Meningitis Caused by the Live Varicella Vaccine Virus: Metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing, Immunology Exome Sequencing and Cytokine Multiplex Profiling.
ABSTRACT: Varicella vaccine meningitis is an uncommon delayed adverse event of vaccination. Varicella vaccine meningitis has been diagnosed in 12 children, of whom 3 were immunocompromised. We now report two additional cases of vaccine meningitis in twice-immunized immunocompetent children and we perform further testing on a prior third case. We used three methods to diagnose or investigate cases of varicella vaccine meningitis, none of which have been used previously on this disease. These include metagenomic next-generation sequencing and cytokine multiplex profiling of cerebrospinal fluid and immunology exome analysis of white blood cells. In one new case, the diagnosis was confirmed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid. Both varicella vaccine virus and human herpesvirus 7 DNA were detected. We performed cytokine multiplex profiling on the cerebrospinal fluid of two cases and found ten elevated biomarkers: interferon gamma, interleukins IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17F, chemokines CXCL-9, CXCL-10, CCL-2, and G-CSF. In a second new case, we performed immunology exome sequencing on a panel of 356 genes, but no errors were found. After a review of all 14 cases, we concluded that (i) there is no common explanation for this adverse event, but (ii) ingestion of an oral corticosteroid burst 3-4 weeks before onset of vaccine meningitis may be a risk factor in some cases.
Project description:Varicella-zoster virus vaccination is recommended for virtually all young children in the United States, Canada, and several other countries. Varicella vaccine is a live attenuated virus that retains some of its neurotropic properties. Herpes zoster caused by vaccine virus still occurs in immunized children, although the rate is much lower than in children who had wild-type varicella. It was commonly thought that 2 varicella vaccinations would protect children against the most serious complication of meningitis following herpes zoster; however, 2 meningitis cases have already been published. We now report a third case of varicella vaccine meningitis and define risk factors shared by all 3 immunized adolescents. The diagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid in this third case was verified by amplifying and sequencing portions of the viral genome, to document fixed alleles found only in the vaccine strain. Viral antibody was also detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by confocal microscopy. When compared with the other 2 cases, remarkably all 3 were 14 years old when meningitis occurred. All 3 were treated with intravenous acyclovir, with complete recovery. The adolescent in our case report also had recurrent asthma, which was treated with both prednisone tablets and beclomethasone inhaler before onset of meningitis. When the 3 cases were considered together, they suggested that immunity to varicella-zoster virus may be waning sufficiently in some twice-immunized adolescents to make them vulnerable to varicella vaccine virus reactivation and subsequent meningitis. This complication rarely happens in children after wild-type varicella.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Viral infection is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the viruses responsible for aseptic meningitis to better understand the clinical presentations of this disease.<h4>Method</h4>Between March 2009 and February 2010, we collected 297 cerebrospinal fluid specimens from children with aseptic meningitis admitted to a pediatric hospital in Yunnan (China). Viruses were detected by using "in house" real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction or reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction from these samples. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis version 7.0 software, with the neighbor-joining method.<h4>Results</h4>Viral infection was diagnosed in 35 of the 297 children (11.8%). The causative viruses were identified to be enteroviruses in 25 cases (71.4%), varicella-zoster virus in 5 cases (14.3%), herpes simplex virus 1 in 2 cases (5.7%), and herpes simplex virus 2, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesvirus 6 in 1 case each (2.9% each). Of the enteroviruses, coxsackievirus B5 was the most frequently detected serotype (10/25 cases; 40.0%) and all coxsackievirus B5 strains belonged to C group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In the study, a causative virus was only found in the minority of cases, of them, enteroviruses were the most frequently detected viruses in patients with viral meningitis, followed by varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus. Our findings underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and etiological study of aseptic meningitis.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Meningitis is a medical emergency with permanent disabilities and high mortality worldwide. We aimed to determine causative microorganisms and potential markers for differentiation between bacterial and viral meningitis.