The mitochondrial iron transporter ABCB7 is required for B cell development, proliferation, and class switch recombination in mice
ABSTRACT: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are cofactors essential for the activity of numerous enzymes including DNA polymerases, helicases, and glycosylases. They are synthesized in the mitochondria as Fe-S intermediates and are exported to the cytoplasm for maturation by the mitochondrial transporter ABCB7. Here, we demonstrate that ABCB7 is required for bone marrow B cell development, proliferation, and class switch recombination, but is dispensable for peripheral B cell homeostasis in mice. Conditional deletion of ABCB7 using Mb1-cre resulted in a severe block in bone marrow B cell development at the pro-B cell stage. The loss of ABCB7 did not alter expression of transcription factors required for B cell specification or commitment. While increased intracellular iron was observed in ABCB7-deficient pro-B cells, this did not lead to increased cellular or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, ferroptosis, or apoptosis. Interestingly, loss of ABCB7 led to replication-induced DNA damage in pro-B cells, independent of VDJ recombination, and these cells had evidence of slowed DNA replication. Stimulated ABCB7-deficient splenic B cells from CD23-cre mice also had a striking loss of proliferation and a defect in class switching. Thus, ABCB7 is essential for early B cell development, proliferation, and class switch recombination.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter of the inner mitochondrial membrane, ABCB7, cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia, a phenotype that remains largely unexplained by the proposed role of ABCB7 in exporting a special sulfur species for use in cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis. Here, we generated inducible ABCB7-knockdown cell lines to examine the time-dependent consequences of loss of ABCB7. We found that knockdown of ABCB7 led to significant loss of mitochondrial Fe-S proteins, which preceded the development of milder defects in cytosolic Fe-S enzymes. In erythroid cells, loss of ABCB7 altered cellular iron distribution and caused mitochondrial iron overload due to activation of iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 in the cytosol and to upregulation of the mitochondrial iron importer, mitoferrin-1. Despite the exceptionally large amount of iron imported into mitochondria, erythroid cells lacking ABCB7 showed a profound hemoglobinization defect and underwent apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress. In ABCB7-depleted cells, defective heme biosynthesis resulted from translational repression of ALAS2 by iron regulatory proteins and from decreased stability of the terminal enzyme ferrochelatase. By combining chemical crosslinking, tandem mass spectrometry and mutational analyses, we characterized a complex formed of ferrochelatase, ABCB7 and ABCB10, and mapped the interfaces of interactions of its components. A dimeric ferrochelatase physically bridged ABCB7 and ABCB10 homodimers by binding near the nucleotide-binding domains of each ABC transporter. Our studies not only underscore the importance of ABCB7 for mitochondrial Fe-S biogenesis and iron homeostasis, but also provide the biochemical characterization of a multiprotein complex required for heme biosynthesis.
Project description:The mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB7 in humans, Atm1 in yeast and ATM3 in plants, are highly conserved in their overall architecture and particularly in their glutathione binding pocket located within the transmembrane spanning domains. These transporters have attracted interest in the last two decades based on their proposed role in connecting the mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly with its cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) counterpart. So far, the specific compound that is transported across the membrane remains unknown. In this report we characterized the ABCB7-like transporter Rcc02305 in Rhodobacter capsulatus, which shares 47% amino acid sequence identity with its mitochondrial counterpart. The constructed interposon mutant strain in R. capsulatus displayed increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species without a simultaneous accumulation of the cellular iron levels. The inhibition of endogenous glutathione biosynthesis resulted in an increase of total glutathione levels in the mutant strain. Bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid sequence motifs revealed a potential aminotransferase class-V pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) binding site that overlaps with the Walker A motif within the nucleotide binding domains of the transporter. PLP is a well characterized cofactor of L-cysteine desulfurases like IscS and NFS1 which has a role in the formation of a protein-bound persulfide group within these proteins. We therefore suggest renaming the ABCB7-like transporter Rcc02305 in R. capsulatus to PexA for PLP binding exporter. We further suggest that this ABC-transporter in R. capsulatus is involved in the formation and export of polysulfide species to the periplasm.
