Depression Mediates the Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Internet Addiction in Female but Not Male Chinese Adolescents and Young Adults.
ABSTRACT: Internet addiction is associated with a range of psychological risk factors such as childhood trauma and depression. Studies have also suggested sex differences in internet and other behavioral addictions. However, it remains unclear how childhood trauma, depression and internet addiction inter-relate differently between the sexes. A total of 1749 adolescents and young adults aged 12-27 participated in a survey of sociodemographic characteristics and standardized assessments to evaluate internet addiction (Internet Addiction Test), childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). Mediation and path analyses were used to examine the relationship between childhood trauma, depression and internet addiction. Internet-addicted females relative to males showed more severe depression but the control participants showed the opposite. Childhood trauma was associated with depression for both internet-addicted males and females; however, internet-addicted females but not males showed significant associations between depression and the severity of internet addiction as well as between childhood trauma and the severity of internet addiction. Further, in females, depression mediated the correlations between all types of childhood trauma and the severity of internet addiction. A path analysis suggested that sexual abuse and emotional neglect contributed most significantly to internet addiction when all types of childhood trauma were examined in one model. The findings suggest sex differences in the relationship between childhood trauma, depression and internet addiction. Childhood trauma contributes to internet addiction through depression only in females. The findings may guide future prevention and intervention strategies of internet addiction.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Internet addiction (IA) has become a global public health issue. Although previous studies revealed several risk factors related to IA, most of them focused on the western societies. The present study assesses the relationships between gender and other factors with IA in university freshmen in the South China. <b>Methods:</b> A total of 3,380 first-year college students (1,995 males and 1,385 females) participated in an evaluation of their experiences surfing on the Internet. We investigated the severity of IA in the participants by considering their psychological characteristics, such as acceptance, anxiety levels, and coping styles. Then, we compared the results between males and females and between those in addiction group (Chinese Internet Addiction Scale, CIAS, scores≥64) and non-addiction group (CIAS scores ≤27). We also conducted a logistic regression analysis to detect the relationships between severity of IA and psychological characteristics and gender differences. <b>Results:</b> We observed that males showed significantly higher scores in CIAS than females. The addiction group exhibited significantly higher state anxiety and trait anxiety, and experienced less acceptance of self and others and acceptance by others, and adopted less positive coping style and preferred negative coping style than non-addiction group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that three factors (negative coping styles, acceptance of self and others, state anxiety levels) had a significant association with more severe IA. <b>Conclusion:</b> Gender differences affect the severity of IA in the first-year students in South China. Males with state anxiety and negative coping styles deserve attention because they are likely to be addicted to the Internet. Thus, health practitioners should perform efficient strategies while considering gender differences to precaution first-year college students with the risk factors for IA.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the Internet addiction levels between male and female medical students.<h4>Methods</h4>One hundred medical students (male: 50, female: 50) aged 17-30 years were included in a cross-sectional study. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess their Internet addiction level. Additionally, a self-designed questionnaire was used to identify the various purposes of Internet use among the students. The Internet addiction score (based on the Internet Addiction Test) was compared between male and female students by using the Mann-Whitney <i>U</i> test (<i>p</i>?0.05). After knowing their addiction level, we interviewed students to know if Internet use had any bad/good impact on their life.<h4>Results</h4>The Internet Addiction Test scores obtained by the students were in the range of 11-70. Out of 100 students, 21 (male: 13, female: 8) were found to be slightly addicted to the Internet. The remaining 79 students were average online users. There was no significant difference between male and female students in the addiction level (score). However, males were more addicted than females. The major use of Internet was to download and watch movies and songs and to communicate with friends and family (76/100). Some students (24/100) used the Internet to assess information that helped them in their educational and learning activities. Some students mentioned that overuse of the Internet lead to insufficient amounts of sleep and affected their concentration levels in the classroom during lectures.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Medical students are experiencing problems due to Internet overuse. They experience poor academic progress and lack of concentration while studying. The main use of the Internet was for entertainment and to communicate with friends and family.
Project description:Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem.Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES).The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001); ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA.Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.
Project description:Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Childhood trauma is associated with greater depression severity among individuals with bipolar disorder. However, the mechanisms that explain the link between childhood trauma and depression severity in bipolar disorder remain poorly understood. The mediational role of attachment insecurity in childhood and adulthood was assessed in the current study.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants with bipolar disorder (N = 143) completed measures of childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), attachment insecurity (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale) and depression severity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) as part of the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder. A sequential mediation model was tested using path analysis: the direct and indirect effects of childhood trauma on depression severity with attachment insecurity (attachment anxiety and avoidance) in childhood (mother and father) and adulthood (partner) as mediators were estimated.<h4>Results</h4>The final path model demonstrated an excellent fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.996; root mean square error of approximation = 0.021 [90% confidence interval = 0.000-0.073]). Supporting the hypothesised sequential mediation model, maternal attachment anxiety in childhood and romantic attachment avoidance in adulthood partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and depression severity; this effect accounted for 12% of the total effect of childhood trauma on depression severity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Attachment insecurity in childhood and adulthood form part of the complex mechanism informing why people with bipolar disorder who have a history of childhood trauma experience greater depression severity. Addressing attachment insecurity represents a valuable psychotherapeutic treatment target for bipolar disorder.
