(Tele)Work and Care during Lockdown: Labour and Socio-Familial Restructuring in Times of COVID-19.
ABSTRACT: COVID-19, and the lockdown requirement, altered our daily lives, including the restructuring of work and socio-familial organisation of millions of people. Through two studies, we explored how workers experienced this period. The first, qualitative study (N = 30) aimed to understand how workers lived through lockdown by identifying the key elements that shaped their experiences. Thematic content analysis revealed four emerging themes: (1) work and socio-health situation in which lockdown was experienced; (2) consequences on work organisation and resources available for change; (3) work-life balance management; and (4) psychosocial consequences and coping with the situation. The second, quantitative study (N = 332) explored the socio-health situation, new work organisation, work-life balance, and psychosocial consequences and coping strategies developed during this period, analysing participants' differences in terms of gender, working modality (on-site or teleworking) and care responsibilities through ANOVA analysis. Results revealed the non-democratic nature of the pandemic, with differences and similarities according to gender, working modality and having or not having dependents. Results are discussed identifying areas that need to be addressed to ensure the well-being of workers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Psychosocial risk factors, among which job control has proved to be a key dimension, can have a negative impact on the health of workers. Various research projects have found a relationship between low levels of free time at work and stress and job satisfaction indicators.<h4>Objectives</h4>to assess to what extent certain social and employment variables influence "job control".<h4>Methods</h4>A descriptive study was carried out on a sample of workers to analyse the influence of certain socio-demographic and work-related variables on job control, by means of an assessment survey on psychosocial risk and the general state of workers' health. The tools used in this study were the COPSOQ-ISTAS 21 version 1.5 psychosocial risk assessment questionnaire and a specific survey on the perceived state of health.<h4>Results</h4>Three hundred fourteen workers were asked to participate in the study. One hundred and ninety workers completed the questionnaire and were finally included. For the "job control" variable, 47.4% of workers described their situation as good. The results show that workers with a higher educational level (+78%), who have seniority in the job, have a good understanding of their situation at work (+15%), and are employed as white collars (34%), are more likely to show high job control and, therefore, could be less at risk from psychosocial factors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There are two parameters influencing "job control": social factors concerning educational level, and work situation factors, including seniority and being a white collar worker.
Project description:Scarce and inconclusive evidence exists on the mental health consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown. This study examined the psychological impact of the lockdown in Greece, resilience levels, use of coping strategies, and identified high-risk groups. A sample of 1661 participants (mean age = 39.5, SD = 12.2; 75.5% females) completed a web-based survey, which was distributed through social networking sites, webpages, and personal contacts. Posttraumatic symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resilience, and coping strategies were assessed. Different population subgroups suffered the impact of lockdown disproportionately. Healthcare workers, females, younger, less educated, and those living alone reported higher rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Females achieved more posttraumatic growth and were using coping strategies more frequently than men. Men, older, healthcare workers, and those with a partner were more resilient. Interventions need to be developed to target personal resources, protect vulnerable populations, facilitate posttraumatic growth, and ameliorate wellbeing and quality of life.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the level of deterioration in functioning of ED patients during confinement, due to COVID-19, and examine potential contributing factors (coping strategies, anxiety-depressive symptomatology and personality traits). METHODS:A total of 74 ED patients in treatment before the COVID-19 outbreak, contributed to this study. Baseline pre-treatment evaluation included the SCL-90R, TCI-R, EDI-2 and Y-FAS 2.0 questionnaires for general psychopathology, personality and ED severity indexes. ED symptoms, coping strategies, socio-demographic data and COVID-19 concerns were collected by clinicians through a semi-structured telephone survey during lockdown. RESULTS:A deterioration in ED symptoms and general psychopathology (anxiety and depression), during lockdown, was associated with low self-directedness. Higher ED symptomatology during confinement was associated with less-adaptive coping strategies to deal with lockdown situation leading to an increase in weight. CONCLUSIONS:These specific vulnerability factors to further confinement or stressful situations may help design personalized preventive and therapeutic approaches.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The non-pharmacological measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to considerable psychological distress. The aim of the CoCo-Fakt study was to investigate possible coping strategies and their effects on psychological distress during legally enforced quarantine of infected persons (IPs) and their close contacts (CPs).<h4>Study design</h4>This was a cross-sectional cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>From 12 December 2020 to 6 January 2021, all IPs and their CPs (n = 8232) registered by the public health department (Cologne, Germany) were surveyed online. Psychosocial distress and coping were measured using sum scores; free-text answers related to specific strategies were subsequently categorised.<h4>Results</h4>Psychosocial distress was higher in IPs than in CPs (P < .001). Although the mean coping score did not differ between both groups, it was influenced by the reason for quarantine (IP vs CP) besides gender, age, socio-economic status, living situation, psychological distress, resilience, physical activity and eating behaviour. This final regression model explained 25.9% of the variance. Most participants used active coping strategies, such as contact with the social environment, a positive attitude and hobbies.