Project description:Glutathione-complexed [2Fe-2S] cluster is shown to significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of an ABCB7-type transporter in both solution and proteoliposome-bound forms (KD ? 68 ?M). The cluster is a likely natural substrate for this transporter, which has been implicated in cytosolic Fe-S cluster protein maturation. A possible substrate-binding site is identified on a new structural model for the active transporter.
Project description:X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia (XLSA/A) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by mild anemia and ataxia. XLSA/A is caused by mutations in the ABCB7 gene, which encodes a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. Studies in yeast, mammalian cells, and mice have shown that ABCB7 functions in the transport of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters into the cytoplasm. To further investigate the mechanism of this disease, we have identified and characterized the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of the ABCB7 gene, abtm-1. We have studied the function of abtm-1 using mutants and RNAi. abtm-1-depleted animals produce arrested embryos that have morphogenetic defects and unusual premature, putative apoptotic events. abtm-1(RNAi) animals also show accumulation of ferric iron and increased oxidative stress. Despite the increased level of oxidative stress in abtm-1(RNAi) animals, they have an increased life span. We observed accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in the nuclei of affected animals and elevation of the expression of SOD-3, a well established target of DAF-16, which may explain the increased life span extension of these animals. abtm-1 is strongly expressed in tissues with a high energy demand, and abtm-1(RNAi) animals have phenotypes that reflect the need for abtm-1 in these tissues. Finally, we show that reducing the function of other genes involved in Fe-S cluster production produces similar phenotypic consequences to abtm-1 loss of function. Therefore, ablation of abtm-1 in C. elegans provides a model in which to investigate the mechanism underlying XLSA/A.
Project description:This study investigated the biological function of ABCB7 in U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Many ABC transporters are known contributions to drug resistance and various biological process. However, mitochondrial ABC transporters aren’t known mechanism to control biological process. We identified the potential roles of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily member 7 (ABCB7), one of the mitochondrial ABC transporters. ABCB7 activates signaling pathway of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) by hypoxia independent regulation. This signaling pathway regulates the death inhibitory genes and survival related genes. Also, ABCB7 downregulates cell cycle related genes. Our results provide that ABCB7 is essential for the survival of malignant brain tumors. Overall design: A Glioblastoma cell line, U87MG, was transfected with pCDH-CMV-MCS-EF1-Puro (U87MG-Con) or pCDH-CMV-ABCB7-EF1-Puro (U87MG-ABCB7). Plasmids for ABCB7 expression (NM_004299.6) were purchased from Korea human gene bank (hMU008618). The 3 biological replicate of RNA extracts in these cells was used for transcriptome analysis.
Project description:Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is characterized by mitochondrial ferritin (FTMT) accumulation and markedly suppressed expression of the iron transporter ABCB7. To test the hypothesis that ABCB7 is a key mediator of ineffective erythropoiesis of RARS, we modulated its expression in hematopoietic cells. ABCB7 up and downregulation did not influence growth and survival of K562 cells. In normal bone marrow, ABCB7 downregulation reduced erythroid differentiation, growth and colony formation, and resulted in a gene expression pattern similar to that observed in intermediate RARS erythroblasts, and in the accumulation of FTMT. Importantly, forced ABCB7 expression restored erythroid colony growth and decreased FTMT expression level in RARS CD34+ marrow cells. Mutations in the SF3B1 gene, a core component of the RNA splicing machinery, were recently identified in a high proportion of patients with RARS and 11 of the 13 RARS patients in this study carried this mutation. Interestingly, ABCB7 exon usage differed between normal bone marrow and RARS, as well as within the RARS cohort. In addition, SF3B1 silencing resulted in downregulation of ABCB7 in K562 cells undergoing erythroid differentiation. Our findings support that ABCB7 is implicated in the phenotype of acquired RARS and suggest a relation between SF3B1 mutations and ABCB7 downregulation.
