Incorporation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Osteoprotegerin in 3D-Printed Ti6Al4V Scaffolds Enhances Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is an age-related metabolic disease that results in limited bone regeneration capacity and excessive osteoclast activity. After arthroplasty in patients with osteoporosis, poor interface osseointegration resulting from insufficient bone regeneration ability often leads to catastrophic complications such as prosthesis displacement and loosening and periprosthetic fractures. In this study, we prepared a thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to promote osteogenesis and osteoprotegerin (OPG) to inhibit excessive osteoclast activity. To construct three-dimensional (3D)-printed composite scaffolds for implantation, a hydrogel loaded with drugs was injected into porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. The 3D-printed composite scaffolds showed good biocompatibility and sustained release of BMP-2 and OPG for more than 20 days. In vitro experiments indicated that composite scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation and reduced the osteoclastic activation simultaneously. Remarkably, immunofluorescence staining, micro-CT, histological, and biomechanical tests demonstrated that the sustained release of both BMP-2 and OPG from composite scaffolds significantly improved bone ingrowth and osseointegration in osteoporotic defects. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BMP-2- and OPG-loaded 3D-printed composite scaffolds can potentially promote osseointegration for osteoporotic patients after joint replacement.
Project description:Functional reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects is challenging, especially for the patients who suffer from traumatic injury, cranioplasty, and oncologic surgery. Three-dimensional (3D) printing/bioprinting technologies provide a promising tool to fabricate bone tissue engineering constructs with complex architectures and bioactive components. In this study, we implemented multi-material 3D printing to fabricate 3D printed PCL/hydrogel composite scaffolds loaded with dual bioactive small molecules (i.e. resveratrol and strontium ranelate). The incorporated small molecules are expected to target several types of bone cells. We systematically studied the scaffold morphologies and small molecule release profiles. We then investigated the effects of the released small molecules from the drug loaded scaffolds on the behavior and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), monocyte-derived osteoclasts, and endothelial cells. The 3D printed scaffolds, with and without small molecules, were further implanted into a rat model with a critical-sized mandibular bone defect. We found that the bone scaffolds containing the dual small molecules had combinational advantages in enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting osteoclast activities, and they synergistically promoted MSC osteogenic differentiation. The dual drug loaded scaffolds also significantly promoted in vivo mandibular bone formation after 8 week implantation. This work presents a 3D printing strategy to fabricate engineered bone constructs, which can likely be used as off-the-shelf products to promote craniomaxillofacial regeneration.
Project description:Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), which has been previously reported to promote bone repair, is proposed to be a noninvasive form of therapy for the treatment of osteonecrosis. Bone fillers made from composite scaffolds have been demonstrated to be effective for preventing bone defects such as osteonecrosis. The present study aimed to investigate whether the application of LIPUS combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-loaded poly-L-lactic acid/polylactic-co-glycolic acid/poly-?-caprolactone (PLLA/PLGA/PCL) composite scaffolds can improve recovery in a rat model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). BMP-2-loaded PLGA microspheres incorporated into PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds were constructed. Bilateral femoral head LIPUS intervention was conducted in rats with steroid-induced ONFH. LIPUS intervention alone contributed to the alleviation of osteonecrosis, in addition to improving load-carrying capacity and accelerated bone formation, angiogenesis and differentiation. Subsequently, femoral head parameters and assessment of load-carrying capacity, bone formation-related factors, and angiogenesis- and differentiation-related factors were measured in rats with or without implanted BMP-2-loaded PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds. LIPUS combined with the implantation of PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds loaded with BMP-2 microspheres protected rats against steroid-induced ONFH and improved load-carrying capacity, bone formation, angiogenesis and differentiation. Together, these data support the use of BMP-2-loaded PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds combined with LIPUS for ONFH as a potential alternative curative solution for treating bone diseases.
Project description:Critical-sized bone defect repair in patients with diabetes mellitus remains a challenge in clinical treatment because of dysfunction of macrophage polarization and the inflammatory microenvironment in the bone defect region. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted scaffolds loaded with live cells and bioactive factors can improve cell viability and the inflammatory microenvironment and further accelerating bone repair. Here, we used modified bioinks comprising gelatin, gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), and 4-arm poly (ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEG) to fabricate 3D bioprinted scaffolds containing BMSCs, RAW264.7 macrophages, and BMP-4-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Addition of MSNs effectively improved the mechanical strength of GelMA/gelatin/PEG scaffolds. Moreover, MSNs sustainably released BMP-4 for long-term effectiveness. In 3D bioprinted scaffolds, BMP-4 promoted the polarization of RAW264.7 to M2 macrophages, which secrete anti-inflammatory factors and thereby reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory factors. BMP-4 released from MSNs and BMP-2 secreted from M2 macrophages collectively stimulated the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the 3D bioprinted scaffolds. Furthermore, in calvarial critical-size defect models of diabetic rats, 3D bioprinted scaffolds loaded with MSNs/BMP-4 induced M2 macrophage polarization and improved the inflammatory microenvironment. And 3D bioprinted scaffolds with MSNs/BMP-4, BMSCs, and RAW264.7 cells significantly accelerated bone repair. In conclusion, our results indicated that implanting 3D bioprinted scaffolds containing MSNs/BMP-4, BMSCs, and RAW264.7 cells in bone defects may be an effective method for improving diabetic bone repair, owing to the direct effects of BMP-4 on promoting osteogenesis of BMSCs and regulating M2 type macrophage polarization to improve the inflammatory microenvironment and secrete BMP-2.
