DHX15-independent roles for TFIP11 in U6 snRNA modification, U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP assembly and pre-mRNA splicing fidelity
ABSTRACT: The U6 snRNA, the core catalytic component of the spliceosome, is extensively modified post-transcriptionally, with 2’-O-methylation being most common. However, how U6 2’-O-methylation is regulated remains largely unknown. Here we report that TFIP11, the human homolog of the yeast spliceosome disassembly factor Ntr1, localizes to nucleoli and Cajal Bodies and is essential for the 2’-O-methylation of U6. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that TFIP11 knockdown reduces the association of U6 snRNA with fibrillarin and associated snoRNAs, therefore altering U6 2′-O-methylation. We show U6 snRNA hypomethylation is associated with changes in assembly of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP leading to defects in spliceosome assembly and alterations in splicing fidelity. Strikingly, this function of TFIP11 is independent of the RNA helicase DHX15, its known partner in yeast. In sum, our study demonstrates an unrecognized function for TFIP11 in U6 snRNP modification and U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP assembly, identifying TFIP11 as a critical spliceosome assembly regulator. In yeast, TFIP11 and DHX15 promote the disassembly of spliceosome complex after splicing is completed. Here the authors show that human TFIP11 functions independently of DHX15 and is required for U6 snRNA 2’-O-methylation and U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP assembly.
Project description:The spliceosome is formed on pre-mRNA substrates from five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (U1, U2, U4/U6 and U5 snRNPs), and numerous non-snRNP factors. Saccharomyces cerevisiae U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP comprises U5 snRNA, U4/U6 snRNA duplex and approximately 30 proteins and represents a substantial part of the spliceosome before activation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe U2.U6.U5 spliceosomal complex is a post-catalytic intron lariat spliceosome containing U2 and U5 snRNPs, NTC (nineteen complex), NTC-related proteins (NTR), U6 snRNA, and an RNA intron lariat. Two recent papers describe near-complete atomic structures of these complexes based on cryoEM single-particle analysis. The U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP structure provides crucial insight into the activation mechanism of the spliceosome. The U2.U6.U5 complex reveals the striking architecture of NTC and NTR and important features of the group II intron-like catalytic RNA core remaining after spliced mRNA is released. These two structures greatly advance our understanding of the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing.
Project description:Prp3 is an essential U4/U6 di-snRNP-associated protein whose functions and molecular mechanisms in pre-mRNA splicing are presently poorly understood. We show by structural and biochemical analyses that Prp3 contains a bipartite U4/U6 di-snRNA-binding region comprising an expanded ferredoxin-like fold, which recognizes a 3'-overhang of U6 snRNA, and a preceding peptide, which binds U4/U6 stem II. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the single-stranded RNA-binding domain is exclusively found in Prp3 orthologs, thus qualifying as a spliceosome-specific RNA interaction module. The composite double-stranded/single-stranded RNA-binding region assembles cooperatively with Snu13 and Prp31 on U4/U6 di-snRNAs and inhibits Brr2-mediated U4/U6 di-snRNA unwinding in vitro. RNP-disrupting mutations in Prp3 lead to U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNP assembly and splicing defects in vivo. Our results reveal how Prp3 acts as an important bridge between U4/U6 and U5 in the tri-snRNP and comparison with a Prp24-U6 snRNA recycling complex suggests how Prp3 may be involved in U4/U6 reassembly after splicing.
Project description:U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP is a 1.5-megadalton pre-assembled spliceosomal complex comprising U5 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), extensively base-paired U4/U6 snRNAs and more than 30 proteins, including the key components Prp8, Brr2 and Snu114. The tri-snRNP combines with a precursor messenger RNA substrate bound to U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), and transforms into a catalytically active spliceosome after extensive compositional and conformational changes triggered by unwinding of the U4 and U6 (U4/U6) snRNAs. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy single-particle reconstruction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tri-snRNP at 5.9 Å resolution to reveal the essentially complete organization of its RNA and protein components. The single-stranded region of U4 snRNA between its 3' stem-loop and the U4/U6 snRNA stem I is loaded into the Brr2 helicase active site ready for unwinding. Snu114 and the amino-terminal domain of Prp8 position U5 snRNA to insert its loop I, which aligns the exons for splicing, into the Prp8 active site cavity. The structure provides crucial insights into the activation process and the active site of the spliceosome.
