Borreliae Part 2: Borrelia Relapsing Fever Group and Unclassified Borrelia.
ABSTRACT: Borreliae of the relapsing fever group (RFG) are heterogenous and can be divided mainly into three groups according to vectors, namely the soft-tick-borne relapsing fever (STBRF) Borreliae, the hard-tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) Borreliae, the louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) Borreliae, and the avian relapsing fever ones. With respect to the geographical distribution, the STBRF Borreliae are further subdivided into Old World and New World strains. Except for the Avian relapsing fever group Borreliae, which cause avian spirochetosis, all the others share infectivity in humans. They are indeed the etiological agent of both endemic and epidemic forms of relapsing fever, causing high spirochaetemia and fever. Vectors are primarily soft ticks of Ornithodoros spp. in the STBRF group; hard ticks, notably Ixodes sp., Amblyomma sp., Dermacentor sp., and Rhipicephalus sp., in the HTBRF group; and the louse pediculus humanus humanus in the TBRF one. A recent hypothesis was supported for a common ancestor of RFG Borreliae, transmitted at the beginning by hard-body ticks. Accordingly, STBRF Borreliae switched to use soft-bodied ticks as a vector, which was followed by the use of lice by Borrelia recurrentis. There are also new candidate species of Borreliae, at present unclassified, which are also described in this review.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC8615063 | BioStudies |