Project description:The reconstruction of large bone defects (12 cm<sup>3</sup>) remains a challenge for clinicians. We developed a new critical-size mandibular bone defect model on a minipig, close to human clinical issues. We analyzed the bone reconstruction obtained by a 3D-printed scaffold made of clinical-grade polylactic acid (PLA), coated with a polyelectrolyte film delivering an osteogenic bioactive molecule (BMP-2). We compared the results (computed tomography scans, microcomputed tomography scans, histology) to the gold standard solution, bone autograft. We demonstrated that the dose of BMP-2 delivered from the scaffold significantly influenced the amount of regenerated bone and the repair kinetics, with a clear BMP-2 dose-dependence. Bone was homogeneously formed inside the scaffold without ectopic bone formation. The bone repair was as good as for the bone autograft. The BMP-2 doses applied in our study were reduced 20- to 75-fold compared to the commercial collagen sponges used in the current clinical applications, without any adverse effects. Three-dimensional printed PLA scaffolds loaded with reduced doses of BMP-2 may be a safe and simple solution for large bone defects faced in the clinic.
Project description:The advent of three dimensionally (3D) printed customized bone grafts using different biomaterials has enabled repairs of complex bone defects in various in vivo models. However, studies related to their clinical translations are truly limited. Herein, 3D printed poly(lactic-<i>co</i>-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/TCP) and TCP scaffolds with or without recombinant bone morphogenetic protein -2 (rhBMP-2) coating were utilized to repair primate's large-volume mandibular defects and compared efficacy of prefabricated tissue-engineered bone (PTEB) over direct implantation (without prefabrication). <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT was explored for real-time monitoring of bone regeneration and vascularization. After 3-month's prefabrication, the original 3D-architecture of the PLGA/TCP-BMP scaffold was found to be completely lost, while it was properly maintained in TCP-BMP scaffolds. Besides, there was a remarkable decrease in the PLGA/TCP-BMP scaffold density and increase in TCP-BMP scaffolds density during ectopic (within latissimus dorsi muscle) and orthotopic (within mandibular defect) implantation, indicating regular bone formation with TCP-BMP scaffolds. Notably, PTEB based on TCP-BMP scaffold was successfully fabricated with pronounced effects on bone regeneration and vascularization based on radiographic, <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT, and histological evaluation, suggesting a promising approach toward clinical translation.
Project description:3D-printing technology can be used to construct personalized bone substitutes with customized shapes, but it cannot regulate the topological morphology of the scaffold surface, which plays a vital role in regulating the biological behaviors of stem cells. In addition, stem cells are able to sense the topographical and mechanical cues of surface of scaffolds by mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. In our study, we fabricated a 3D-printed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold with a nanotopographical surface and loaded it with urine-derived stem cells (USCs) for application of bone regeneration. The topological 3D-printed PCL scaffolds (TPS) fabricated by surface epiphytic crystallization, possessed uniformly patterned nanoridges, of which the element composition and functional groups of nanoridges were the same as PCL. Compared with bare 3D-printed PCL scaffolds (BPS), TPS have a higher ability for protein adsorption and mineralization in vitro. The proliferation, cell length, and osteogenic gene expression of USCs on the surface of TPS were significantly higher than that of BPS. In addition, the TPS loaded with USCs exhibited a good ability for bone regeneration in cranial bone defects. Our study demonstrated that nanotopographical 3D-printed scaffolds loaded with USCs are a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for bone regeneration.
Project description:Biocompatible scaffolding materials play an important role in bone tissue engineering. This study sought to develop and characterize a nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)/collagen I (ColI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite scaffold loaded with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP-9) for bone tissue engineering by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The composite nHA/ColI/MWCNT scaffolds were fabricated at various concentrations of MWCNTs (0.5, 1, and 1.5% wt) by blending and freeze drying. The porosity, swelling rate, water absorption rate, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of scaffolds were measured. After loading with BMP-9, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were seeded to evaluate their characteristics in vitro and in a critical sized defect in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. It was shown that the 1% MWCNT group was the most suitable for bone tissue engineering. Our results demonstrated that scaffolds loaded with BMP-9 promoted differentiation of BMMSCs into osteoblasts in vitro and induced more bone formation in vivo. To conclude, nHA/ColI/MWCNT scaffolds loaded with BMP-9 possess high biocompatibility and osteogenesis and are a good candidate for use in bone tissue engineering.
Project description:Additive manufacturing (AM) is changing our current approach to the clinical treatment of bone diseases, providing new opportunities to fabricate customized, complex 3D structures with bioactive materials. Among several AM techniques, the BioCell Printing is an advanced, integrated system for material manufacture, sterilization, direct cell seeding and growth, which allows for the production of high-resolution micro-architectures. This work proposes the use of the BioCell Printing to fabricate polymer-based scaffolds reinforced with ceramics and loaded with bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporotic bone fractures. In particular, biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone) was blended with hydroxyapatite particles and clodronate, a bisphosphonate with known efficacy against several bone diseases. The scaffolds' morphology was investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) while Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the scaffolds' elemental composition. A thermal characterization of the composites was accomplished by Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The mechanical performance of printed scaffolds was investigated under static compression and compared against that of native human bone. The designed 3D scaffolds promoted the attachment and proliferation of human MSCs. In addition, the presence of clodronate supported cell differentiation, as demonstrated by the normalized alkaline phosphatase activity. The obtained results show that the BioCell Printing can easily be employed to generate 3D constructs with pre-defined internal/external shapes capable of acting as a temporary physical template for regeneration of cancellous bone tissues.