Project description:The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) components of the spliceosome undergo many conformational rearrangements during its assembly, catalytic activation and disassembly. The U4 and U6 snRNAs are incorporated into the spliceosome as a base-paired complex within the U4/U6.U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP). U4 and U6 are then unwound in order for U6 to pair with U2 to form the spliceosome's active site. After splicing, U2/U6 is unwound and U6 annealed to U4 to reassemble the tri-snRNP. U6 rearrangements are crucial for spliceosome formation but are poorly understood. We have used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and unwinding assays to identify interactions that promote U4/U6 unwinding and have studied their impact in yeast. We find that U4/U6 is efficiently unwound using DNA oligonucleotides by coupling unwinding of U4/U6 stem II with strand invasion of stem I. Unwinding is stimulated by the U6 telestem, which transiently forms in the intact U4/U6 RNA complex. Stabilization of the telestem in vivo results in accumulation of U4/U6 di-snRNP and impairs yeast growth. Our data reveal conserved mechanisms for U4/U6 unwinding and indicate telestem dynamics are critical for tri-snRNP assembly and stability.
Project description:The pre-catalytic spliceosome (B complex) is preceded by its precursor spliceosome (pre-B complex) and followed by the activated spliceosome (Bact complex). The pre-B-to-B and B-to-Bact transitions are driven by the ATPase/helicases Prp28 and Brr2, respectively. In this study, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the human pre-B complex and the human B complex at an average resolution of 5.7 and 3.8?Å, respectively. In the pre-B complex, U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) associate with two edges of the tetrahedron-shaped U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP. The pre-mRNA is yet to be recognized by U5 or U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and loop I of U5 snRNA remains unengaged. In the B complex, U1 snRNP and Prp28 are dissociated, the 5'-exon is anchored to loop I of U5 snRNA, and the 5'-splice site is recognized by U6 snRNA through duplex formation. In sharp contrast to S. cerevisiae, most components of U2 snRNP and tri-snRNP, exemplified by Brr2, undergo pronounced rearrangements in the human pre-B-to-B transition. Structural analysis reveals mechanistic insights into the assembly and activation of the human spliceosome.
Project description:Activation of the spliceosome for splicing catalysis requires the dissociation of U4 snRNA from the U4/U6 snRNA duplex prior to the first step of splicing. We characterize an evolutionarily conserved 15.5 kDa protein of the HeLa [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP that binds directly to the 5' stem-loop of U4 snRNA. This protein shares a novel RNA recognition motif with several RNP-associated proteins, which is essential, but not sufficient for RNA binding. The 15.5kD protein binding site on the U4 snRNA consists of an internal purine-rich loop flanked by the stem of the 5' stem-loop and a stem comprising two base pairs. Addition of an RNA oligonucleotide comprising the 5' stem-loop of U4 snRNA (U4SL) to an in vitro splicing reaction blocked the first step of pre-mRNA splicing. Interestingly, spliceosomal C complex formation was inhibited while B complexes accumulated. This indicates that the 15.5kD protein, and/or additional U4 snRNP proteins associated with it, play an important role in the late stage of spliceosome assembly, prior to step I of splicing catalysis. Our finding that the 15.5kD protein also efficiently binds to the 5' stem-loop of U4atac snRNA indicates that it may be shared by the [U4atac/U6atac.U5] tri-snRNP of the minor U12-type spliceosome.