<h4>Methodology</h4>Adult patients with acute meningitis were subjected to lumber puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microorganisms were identified using Real-time PCR. PCT and CRP levels, peripheral and CSF-leucocyte count, CSF-protein and CSF-glucose levels were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 80 patients, infectious meningitis was confirmed in 75 cases; 38 cases were bacterial meningitis, 34 cases were viral meningitis and three cases were mixed infection. Higher PCT, peripheral and CSF-leukocytosis, higher CSF-protein and lower CSF-glucose levels were more significant in bacterial than viral meningitis patients. Neisseria meningitides was the most frequent bacteria and varicella-zoster virus was the most common virus. Using ROC analyses, serum PCT and CSF-parameters can discriminate bacterial from viral meningitis. Combined ROC analyses of PCT and CSF-protein significantly improved the effectiveness in predicting bacterial meningitis (AUC of 0.998, 100%sensitivity and 97.1%specificity) than each parameter alone (AUC of 0.951 for PCT and 0.996 for CSF-protein).<h4>Conclusion</h4>CSF-protein and serum PCT are considered as potential markers for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis and their combination improved their predictive accuracy to bacterial meningitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We report a rare case of Toscana virus infection imported into Switzerland in a 23-year old man who travelled to Imperia (Italy) 10?days before onset of symptoms. Symptoms included both meningitis and as well epididymitis. This is only the fourth case of Toscana virus reported in Switzerland. CASE PRESENTATION:The patient presented with lymphocytic meningitis and scrotal pain due to epididymitis. Meningitis was initially treated with ceftriaxone. Herpes simplex, tick-borne encephalitis, enterovirus, measles, mumps, rubella and Treponema pallidum were excluded with specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology. In support of routine diagnostic PCR and serology assays, unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing was performed of cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Toscana virus infection was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and the full coding sequence could be obtained. Specific PCR in cerebrospinal fluid and blood and serology with Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG against Toscana virus confirmed our diagnosis. Neurological symptoms recovered spontaneously after 5?days. CONCLUSIONS:This case of Toscana virus infection highlights the benefits of unbiased metagenomic sequencing to support routine diagnostics in rare or unexpected viral infections. With increasing travel histories of patients, physicians should be aware of imported Toscana virus as the agent for viral meningitis and meningoencephalitis.
Project description:The indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on adult pneumococcal meningitis has not been thoroughly investigated. We present data from active surveillance on pneumococcal meningitis in adults in Israel occurring during July 2009-June 2015. Pneumococcal meningitis was diagnosed for 221 patients, 9.4% of all invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases. Although overall IPD incidence decreased during the study period, meningitis increased nonsignificantly from 0.66 to 0.85 cases/100,000 population. Incidence of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcal meningitis (VT13) decreased by 70%, but non-VT13 pneumococcal meningitis increased from 0.32 to 0.75 cases/100,000 population (incident rate ratio 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.35). Pneumococcal meningitis patients were younger and healthier than nonmeningitis IPD patients, and 20.2% had a history of previous head surgery or cerebrospinal fluid leak compared with <2.0% of nonmeningitis patients (p<0.0001). Non-VT13 types that rarely cause IPD (15B/C, 6C, 23A, 23B, 24F) seem to be emerging as common causes of meningitis.
Project description:Background:Though peripheral blood is a crucial sample to study immunology, it is unclear whether the immune environment in the peripheral vasculature correlates with that at the end-organ site of infection. Using cryptococcal meningitis as a model, we investigated the correlation between serum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers over time. Methods:We analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of 160 subjects presenting with first episode cryptococcal meningitis for soluble cytokines and chemokines measured by Luminex assay. Specimens were collected at meningitis diagnosis, 1-week, and 2-week post cryptococcal diagnosis. We compared paired samples by Spearman's correlation and the p value was set at <0.01. Results:Of the 21 analytes tested at baseline, there was no correlation detected between nearly all analytes. A weak negative correlation was found between serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of interferon-gamma (Rho = -0.214; p = .007) and interleukin-4 (Rho = -0.232; p = .003). There was no correlation at 1-week post cryptococcal diagnosis. However, at 2-week post cryptococcal diagnosis, there was a weak positive correlation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels (Rho = 0.25; p = .007) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. No cytokine or chemokine showed consistent correlation overtime. Conclusion:Based on our analysis of 21 biomarkers, serum and cerebrospinal fluid immune responses do not correlate. There appears to be a distinct immune environment in terms of soluble biomarkers in the vasculature versus end-organ site of infection. While this is a model of HIV-related cryptococcal meningitis, we postulate that assuming the blood compartment is representative of the immune function at the end-organ site of infection may not be appropriate.
