Whole-exome sequencing of a novel initiation codon mutation in RUNX2 in a Chinese family with cleidocranial dysplasia
ABSTRACT: Abstract Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is mainly attributable to a variant of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) on chromosome 6p21. CCD is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by open/delayed closure of fontanels, clavicular hypoplasia, retention of deciduous teeth, and supernumerary permanent teeth. The aim of this study was to investigate potentially pathogenic mutations in 2 Chinese families. Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed to detect gene variants. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression level of RUNX2 in the proband of family 1. Silico algorithms and conservation analyses were used to evaluate the functional impact. We identified a novel initiation codon mutation (c.2T>C) and a previously reported mutation (c.569G>A). Familial co-segregation verified an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. Our findings demonstrated that the novel mutation c.2T>C causes CCD. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that downregulated RUNX2 levels and haploinsufficiency in RUNX2 lead to CCD. These results extend the spectrum of RUNX2 mutations in CCD patients and can be used for genetic consultation and prenatal diagnosis.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disease that affects the skeletal system. Common symptoms of CCD include hypoplasia or aplasia of the clavicles, delayed or even absent closure of the fontanels, midface hypoplasia, short stature, and delayed eruption of permanent and supernumerary teeth. Previous studies reported a connection between CCD and the haploinsufficiency of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Here, we report a sporadic Chinese case presenting typical symptoms of CCD.We made genetic testing on this sporadic Chinese case and identified a novel RUNX2 frameshift mutation: c.1111dupT. In situ immunofluorescence microscopy and osteocalcin promoter luciferase assay were performed to compare the functions of the RUNX2 mutation with those of wild-type RUNX2.RUNX2 mutation was observed in the perinuclear region, cytoplasm, and nuclei. In contrast, wild-type RUNX2 was confined in the nuclei, which indicated that the subcellular compartmentalization of RUNX2 mutation was partially perturbed. The transactivation function on osteocalcin promoter of the RUNX2 mutation was obviously abrogated.We identified a sporadic CCD patient carrying a novel insertion/frameshift mutation of RUNX2. This finding expanded our understanding of CCD-related phenotypes.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia due to mutations causing haploinsufficiency of RUNX2, an osteoblast transcription factor specific for bone and cartilage. The classic form of CCD is characterized by delayed closure of the fontanels, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles and dental anomalies. Clinical reports suggest that a subset of patients with CCD have skeletal changes which mimic hypophosphatasia (HPP). Mutations in RUNX2 are detected in approximately 65% of cases of CCD, and microdeletions occur in 13%. We present clinical and radiological features in a 6-year-old child with severe CCD manifested by absence of the clavicles marked calvarial hypomineralization, osteoporosis and progressive kyphoscoliosis. HPP features included Bowdler spurs, severe osteopenia, and low alkaline phosphatase. Following negative mutation analysis of RUNX2, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray was performed. The result revealed a microdeletion in RUNX2, disrupting the C-terminal part of the gene.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal-dominant malformation syndrome affecting bones and teeth. The most common skeletal and dental abnormalities in affected individuals are hypoplastic/aplastic clavicles, open fontanelles, short stature, retention of primary teeth, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, supernumerary teeth, and multiple impacted teeth. Treatment of CCD requires a multidisciplinary approach that may include dental corrections, orthognathic surgery and cranioplasty along with management of any complications of CCD. Early diagnosis of this condition enables application of the treatment strategy that provides the best quality of life to such patients. Notably, Runx2 gene mutations have been identified in CCD patients. Therefore, further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of supernumerary teeth formation related to Runx2 mutations may improve understanding of dental development in CCD. The insights into CCD pathogenesis may assist in the development of new treatments for CCD.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a skeletal dysplasia with autosomal-dominant inheritance. The runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause CCD. We report identification of a novel small deletions mutation in the RUNX2 gene in a Chinese family with CCD. A 29-year-old female was diagnosed as proband of CCD based on the clinical findings, which show delayed closure of the fontanels, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles and dental anomalies. Similar dental and skeletal symptoms were also observed in the other three affected individuals. We prepared genomic DNA from all four affected individuals, unaffected individual from her family members, as well as 100 unrelated healthy controls. PCR was conducted using the above genomic DNA as template and the RUNX2 gene-specific primers. The PCR product was subjected to direct sequencing and the sequence was compared to that of RUNX2 gene within the NCBI database. We detected a small deletion CCTA from nucleotide 635 to nucleotide 638 in exon 3 of RUNX2 gene of the proband. This will lead to the introduction of a translational stop codon at codon 220, resulting in a truncated RUNX2 protein, and therefore within the runt domain of the RUNX2 protein. We detected the same mutation in the the other three affected individuals, and did not detect any mutation in the unaffected family members or the 100 unrelated healthy controls, demonstrating that this is a novel missense mutation in RUNX2 gene and therefore, contributes to the molecular diagnosis of CCD.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human skeletal disorder comprising hypoplastic clavicles, wide cranial sutures, supernumerary teeth, short stature, and other skeletal abnormalities. It is known that mutations in the human RUNX2 gene mapped at 6p21 are responsible for CCD. We analyzed the mutation patterns of the RUNX2 gene by direct sequencing in six Taiwanese index cases with typical CCD. One of the patients was a familial case and the others were sporadic cases. Sequencing identified four mutations. Three were caused by single nucleotide substitutions, which created a nonsense (p.R391X), two were missense mutations (p.R190W, p.R225Q), and the forth was a novel mutation (c.1119delC), a one-base deletion. Real time quantitative PCR adapted to determine copy numbers of the promoter, all exons and the 3'UTR region of the RUNX2 gene detected the deletion of a single allele in a sporadic case. The results extend the spectrum of RUNX2 mutations in CCD patients and indicate that complete deletions of the RUNX2 gene should be considered in those CCD patients lacking a point mutation detected by direct sequencing.