Project description:The U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) forms the heart of the spliceosome which is required for intron removal from pre-mRNA. The proteins Prp8, Snu114 and Brr2 all assemble with the U5 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) to produce the U5 snRNP. Successful assembly of the U5 snRNP, then incorporation of this snRNP into the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP and the spliceosome, is essential for producing an active spliceosome. We have investigated the requirements for Prp8, Snu114 and Brr2 association with the U5 snRNA to form the U5 snRNP in yeast. Mutations were constructed in the highly conserved loop 1 and internal loop 1 (IL1) of the U5 snRNA and their function assessed in vivo. The influence of these U5 mutations on association of Prp8, Snu114 and Brr2 with the U5 snRNA were then determined. U5 snRNA loop 1 and both sides of IL1 in U5 were important for association of Prp8, Snu114 and Brr2 with the U5 snRNA. Mutations in the 3' side of U5 IL1 resulted in the greatest reduction of Prp8, Snu114 and Brr2 association with the U5 snRNA. Genetic screening of brr2 and U5 snRNA mutants revealed synthetic lethal interactions between alleles in Brr2 and the 3' side of U5 snRNA IL1 which reflects reduced association between Brr2 and U5 IL1. We propose that the U5 snRNA IL1 is a platform for protein binding and is required for Prp8, Brr2 and Snu114 association with the U5 snRNA to form the U5 snRNP.
Project description:During activation of the spliceosome, the U4/U6 snRNA duplex is dissociated, releasing U6 for subsequent base pairing with U2 snRNA. Proteins that directly bind the U4/U6 interaction domain potentially could mediate these structural changes. We thus investigated binding of the human U4/U6-specific proteins, 15.5K, 61K and the 20/60/90K protein complex, to U4/U6 snRNA in vitro. We demonstrate that protein 15.5K is a nucleation factor for U4/U6 snRNP assembly, mediating the interaction of 61K and 20/60/90K with U4/U6 snRNA. A similar hierarchical assembly pathway is observed for the U4atac/U6atac snRNP. In addition, we show that protein 61K directly contacts the 5' portion of U4 snRNA via a novel RNA-binding domain. Furthermore, the 20/60/90K heteromer requires stem II but not stem I of the U4/U6 duplex for binding, and this interaction involves a direct contact between protein 90K and U6. This uneven clustering of the U4/U6 snRNP-specific proteins on U4/U6 snRNA is consistent with a sequential dissociation of the U4/U6 duplex prior to spliceosome catalysis.
Project description:U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP represents a substantial part of the spliceosome before activation. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP at 3.7?Å resolution led to an essentially complete atomic model comprising 30 proteins plus U4/U6 and U5 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). The structure reveals striking interweaving interactions of the protein and RNA components, including extended polypeptides penetrating into subunit interfaces. The invariant ACAGAGA sequence of U6 snRNA, which base-pairs with the 5'-splice site during catalytic activation, forms a hairpin stabilized by Dib1 and Prp8 while the adjacent nucleotides interact with the exon binding loop 1 of U5 snRNA. Snu114 harbours GTP, but its putative catalytic histidine is held away from the ?-phosphate by hydrogen bonding to a tyrosine in the amino-terminal domain of Prp8. Mutation of this histidine to alanine has no detectable effect on yeast growth. The structure provides important new insights into the spliceosome activation process leading to the formation of the catalytic centre.
Project description:The cycle of spliceosome assembly, intron excision, and spliceosome disassembly involves large-scale structural rearrangements of U6 snRNA that are functionally important. U6 enters the splicing pathway bound to the Prp24 protein, which chaperones annealing of U6 to U4 RNA to form a U4/U6 di-snRNP. During catalytic activation of the assembled spliceosome, U4 snRNP is released and U6 is paired to U2 snRNA. Here we show that point mutations in U4 and U6 that decrease U4/U6 base-pairing in vivo are lethal in combination. However, this synthetic phenotype is rescued by a mutation in U6 that alters a U6-Prp24 contact and stabilizes U2/U6. Remarkably, the resulting viable triple mutant strain lacks detectable U4/U6 base-pairing and U4/U6 di-snRNP. Instead, this strain accumulates free U4 snRNP, protein-free U6 RNA, and a novel complex containing U2/U6 di-snRNP. Further mutational analysis indicates that disruption of the U6-Prp24 interaction rather than stabilization of U2/U6 renders stable U4/U6 di-snRNP assembly nonessential. We propose that an essential function of U4/U6 pairing is to displace Prp24 from U6 RNA, and thus a destabilized U6-Prp24 complex renders stable U4/U6 pairing nonessential.