Project description:Cerebrospinal fluid cytology is performed by operator-dependant light microscopy as part of the routine laboratory work-flow diagnosis of meningitis. We evaluated operator-independent lens-free microscopy numeration of erythrocytes and leukocytes for the cytological diagnosis of meningitis. In a first step, prospective optical microscopy counts of leukocytes done by five different operators yielded an overall 16.7% misclassification of 72 cerebrospinal fluid specimens in meningitis/non-meningitis categories using a 10?leukocyte/?L cut-off. In a second step, the lens-free microscopy algorithm adapted for counting cerebrospinal fluid cells and discriminating leukocytes from erythrocytes was modified step-by-step in the prospective analysis of 215 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. The definite algorithm yielded a 100% sensitivity and a 86% specificity compared to confirmed diagnostics. In a third step, a blind lens-free microscopic analysis of 116 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, including six cases of microbiology-confirmed infectious meningitis, yielded a 100% sensitivity and a 79% specificity. Adapted lens-free microscopy is thus emerging as an operator-independent technique for the rapid numeration of leukocytes and erythrocytes in cerebrospinal fluid. In particular, this technique is well suited to the rapid diagnosis of meningitis at point-of-care laboratories.
Project description:The current point-of-care diagnosis of enterovirus meningitis does not identify the viral genotype, which is prognostic. In this case report, more than 81% of an <i>Echovirus</i> 12 genome were detected and identified by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, directly from the cerebrospinal fluid collected in a 6-month-old child with meningeal syndrome and meningitis: introducing <i>Echovirus</i> 12 as an etiological agent of acute meningitis in the pediatric population.
Project description:Efficient and sensitive diagnostic methods are needed in the management of virus infections in the central nervous system. There is a demand for an evaluation of the sensitivity of PCR methods for early diagnosis of meningitis due to herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The objective of this study was to evaluate real-time PCR in the detection of HSV-2 and VZV DNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for etiological diagnoses in clinically well-characterized cases of primary and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Samples from 110 patients, 65 of whom were diagnosed with or were strongly suspected of having HSV-2 meningitis and 45 with acute aseptic meningitis of unknown causes, were analyzed. Results were compared with the outcome of nested PCR for HSV-2 infection. Clinical parameters were analyzed in relation to CSF viral load. With real-time PCR, HSV-2 DNA was found in CSF from 80% (52/65) of patients with clinical HSV-2 meningitis compared to 72% (47/65) found by nested PCR. The sensitivity of real-time HSV-2 PCR was found to be 87% (33/38) in primary and 70% (19/27) in recurrent meningitis. The HSV-2 viral load was significantly higher in primary than in recurrent meningitis and correlated with the degree of inflammation. VZV DNA was detected in 2 of 45 samples (4.4%). Real-time PCR for the diagnosis of HSV-2 meningitis was evaluated in a large, clinically well-characterized sample of material and found to identify more cases than nested PCR in the group of patients with recurrent meningitis. Quantification of DNA enables further research of disease prognosis and treatment.
Project description:Meningitis remains a worldwide problem, and rapid diagnosis is essential to optimize survival. We evaluated the utility of a multiplex PCR test in differentiating possible etiologies of meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 69 HIV-infected Ugandan adults with meningitis was collected at diagnosis (n=51) and among persons with cryptococcal meningitis during therapeutic lumbar punctures (n=68). Cryopreserved CSF specimens were analyzed with BioFire FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis panel, which targets 17 pathogens. The panel detected Cryptococcus in the CSF of patients diagnosed with a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis by fungal culture with 100% sensitivity and specificity and differentiated between fungal relapse and paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in recurrent episodes. A negative FilmArray result was predictive of CSF sterility on follow-up lumbar punctures for cryptococcal meningitis. EBV was frequently detected in this immunosuppressed population (n=45). Other pathogens detected included: cytomegalovirus (n=2), varicella zoster virus (n=2), human herpes virus 6 (n=1), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=1). The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel offers a promising platform for rapid meningitis diagnosis.