PiR-39980 mediates doxorubicin resistance in fibrosarcoma by regulating drug accumulation and DNA repair.
ABSTRACT: Resistance to doxorubicin (DOX) is an obstacle to successful sarcoma treatment and a cause of tumor relapse, with the underlying molecular mechanism still unknown. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been shown to enhance patient outcomes in cancers. However, there are few or no reports on piRNAs affecting chemotherapy in cancers, including fibrosarcoma. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between piR-39980 and DOX resistance and the underlying mechanisms. We reveal that piR-39980 is less expressed in DOX-resistant HT1080 (HT1080/DOX) fibrosarcoma cells. Our results show that inhibition of piR-39980 in parental HT1080 cells induces DOX resistance by attenuating intracellular DOX accumulation, DOX-induced apoptosis, and anti-proliferative effects. Its overexpression in HT1080/DOX cells, on the other hand, increases DOX sensitivity by promoting intracellular DOX accumulation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. The dual-luciferase reporter assay indicates that piR-39980 negatively regulates RRM2 and CYP1A2 via direct binding to their 3'UTRs. Furthermore, overexpressing RRM2 induces DOX resistance of HT1080 cells by rescuing DOX-induced DNA damage by promoting DNA repair, whereas CYP1A2 confers resistance by decreasing intracellular DOX accumulation, which piR-39980 restores. This study reveals that piR-39980 could reduce fibrosarcoma resistance to DOX by modulating RRM2 and CYP1A2, implying that piRNA can be used in combination with DOX.
Project description:PURPOSE:PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) is a sub-group of small RNAs about 30 nucleotides length which specifically expressed in mammalian germ cells. Although piRNAs play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis regulation, little is known in the testicular tissues of infertile men. To explore whether piRNA profile could serve as a biomarker for male infertility diagnosis in a clinic, in this study, we systematically investigated the expression profile of piRNAs in testicular tissues from the patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) between successful and unsuccessful sperm retrieval before micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE). METHODS:The differential expression levels of piRNAs were evaluated using small RNA-Seq method. Ontologic analyses were performed to determine the presence of enriched biological processes. RESULTS:A total of 18,324 Homo sapiens piRNAs were identified by small RNA-Seq from NOA patient testicular tissues; among them, 959 piRNAs were significantly altered between successful and unsuccessful sperm retrieval groups, of which 951 testicular piRNAs were significantly downregulated and 8 piRNAs were upregulated in NOA patients with unsuccessful sperm retrieval (USR) groups compared to those with successful sperm retrieval (SSR) groups, respectively. Unexpectedly, 553 testicular piRNAs were found completely absent in USR but showing abundant in SSR, which suggests that those piRNAs might serve as a biomarker for micro-TESE application. A total of 20 significantly differential piRNAs (hsa-piR-20830, hsa-piR-4731, hsa-piR-6254, hsa-piR-419, hsa-piR-7152, hsa-piR-7548, hsa-piR-14195, hsa-piR-5026, hsa-piR-11482, hsa-piR-17765, hsa-piR-17102, hsa-piR-4484, hsa-piR-17260, hsa-piR-17098, hsa-piR-20511, hsa-piR-5802, hsa-piR-19121, hsa-piR-2510, hsa-piR-4745, hsa-piR-11873) were selected to further validate the RNA-Seq data by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, bioinformatic analyses revealed that those altered piRNAs were involved in many important biological pathways, including apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that testicular tissues from NOA patients with successful and unsuccessful spermatozoa retrieval exhibit differential piRNA profiles. This study provides a useful resource to further elucidate the regulatory role of piRNAs in spermatogenesis and provides a profound clue to identify useful biomarkers for predicting residual spermatogenic loci in NOA patients during assisted reproductive treatment.
Project description:Cyclopeptidic chemotherapeutic prodrugs (cPCPs) are macromolecular protease-sensitive doxorubicin (DOX) prodrugs synthesized from a cyclodecapeptidic scaffold, termed Regioselectively Addressable Functionalized Template (RAFT). In order to increase the chemotherapeutic potential of DOX and limit its toxicity, we used a Cathepsin B (Cat B)-sensitive prodrug concept for its targeted release since this enzyme is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. Copper-free "click" chemistry was used to synthesize cPCPs containing up to four DOX moieties tethered to the upper face of the scaffold through a Cat B-cleavable peptidic linker (GAGRRAAG). On the lower part, PEG 5, 10 and 20 kDa and a fifth peptidyl DOX moiety were grafted in order to improve the solubility, bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of the compound. In vitro results on HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells showed that cPCPs display a delayed action that consists of a cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase comparable to DOX alone, and increased cell membrane permeability.