Project description:Internet and smartphone addiction have become important social issues. Various studies have demonstrated their association with clinical and psychological factors, including depression, anxiety, aggression, anger expression, and behavioral inhibition, and behavioral activation systems. However, these two addictions are also highly correlated with each other, so the consideration of the relationship between internet and smartphone addiction can enhance the analysis. In this study, we considered the copula regression model to regress the bivariate addictions on clinical and psychological factors. Real data analysis with 555 students (age range: 14-15 years; males, N = 295; females, N = 265) from South Korean public middle schools is illustrated. By fitting the copula regression model, we investigated the dependency between internet and smartphone addiction and determined the risk factors associated with the two addictions. Furthermore, by comparing the model fits of the copula model with linear regression and generalized linear models, the best copula model was proposed in terms of goodness of fit. Our findings revealed that internet and smartphone addiction are not separate problems, and that associations between them should be considered. Psychological factors, such as anxiety, the behavioral inhibition system, and aggression were also significantly associated with both addictions, while ADHD symptoms were related to internet addiction only. We emphasize the need to establish policies on the prevention, management, and education of addiction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Suicide is a severe health problem, with high rates in individuals with addiction. Considering the lack of studies exploring suicide predictors in this population, we aimed to investigate factors associated with attempted suicide in inpatients diagnosed with cocaine use disorder using two analytical approaches. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study using a secondary database with 247 men and 442 women hospitalized for cocaine use disorder. Clinical assessment included the Addiction Severity Index, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, totalling 58 variables. Descriptive Poisson regression and predictive Random Forest algorithm were used complementarily to estimate prevalence ratios and to build prediction models, respectively. All analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS:The prevalence of attempted suicide was 34% for men and 50% for women. In both genders, depression (PRM = 1.56, PRW = 1.27) and hallucinations (PRM = 1.80, PRW = 1.39) were factors associated with attempted suicide. Other specific factors were found for men and women, such as childhood trauma, aggression, and drug use severity. The men's predictive model had prediction statistics of AUC = 0.68, Acc. = 0.66, Sens. = 0.82, Spec. = 0.50, PPV = 0.47 and NPV = 0.84. This model identified several variables as important predictors, mainly related to drug use severity. The women's model had higher predictive power (AUC = 0.73 and all other statistics were equal to 0.71) and was parsimonious. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that attempted suicide is associated with depression, hallucinations and childhood trauma in both genders. Also, it suggests that severity of drug use may be a moderator between predictors and suicide among men, while psychiatric issues shown to be more important for women.
Project description:Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor (PAC1) play a critical role in biological processes that mediate stress response and have been implicated in psychological outcome following trauma. Our previous work [Ressler et al. (2011); Nature 470:492-497] demonstrated that a variant, rs2267735, in the gene encoding PAC1 (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a primarily African-American cohort of highly traumatized females. We sought to extend and replicate our previous finding in a similarly trauma-exposed, replicate sample of 1,160 African-American adult male and female patients. Self-reported psychiatric measures were collected, and DNA was obtained for genetic analysis. Using linear regression models to test for association with PTSD symptom severity under an additive (allelic) model, we found a genotype × trauma interaction in females (P < 0.001), but not males (P > 0.1); however, there was no main effect of genotype as in our previous study. The observed interaction suggests a genetic association that increases with the degree of trauma exposure in females only. This interaction remained significant in females, but not males, after controlling for age (P < 0.001), income (P < 0.01), past substance abuse (P < 0.001), depression severity (P = 0.02), or child abuse (P < 0.0005), and all five combined (P = 0.01). No significant effects of genotype (or interactions) were found when modeling depression severity when controlling for comorbid PTSD symptom severity (P > 0.1), demonstrating the relative specificity of this variant for PTSD symptoms. A meta-analysis with the previously reported African-American samples revealed a strong association between PTSD symptom severity and the interaction between trauma and genotype in females (N = 1424, P < 0.0001).
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:The development of the Internet has changed interpersonal interactions, so that people no longer need to physically meet each other. However, some people are more vulnerable to becoming addicted to Internet activities, something to which the ease of Internet access and usage has contributed. In this study, we examined the association between personality traits and feelings about online interpersonal interactions to predict Internet addiction. This was accomplished using an online advertisement that asked participants to complete the questionnaires in the laboratory. METHODS:Two hundred and twenty-three participants with a mean age of 22.50 years were recruited for this study and asked to complete the following questionnaires: the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Internet Usage Questionnaire (IUQ) and the Feelings of Internet Interpersonal Interaction Questionnaire (FIIIQ). RESULTS:The results showed that people with a neurotic personality and anxious feelings about Internet interpersonal interactions are more likely to become addicted to the Internet. In addition, people with neuroticism and who are more anxious about Internet interpersonal relationships are more likely to develop Internet addiction. CONCLUSIONS:People who tend to develop new interpersonal relationships via the Internet and be anxious about online interpersonal relationships are more vulnerable to becoming addicted to the Internet. The individuals who are more anxious about Internet interpersonal interaction and tend to develop new interpersonal relationships via the Internet are more likely to develop Internet addiction.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate whether there was any difference in eating pattern, abnormal eating behaviour, obesity and the number of food addiction symptoms according to food addiction presence. A total sample of 851 healthy subjects living in Ankara (n = 360 male, n = 491 female) aged 19-65 years were included in this cross-sectional survey. Data on demographic information, 24-hour dietary recalls, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and anthropometric measurements were collected through face-to-face interviews. Overall, 11.4% of participants were identified as "food addicted" (F: 13.0%; M: 9.2%). Subjects meeting criteria for 'food addiction' had higher body mass index (35.1% were obese and 3.1% were underweight), compared to subjects without food addiction (13.1% were obese and 10.2% were underweight) (p<0.05). Abnormal eating attitudes estimated with EAT-26 were determined as 45.5% in males, 37.5% in females and 40.2% in total, among subjects with food addiction. Daily energy, protein and fat intakes were significantly higher in food addicted females, compared to non-addicted females (p<0.05). Participants with food addiction reported significantly more problems with foods, which contain high amounts of fat and sugar, compared to the participants without food addiction. Food addiction behaviour should be considered as a part of efforts towards reducing food related problems involving obesity.