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital autosomal dominant condition, causing hypoplasia of the clavicle, abnormal formation of teeth, skeletal and craniofacial bones. CCD is caused by the mutation of RUNX2/CBFA1 present in the short arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.1, a transcription factor essential for the formation of teeth, cartilage and bone. Patients with CCD show the classical features of excessive mobility of the shoulder bone, lack of resorption of the deciduous teeth, failure to erupt permanent teeth, multiple impacted and supernumerary teeth, and open fontanelle and sutures of the skull. In this article we report a case of CCD in a 16-year-old male patient, with an aim to highlight the clinical, radiological and recommended treatment guidelines.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia associated with cranial, clavicular, and dental anomalies. It is caused by mutations in the RUNX2 gene, which encodes an osteoblast-specific transcription factor and maps to chromosome 6p21. We report clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with clinical features of CCD including wormian bones, delayed fontanel closure, hypoplastic clavicles and pubic rami, and supernumerary dentition. Additional abnormalities of bone growth and connective tissue, including easy bruisability, scarring, bleeding, joint hypermobility, and developmental delay were also observed. Molecular cytogenetic studies identified a de novo apparently balanced three-way translocation 46,XY,t(4;6;21)(p16;p21.1;q21). Further mapping revealed the breakpoint on 6p21 to be approximately 50 kb upstream of exon 1 of the RUNX2 gene, with RUNX2 being intact on the derivative chromosome 6. We hypothesize that the proband's CCD has arisen from disruption of the developmentally regulated gene RUNX2 at the 6p21 breakpoint, due to a position effect mutation which may have altered the expression of the gene. Further studies might unravel a new regulatory element for RUNX2.
Project description:<i>Background</i>: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare, autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia with a prevalence of one per million births. The main causes of CCD are mutations in the core-binding factor alpha-1 (CBFA1) or runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), located at the 6p21 chromosomal region. RUNX2 plays important roles in osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and tooth formation. The disease is characterized by clavicular aplasia or hypoplasia, Wormian bones, delayed closure of cranial suture, brachycephalic head, maxillary deficiency, retention of primary teeth, inclusion of permanent teeth, and multiple supernumerary teeth. <i>Materials and Methods</i>: A 22-year-old girl suffering from cleidocranial dysplasia with short stature, narrow shoulders, craniofacial manifestations (short face, broad forehead, etc.) and dental anomalies (different lower dental elements under eruption, supernumerary and impacted multiple teeth, etc.) was examined at our service (Complex Operative Unit of Odontostomatology of Policlinico of Bari). RX Orthopantomography (OPG) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were requested to better assess the position of the supernumerary teeth and their relationships with others and to evaluate the bone tissue. <i>Results</i>: Under eruption was probably caused by dental interferences with supernumerary teeth; hence, extractions of supernumerary upper canines and lower premolars were performed under general anaesthesia. Surgery outcome was excellent with good tissue healing and improvements in the therapeutic possibilities with future orthodontics. <i>Conclusions:</i> The objective of this article is to give an update about radiological, clinical, and molecular features of CCD and to alert the health team about the importance of establishing an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment in these patients to prevent impacted teeth complications and to offer them a better quality of life.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte maturation, skeletal morphogenesis, and tooth formation. Dental phenotype in CCD include over-retained primary teeth, failed eruption of permanent teeth, and supernumerary teeth. The underlying mechanism is unclear. We previously reported one CCD patient with allelic RUNX2 deletion (CCD-011). In the current study, we determined the transcriptomic profiles of dental pulp cells from this patient compared to one sex-and-age matched non-affected individual. Next Generation RNA sequencing revealed that 60 genes were significantly dysregulated (63% upregulated and 27% downregulated). Among them, IGFBP2 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2) was found to be upregulated more than twofold in comparison to control cells. Stable overexpression of RUNX2 in CCD-011 pulp cells resulted in the reduction of IGFBP2. Moreover, ALPL expression was up-regulated in CCD-011 pulp cells after introduction of normal RUNX2. Promoter analysis revealed that there are four proximal putative RUNX2 binding sites in -1.5 kb IGFBP2 promoter region. Relative luciferase assay confirmed that IGFBP2 is a direct target of RUNX2. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that IGFBP2 was expressed in odontoblasts but not ameloblasts. This report demonstrated the importance of RUNX2 in the regulation of gene profile related to dental pulp cells and provided novel insight of RUNX2 into the negative regulation of IGFBP2.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant bone disease in humans caused by haploinsufficiency of the RUNX2 gene. The RUNX2 has two major isoforms derived from P1 and P2 promoters. Over 90 mutations of RUNX2 have been reported associated with CCD. In our study, DNA samples of nine individuals from three unrelated CCD families were collected and screened for all exons of RUNX2 and 2 kb of P1 and P2 promoters. We identified two point mutations in the RUNX2 gene in Case 1, including a nonsense mutation (c.577C>T) that has been reported previously and a silent substitution (c.240G>A). In vitro studies demonstrated that c.577C>T mutation led to truncated RUNX2 protein production and diminished stimulating effects on mouse osteocalcin promoter activity when compared with full-length Runx2-II and Runx2-I isoforms. These results confirm that loss of function RUNX2 mutation (c.577C>T) in Case 1 family is responsible for its CCD phenotype.