Project description:Fibrosarcomas show a high incidence of recurrence and general resistance to apoptosis. Limiting tumor regrowth and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy and apoptosis represent key issues in developing more effective treatments of these tumors. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) broadly blocks matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and can moderate tumor growth and metastasis. We previously described generation of a recombinant fusion protein linking TIMP-1 to glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (TIMP-1-GPI) that efficiently directs the inhibitor to cell surfaces. In the present report, we examined the effect of TIMP-1-GPI treatment on fibrosarcoma biology. Exogenously applied TIMP-1-GPI efficiently incorporated into surface membranes of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. It inhibited their proliferation, migration, suppressed cancer cell clone formation, and enhanced apoptosis. Doxorubicin, the standard chemotherapeutic drug for fibrosarcoma, was tested alone or in combination with TIMP-1-GPI. In parallel, the influence of treatment on HT1080 side population cells (exhibiting tumor stem cell-like characteristics) was investigated using Hoechst 33342 staining. The sequential combination of TIMP-1-GPI and doxorubicin showed more than additive effects on apoptosis, while TIMP-1-GPI treatment alone effectively decreased "stem-cell like" side population cells of HT1080. TIMP-1-GPI treatment was validated using HT1080 fibrosarcoma murine xenografts. Growing tumors treated with repeated local injections of TIMP-1-GPI showed dramatically inhibited fibrosarcoma growth and reduced angiogenesis. Intraoperative peritumoral application of GPI-anchored TIMP-1 as an adjuvant to surgery may help maintain tumor control by targeting microscopic residual fibrosarcoma cells and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Project description:P-element-induced wimpy testis (Piwi)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of germline-enriched small non-coding RNA that associate with Piwi family proteins and mostly induce transposon silencing and epigenetic regulation. Emerging evidence indicated the aberrant expression of Piwil proteins and associated piRNAs in multiple types of human cancer including breast cancer. Although the majority of piRNAs in breast cancer remains unclear of the function mainly due to the variety of regulatory mechanisms, the potential of piRNAs serving as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis or therapeutic targets for cancer treatment has been demonstrated by <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies. Herein we summarized the research progress of oncogenic or tumor suppressing piRNAs and their regulatory mechanisms in regulating human breast cancer, including piR-021285, piR-823, piR-932, piR-36712, piR-016658, piR-016975 and piR-4987. The challenges and perspectives of piRNAs in the field of human cancer were discussed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the main subtype of primary lung cancer and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of small non-coding RNAs that may play crucial roles in cancer progression and serve as biomarkers for tumor detection. This study aimed to explore the expression profiles and diagnostic values of piRNAs in LUAD.<h4>Methods</h4>Small RNA sequencing was performed to investigate tissue piRNA profiles of LUAD. The expression of selected upregulated piRNAs were detected in tissues and serum exosome samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Serum exosomes were identified by transmission electron microscope, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was adopted to quantify the diagnostic potentials of piRNAs in LUAD. Finally, a piRNA panel was developed by multivariate logistic regression model.<h4>Results</h4>We identified that 76 piRNAs were overexpressed and 9 piRNAs were underexpressed in LUAD tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Among the top 10 overexpressed piRNAs, 4 piRNAs (piR-hsa-26925, piR-hsa-5444, piR-hsa-30636, and piR-hsa-8757) were verified by qRT-PCR to be significantly upregulated in LUAD tissues. Moreover, piR-hsa-26925 and piR-hsa-5444 had a significantly higher level in serum exosome samples of LUAD patients than those of healthy controls. We finally established a 2-piRNA panel composed of piR-hsa-26925 and piR-hsa-5444, which showed higher diagnostic performance for LUAD with an AUC of 0.833.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our finding revealed the abnormally expressed piRNAs in LUAD, and serum exosomal piR-hsa-26925 and piR-hsa-5444 could serve as potential biomarkers for LUAD diagnosis.
