responses, and identification of more homogeneous subgroups may help to resolve the heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the OCD subgroups based on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and to explore their differences in treatment responses via a multivariate approach. From the resting-state functional MRI data of 107 medication-free OCD patients and 110 healthy controls (HCs), we selected rsFC features, which discriminated OCD patients from HCs via support vector machine (SVM) analyses. With the selected brain features, we subdivided OCD patients into subgroups using hierarchical clustering analyses. We identified 35 rsFC features that achieved a high sensitivity (82.74%) and specificity (76.29%) in SVM analyses. The OCD patients were subdivided into two subgroups, which did not show significant differences in their demographic and clinical backgrounds. However, one of the OCD subgroups demonstrated more impaired rsFC that was involved either within the default mode network (DMN) or between DMN brain regions and other network regions. This subgroup also showed both lower improvements in symptom severity in the 16-week follow-up visit and lower responder percentage than the other subgroup. Our results highlight that not only abnormalities within the DMN but also aberrant rsFC between the DMN and other networks may contribute to the treatment response and support the importance of these neurobiological alterations in OCD patients. We suggest that abnormalities in these connectivity may play predictive biomarkers of treatment response, and aid to build more optimal treatment strategies.
Project description:Altered brain network connectivity is a potential biomarker for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A meta-analysis of resting-state MRI studies by Gürsel et al. (2018) described altered functional connectivity in OCD patients within and between the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the frontoparietal network (FPN), as well as evidence for aberrant fronto-striatal circuitry. Here, we tested the replicability of these meta-analytic rsfMRI findings by measuring functional connectivity during resting-state fMRI in a new sample of OCD patients (n = 24) and matched controls (n = 33). We performed seed-to-voxel analyses using 30 seed regions from the prior meta-analysis. OCD patients showed reduced functional connectivity between the SN and the DMN compared to controls, replicating previous findings. We did not observe significant group differences of functional connectivity within the DMN, SN, nor FPN. Additionally, we observed reduced connectivity between the visual network to both the DMN and SN in OCD patients, in particular reduced functional connectivity between lateral parietal seeds and the left inferior lateral occipital pole. Furthermore, the right lateral parietal seed (associated with the DMN) was more strongly correlated with a cluster in the right lateral occipital cortex and precuneus (a region partly overlapping with the Dorsal Attentional Network (DAN)) in patients. Importantly, this latter finding was positively correlated to OCD symptom severity. Overall, our study partly replicated prior meta-analytic findings, highlighting hypoconnectivity between SN and DMN as a potential biomarker for OCD. Furthermore, we identified changes between the SN and the DMN with the visual network. This suggests that abnormal connectivity between cortex regions associated with abstract functions (transmodal regions such as the DMN), and cortex regions associated with constrained neural processing (unimodal regions such as the visual cortex), may be important in OCD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by an excessive focus on upsetting or disturbing thoughts, feelings, and images that are internally-generated. Internally-focused thought processes are subserved by the "default mode network" (DMN), which has been found to be hyperactive in OCD during cognitive tasks. In healthy individuals, disengagement from internally-focused thought processes may rely on interactions between DMN and a fronto-parietal network (FPN) associated with external attention and task execution. Altered connectivity between FPN and DMN may contribute to the dysfunctional behavior and brain activity found in OCD.<h4>Methods</h4>The current study examined interactions between FPN and DMN during rest in 30 patients with OCD (17 unmedicated) and 32 control subjects (17 unmedicated). Timecourses from seven fronto-parietal seeds were correlated across the whole brain and compared between groups.<h4>Results</h4>OCD patients exhibited altered connectivity between FPN seeds (primarily anterior insula) and several regions of DMN including posterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal cortex, posterior inferior parietal lobule, and parahippocampus. These differences were driven largely by a reduction of negative correlations among patients compared to controls. Patients also showed greater positive connectivity between FPN and regions outside DMN, including thalamus, lateral frontal cortex, and somatosensory/motor regions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>OCD is associated with abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity between large-scale brain networks. Alteration of interactions between FPN and DMN at rest may contribute to aspects of the OCD phenotype, such as patients' inability to disengage from internally-generated scenarios and thoughts when performing everyday tasks requiring external attention.
