Electrochemical C-N bond activation for deaminative reductive coupling of Katritzky salts.
ABSTRACT: Electrosynthesis has received great attention among researchers in both academia and industry as an ideal technique to promote single electron reduction without the use of expensive catalysts. In this work, we report the electrochemical reduction of Katritzky salts to alkyl radicals by sacrificing the easily accessible metal anode. This catalyst and electrolyte free platform has broad applicability to single electron transfer chemistry, including fluoroalkenylation, alkynylation and thiolation. The deaminative functionalization is facilitated by the rapid molecular diffusion across microfluidic channels, demonstrating the practicality that outpaces the conventional electrochemistry setups.
Project description:The use of pyridinium-activated primary amines as photoactive functional groups for deaminative generation of alkyl radicals under catalyst-free conditions is described. By taking advantage of the visible light absorptivity of electron donor-acceptor complexes between Katritzky pyridinium salts and either Hantzsch ester or Et<sub>3</sub> N, photoinduced single-electron transfer could be initiated in the absence of a photocatalyst. This general reactivity platform has been applied to deaminative alkylation (Giese), allylation, vinylation, alkynylation, thioetherification, and hydrodeamination reactions. The mild conditions are amenable to a diverse range of primary and secondary alkyl pyridiniums and demonstrate broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:By employing an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyst, we developed a versatile catalytic system that enables deaminative cross-coupling reactions of aldehydes with redox-active pyridinium salts. Katritzky pyridinium salts behave as single-electron oxidants capable of generating alkyl radicals enabled by the redox properties of the enolate form of Breslow intermediates. The resultant alkyl radical undergoes efficient recombination with the NHC-bound aldehyde-derived carbonyl carbon radical for the formation of a C-C bond. The mild and transition metal-free reaction conditions tolerate a broad range of functional groups, and its utility has been further demonstrated by the modification of a series of peptide feedstocks and application to the three-component dicarbofunctionalization of olefins.
Project description:Primary amines are often cheap, naturally occurring, and chemically diverse starting materials. For these reasons, deaminative functionalization of amines has emerged as an important area of research. Recent advances in C-N activation transform simple α-1° and α-2° amines into alkylating reagents via Katritzky pyridinium salts. We report a complementary method that activates sterically encumbered α-3° primary amines through visible light photoredox catalysis. By condensing α-3° primary amines with electron-rich aryl aldehyde, we enable an oxidation and deprotonation event, which generates a key imidoyl radical intermediate. A subsequent β-scission event liberates alkyl radicals for coupling with electron-deficient olefins for the generation of unnatural γ-quaternary amino acids and other valuable synthetic targets.
Project description:Precise structural modifications of amino acids are of importance to tune biological properties or modify therapeutical capabilities relevant to drug discovery. Herein, we report a ruthenium-catalyzed <i>meta</i>-C-H deaminative alkylation with easily accessible amino acid-derived Katritzky pyridinium salts. Likewise, remote C-H benzylations were accomplished with high levels of chemoselectivity and remarkable functional group tolerance. The <i>meta</i>-C-H activation approach combined with our deaminative strategy represents a rare example of selectively converting C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-N bonds into C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-C(sp<sup>2</sup>) bonds.
Project description:Described is a cross-electrophilic, deaminative coupling strategy harnessing Katritzky salts as a new species of electrophile in Ni/photoredox dual catalytic reductive cross-coupling reactions. Distinguishing features of this arylation protocol include its mild reaction conditions, high chemoselectivity, and adaptability to a variety of complex substrates [i.e., pyridinium salts derived from amines and partners derived from (hetero)aryl bromides].
Project description:The reductive cross-coupling of sp3-hybridized carbon centers represents great synthetic values and insurmountable challenges. In this work, we report a nickel-catalyzed deaminative cross-electrophile coupling reaction to construct C(sp)?C(sp3), C(sp2)?C(sp3), and C(sp3)?C(sp3) bonds. A wide range of coupling partners including aryl iodides, bromoalkynes, or alkyl bromides are stitched with alkylpyridinium salts that derived from the corresponding primary amines. The advantages of this methodology are showcased in the two-step synthesis of the key lactonic moiety of (+)-compactin and (+)-mevinolin. The one-pot procedure without isolation of alkylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate salt is also proven to be successful. This cross-coupling strategy of two electrophiles provides a highly valuable vista for the convenient installation of alkyl substituents and late functionalizations of sp3 carbons.
Project description:Katritzky salts have emerged as effective alkyl radical sources upon metal- or photocatalysis. These are typically prepared from the corresponding triarylpyrylium ions, in turn an important class of photocatalysts for small molecules synthesis and photopolymerization. Here, a flow method for the rapid synthesis of both pyrylium and Katrizky salts in a telescoped fashion is reported. Moreover, several pyrylium salts were tested in the photoinduced RAFT polymerization of vinyl ethers under flow and batch conditions.
Project description:An alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling of Katritzky alkylpyridinium salts and organoboranes, formed in situ via hydroboration of alkenes, has been developed. This method utilizes the abundance of both alkyl amine precursors and alkenes to form C(sp3)-C(sp3) bonds. This strategy is also effective with alkynes, enabling a C(sp3)-C(sp2) cross-coupling. Under these mild conditions, a broad range of functional groups, including protic groups, is tolerated. As seen with previous alkylpyridinium cross-couplings, mechanistic studies support an alkyl radical intermediate.
Project description:Microbes living in biofilms, dense assemblages of cells, experience limitation for resources such as oxygen when cellular consumption outpaces diffusion. The pathogenic bacterium <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> has strategies for coping with hypoxia that support cellular redox balancing in biofilms; these include (1) increasing access to oxygen by forming wrinkles in the biofilm surface and (2) electrochemically reducing endogenous compounds called phenazines, which can shuttle electrons to oxidants available at a distance. Phenazine-mediated extracellular electron transfer (EET) has been shown to support survival for <i>P. aeruginosa</i> cells in anoxic liquid cultures, but the physiological relevance of EET over a distance for <i>P. aeruginosa</i> biofilms has remained unconfirmed. Here, we use a custom-built electrochemistry setup to show that phenazine-mediated electron transfer at a distance inhibits wrinkle formation in <i>P. aeruginosa</i> biofilms. This result demonstrates that phenazine-dependent EET to a distal oxidant affects biofilm morphogenesis.
Project description:Although synthetic organic electrochemistry (EC) has advanced significantly, net redox neutral electrosynthesis is quite rare. Two approaches have been employed to achieve this type of electrosynthesis. One relies on turnover of the product by the reactant in a chain mechanism. The other involves both oxidation on the anode and reduction on the cathode in which the radical cation or the radical anion of the product has to migrate between two electrodes. Herein, a home-built electrochemistry/mass spectrometry (EC/MS) platform was used to generate an <i>N</i>-cyclopropylaniline radical cation electrochemically and to monitor its reactivity toward alkenes by mass spectrometry (MS), which led to the discovery of a new redox neutral reaction of intermolecular [3 + 2] annulation of <i>N</i>-cyclopropylanilines and alkenes to provide an aniline-substituted 5-membered carbocycle <i>via</i> direct electrolysis (yield up to 81%). A chain mechanism, involving the regeneration of the substrate radical cation and the formation of the neutral product, is shown to be responsible for promoting such a redox neutral annulation reaction, as supported by experimental evidence of EC/MS.