Project description:RASSF1C up-regulates important genes involved in lung cancer cell growth, including a stem cell self-renewal gene, piwil1. In this article, we report the identification of small noncoding PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in lung cancer cells over-expressing RASSF1C. A piRNA microarray screen was performed using RNA isolated from the lung cancer cell line H1299 stably over-expressing RASSF1C and corresponding control. The piRNA microarray screen identified several piRNAs that are regulated by RASSF1C and we have validated the expression of two up-regulated piRNAs (piR-34871 and piR-52200) and two down-regulated piRNAs (piR-35127 and piR-46545) in lung cancer cells with silenced and over-expressed RASSF1C using RT-PCR. We also assessed the expression of these four piRNAs in lung tumor and matched normal tissues (n = 12). We found that piR-34871 and piR-52200 were up-regulated in 58% and 50%, respectively; while piR-35127 and piR-46545 were down-regulated in 50% in lung tumor tissues tested. The expression of piR-35127 was inversely correlated with RASSF1C expression in 10/12 tumor tissues. Over-expression of piR-35127 and piR-46545 and knock-down of piR-34871 and piR-52200 significantly reduced normal lung and breast epithelial cell proliferation and cell colony formation as well as proliferation of lung cancer cell lines (A549 and H1299) and breast cancer cell lines (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231). This suggests that these novel piRNAs may potentially be involved in regulating lung cell transformation and tumorigenesis. RASSF1C may potentially modulate the expression of its piRNA target genes through attenuation of the AMPK pathway, as over-expression of RASSF1C resulted in reduction of p-AMPK, p21, and p27 protein levels.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) represents a notable amount of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the molecular basis of CG will offer insight into its pathogenesis in an attempt to identify new molecular biomarkers to early diagnose this disease. Therefore, studies involving small non-coding RNAs have been widely explored. Among these, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are an emergent class that can play important roles in carcinogenesis. In this study, small-RNA sequencing was used to identify the global piRNAs expression profile (piRNome) of gastric cancer patients. We found 698 piRNAs in gastric tissues, 14 of which were differentially expressed (DE) between gastric cancer (GC), adjacent to gastric cancer (ADJ), and non-cancer tissues (NC). Moreover, three of these DE piRNAs (piR-48966*, piR-49145, piR-31335*) were differently expressed in both GC and ADJ samples in comparison to NC samples, indicating that the tumor-adjacent tissue was molecularly altered and should not be considered as a normal control. These three piRNAs are potential risk biomarkers for GC, especially piR-48966* and piR-31335*. Furthermore, an in-silico search for mRNAs targeted by the differentially expressed piRNAs revealed that these piRNAs may regulate genes that participate in cancer-related pathways, suggesting that these small non-coding RNAs may be directly and indirectly involved in gastric carcinogenesis.
Project description:Emerging studies demonstrate that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) participate in the development of cancers. 75 pairs of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples and 31 benign thyroid nodule samples were included in this three-phase biomarker identifying study. First, piRNA expression profiles of five pairs of PTC samples were acquired piRNA sequencing. The expression of all upregulated piRNAs were further validated by RT-qPCR. Paired t and nonparametric test were used to evaluate the association between all upregulated piRNAs and clinic stage. The expression levels of key piRNAs were corrected by demographic data to construct a multivariate model to distinguish malignant nodules from benign. Additionally, the intersection between target genes of key piRNAs and differentially expressed genes in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PTC samples were used to perform enrichment analysis. Only piR-13643 and piR-21238 were significantly upregulated in PTC and associated with clinic stage. Moreover, both piR-13643 (Area Under Curve (AUC): 0.821) and piR-21238 (AUC: 0.823) showed better performance in distinguishing malignant nodules from benign than currently used biomarkers HBME1 (AUC: 0.590). Based on our findings, piR-13643 and piR-21238 were observed to be significantly upregulated in human PTC. PIWI-interacting RNAs could serve as promising novel biomarkers for accurate detection of PTC.
Project description:Dual stimuli-sensitive mixed polymeric micelles (MM) are developed for co-delivery of the endogenous tumor suppressor miRNA-34a and the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox) into cancer cells. The novelty of the system resides in two stimuli-sensitive prodrugs, a matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive Dox conjugate and a reducing agent (glutathione, GSH)-sensitive miRNA-34a conjugate, self-assembled in a single particle decorated with a polyethylene glycol corona for longevity, and a cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) for enhanced intracellular delivery. The MMP2-sensitivity of the system results in threefold higher cytotoxicity in MMP2-overexpressing HT1080 cells compared to low MMP2-expressing MCF7 cells. Cellular internalization of Dox increases by more than 70% after inclusion of TATp to the formulation. MMP2-sensitive MM also inhibits proliferation and migration of HT1080 cells. Moreover, GSH-sensitive MM allows for an efficient downregulation of Bcl2, survivin, and notch1 (65%, 55%, and 46%, respectively) in HT1080 cells. Combination of both conjugates in dual sensitive MM reduces HT1080 cell viability to 40% and expression of Bcl2 and survivin. Finally, 50% cell death is observed in 3D models of tumor mass. The results confirm the potential of the MM to codeliver miRNA-34a and doxorubicin triggered by dual stimuli inherent of tumor tissues.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line after transfection CRABP1 gene and R131A CRABP1 mutant (arginine-alanine substitution in a protein active site, protein lacks the ability to interact with retinoic acid), compared to HT1080 line transfected with empty pLXSN vector. A twelve samples on one chip study using total RNA recovered from four separate cultures of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line transfected with empty pLXSN vector, four HT1080 cell line cultures transfected with CRABP1 gene and four HT1080 cell line cultures transfected with R131A CRABP1 mutant. Each sample on a chip measures the expression level of 44,049 genes from human genome with three-fold technical redundancy.