Project description:Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly heterogeneous. Although perseverative negative thinking (PT) is a feature of OCD, little is known about its neural mechanisms or relationship to clinical heterogeneity in the disorder. In a sample of 85 OCD patients, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PT, clinical symptom subtypes, and resting-state functional connectivity measures of local and global connectivity. Results indicated that PT scores were highly variable within the OCD sample, with greater PT relating to higher severity of the "unacceptable thoughts" symptom dimension. PT was positively related to local connectivity in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), pregenual ACC, and the temporal poles-areas that are part of, or closely linked to, the default mode network (DMN)-and negatively related to local connectivity in sensorimotor cortex. While the majority of patients showed higher local connectivity strengths in sensorimotor compared to DMN regions, OCD patients with higher PT scores had less of an imbalance between sensorimotor and DMN connectivity than those with lower PT scores, with healthy controls exhibiting an intermediate pattern. Clinically, this imbalance was related to both the "unacceptable thoughts" and "symmetry/not-just-right-experiences" symptom dimensions, but in opposite directions. These effects remained significant after accounting for variance related to psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in the OCD sample, and no significant relationships were found between PT and global connectivity. These data indicate that PT is related to symptom and neural variability in OCD. Future work may wish to target this circuity when developing personalized interventions for patients with these symptoms.
Project description:Clinical and neuroimaging data support the idea that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC), similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), may be a distinct brain disorder. In this study, we examined the strength of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 19 subregions of the default mode network (DMN) and whole brain voxels in 22 patients with SOC features, 20 patients with SCZ alone, 22 patients with OCD, and 22 healthy controls (HC). The main results demonstrated that patients with SOC exhibited the highest rsFC strength within subregions of the DMN and the lowest rsFC strength between the DMN and subregions of the salience network (SN) compared with the other 3 groups. In addition, compared with HCs, all 3 patient groups exhibited increased rsFC between subregions of the DMN and the executive control network (ECN). The SOC and SCZ group both exhibited increased rsFC between subregions of the DMN and the middle temporal gyrus, but the OCD group exhibited decreased rsFC between them. These findings highlight a specific alteration in functional connectivity in the DMN in patients with SOC, and provide new insights into the dysfunctional brain organization of different mental disorders.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Previous studies have indicated the resting-state default mode network (DMN) related connectivity serving as predictor of sustained attention performance in healthy people. Interestingly, sustained attention deficits as well as DMN-involved functional connectivity (FC) alterations are common in both patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, the present study was designed to investigate whether the DMN related resting-state connectivity alterations in these two psychiatric disorders were neural correlates of their sustained attention impairments. <b>Methods:</b> The study included 17 SCZ patients, 35 OCD patients and 36 healthy controls (HCs). Sustained attention to response task was adopted to assess the sustained attention. Resting-state scan was administrated and seed-based whole-brain FC analyses were performed with seeds located in classical DMN regions including bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). <b>Results:</b> Both SCZ and OCD patients had poorer sustained attention than HCs. Sustained attention deficits in OCD was negatively correlated with their impaired FC of right mPFC-left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) within DMN, and that in SCZ was significantly correlated with their altered FC of left mPFC-bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which indicated interaction between DMN and salience network. In addition, the FC between left mPFC and right parietal lobe indicating the interaction between DMN and frontal-parietal network was correlated with sustained attention in both SCZ and OCD. <b>Conclusion:</b> These findings suggest the importance of DMN-involved connectivity, both within and between networks in underlying sustained attention deficits in OCD and SCZ. Results further support the potential of resting-state FC in complementing information for cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Although abnormality of cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity at rest in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been hypothesized, only a few studies have investigated the neural mechanism. To verify the findings of previous studies, a large sample of patients with OCD was studied because OCD shows possible heterogeneity. <b>Methods:</b> Forty-seven medication-free patients with OCD and 62 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic imaging scans. Seed-based connectivity was examined to investigate differences in cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in OCD patients compared with HCs. Correlations between functional connectivity and the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were analyzed. <b>Results:</b> In OCD, we found significantly increased functional connectivity between the right lobule VI and the left precuneus, which is a component of the default mode network (DMN), compared to HCs. However, there was no correlation between the connectivity of the right lobule VI-left precuneus and obsessive-compulsive severity. <b>Conclusions:</b> These findings suggest that altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and DMN might cause changes in intrinsic large-scale brain networks related to the traits of OCD.