Project description:The splicing factor SF3B1 is the most frequently mutated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and is strongly associated with the presence of ring sideroblasts (RS). We have performed a systematic analysis of cryptic splicing abnormalities from RNA sequencing data on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of SF3B1-mutant MDS cases with RS. Aberrant splicing events in many downstream target genes were identified and cryptic 3' splice site usage was a frequent event in SF3B1-mutant MDS. The iron transporter ABCB7 is a well-recognized candidate gene showing marked downregulation in MDS with RS. Our analysis unveiled aberrant ABCB7 splicing, due to usage of an alternative 3' splice site in MDS patient samples, giving rise to a premature termination codon in the ABCB7 mRNA. Treatment of cultured SF3B1-mutant MDS erythroblasts and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated SF3B1-mutant cell line with the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) inhibitor cycloheximide showed that the aberrantly spliced ABCB7 transcript is targeted by NMD. We describe cryptic splicing events in the HSCs of SF3B1-mutant MDS, and our data support a model in which NMD-induced downregulation of the iron exporter ABCB7 mRNA transcript resulting from aberrant splicing caused by mutant SF3B1 underlies the increased mitochondrial iron accumulation found in MDS patients with RS.
Project description:X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia (XLSA/A) is a rare syndromic form of inherited sideroblastic anemia associated with spinocerebellar ataxia, and is due to mutations in the mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcb7. Here, we show that Abcb7 is essential for hematopoiesis and formally demonstrate that XLSA/A is due to partial loss of function mutations in Abcb7 that directly or indirectly inhibit heme biosynthesis.
Project description:Iron-sulfur cluster proteins play key roles in a multitude of cellular processes. Iron-sulfur cofactors are assembled primarily in mitochondria and are then exported to the cytosol by use of an ABCB7 transporter. It has been shown that the yeast mitochondrial transporter Atm1 can export glutathione-coordinated iron-sulfur clusters, [2Fe-2S](SG)<sub>4</sub>, providing a source of cluster units for cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems. This pathway is consistent with the endosymbiotic model of mitochondrial evolution where homologous bacterial heavy metal transporters, utilizing metal glutathione adducts, were adapted for use in eukaryotic mitochondria. Herein, the basis for endosymbiotic evolution of the human cluster export protein (ABCB7) is developed through a BLAST analysis of transporters from ancient proteobacteria. In addition, a functional comparison of native human protein, versus a disease-causing mutant, demonstrates a key role for residue E433 in promoting cluster transport. Dysfunction in mitochondrial export of Fe-S clusters is a likely cause of the disease condition X-linked sideroblastic anemia.
Project description:PP4 is a serine/threonine phosphatase required for immunoglobulin (Ig) VDJ recombination and pro-B/pre-B cell development in mice. To elucidate the role of PP4 in mature B cells, we ablated the catalytic subunit of murine PP4 in vivo utilizing the CD23 promoter and cre-loxP recombination and generated CD23(cre)PP4(F/F) mice. The development of follicular and marginal zone B cells was unaffected in these mutants, but the proliferation of mature PP4-deficient B cells stimulated by in vitro treatment with either anti-IgM antibody (Ab) or LPS was partially impaired. Interestingly, the induction of CD80 and CD86 expression on these stimulated B cells was normal. Basal levels of serum Igs of all isotypes were strongly reduced in CD23(cre)PP4(F/F) mice, and their B cells showed a reduced efficiency of class switch recombination (CSR) in vitro upon stimulation by LPS or LPS plus IL-4. When CD23(cre)PP4(F/F) mice were challenged with either the T cell-dependent antigen TNP-KLH or the T cell-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, or by H1N1 virus infection, the mutant animals failed to form germinal centers (GCs) in the spleen and the draining mediastinal lymph nodes, and did not efficiently mount antigen-specific humoral responses. In the resting state, PP4-deficient B cells exhibited pre-existing DNA fragmentation. Upon stimulation by DNA-damaging drug etoposide in vitro, mutant B cells showed increased cleavage of caspase 3. In addition, the mutant B cells displayed impaired CD40-mediated MAPK activation, abnormal IgM-mediated NF-κB activation, and reduced S phase entry upon IgM/CD40-stimulation. Taken together, our results establish a novel role for PP4 in CSR, and reveal crucial functions for PP4 in the maintenance of genomic stability, GC formation, and B cell-mediated immune responses.