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although psychological distress was higher in IPs than in CPs during the quarantine period, the mean coping score did not differ. The strategies most frequently used by IPs and CPs were activating social networks, a healthy lifestyle and professional support systems, such as the health department helpline. Appropriate advice should be implemented to prevent long-term psychological consequences when supporting affected people.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The global COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 heavily affected the arts and creative industries due to the instigation of lockdown measures in the United Kingdom and closure of venues. However, it also provided new opportunities for arts and cultural engagement through virtual activities and streamed performances. Yet it remains unclear (i) who was likely to engage with the arts at home during lockdown, (ii) how this engagement differed from patterns of arts engagement prior to COVID-19, and (iii) whether home-based arts engagement was related to people's ability to cope with their emotions during lockdown. This study was therefore designed to address these questions.<h4>Methods</h4>We used data collected in late May from the United Kingdom COVID-19 Social Study run by University College London. Multivariate regressions were used for the analysis (<i>N</i> = 19,384). Identified factors included demographic factors, socio-economic position, psychosocial wellbeing and health conditions, adverse events/worries, and coping styles.<h4>Results</h4>Four types of home-based arts engagement were identified during the COVID-19 pandemic: digital arts and writing, musical activities, crafts, and reading for pleasure. Our results show that the strongest predictors of the engagement were age, education attainment, social support, and emotion-focused or supportive coping styles. In particular, younger adults (aged 18-29), non-keyworkers, people with greater social support, people who had lost work, those who were worried about catching the virus, and those with an emotion-focused, problem-focused or supportive coping style were more likely to have increased arts engagement during lockdown. Arts activities were used as approach and avoidance strategies to help cope with emotions, as well as to help improve self-development.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overall, our study suggests that while some people who engaged in the arts during the COVID-19 pandemic were those who typically engage under normal circumstances, the pandemic has also created new incentives and opportunities for others to engage virtually. Additionally, this study highlights the value of the arts as coping tools during stressful situations.
Project description:This study aims to explore the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related lockdown in university workers, and to analyse the factors related to their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 8-22 April 2020, 3.5 weeks after the COVID-19-related lockdown in Spain. We collected sociodemographic and occupational data, in addition to housing, work and health conditions. Coping strategies (Brief COPE-28); level of anxiety, stress, and depression (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales DASS-21); perception of the disease (COVID-19) (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire BIPQ); and perceived level of social support (Escala Multidimensional de Apoyo Social EMAS) were measured. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to explore the factors related to the level of anxiety, depression, and stress. The sample included 677 subjects. Higher scores in depression, anxiety, and stress occurred among females, younger subjects, administration and service workers; and subjects with a smaller home, as well as those with worse health status, worse quality of sleep, and dysfunctional coping strategies. The COVID-19-related lockdown had a great impact on the mental health of university workers. The participants with specific sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, clinical disorders, and dysfunctional coping strategies were more at risk.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Germany currently experiences a situation of major physician attrition. The incompatibility between work and family has been discussed as one of the major reasons for the increasing departure of German physicians for non-clinical occupations or abroad. This study investigates predictors for one particular direction of Work-Family Conflict--namely work interfering with family conflict (WIF)--which are located within the psychosocial work environment or work organisation of hospital physicians. Furthermore, effects of WIF on the individual physicians' physical and mental health were examined. Analyses were performed with an emphasis on gender differences. Comparisons with the general German population were made.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were collected by questionnaires as part of a study on Psychosocial work hazards and strains of German hospital physicians during April-July 2005. Two hundred and ninety-six hospital physicians (response rate 38.9%) participated in the survey. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), work interfering with family conflict scale (WIF), and hospital-specific single items on work organisation were used to assess WIF, its predictors, and consequences.<h4>Results</h4>German hospital physicians reported elevated levels of WIF (mean = 74) compared to the general German population (mean = 45, p < .01). No significant gender difference was found. Predictors for the WIF were lower age, high quantitative demands at work, elevated number of days at work despite own illness, and consequences of short-notice changes in the duty roster. Good sense of community at work was a protective factor. Compared to the general German population, we observed a significant higher level of quantitative work demands among hospital physicians (mean = 73 vs. mean = 57, p < .01). High values of WIF were significantly correlated to higher rates of personal burnout, behavioural and cognitive stress symptoms, and the intention to leave the job. In contrast, low levels of WIF predicted higher job satisfaction, better self-judged general health status, better work ability, and higher satisfaction with life in general. Compared to the German general population, physicians showed significantly higher levels of individual stress and quality of life as well as lower levels for well-being. This has to be judged as an alerting finding regarding the state of physicians' health.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In our study, work interfering with family conflict (WIF) as part of Work-Family Conflict (WFC) was highly prevalent among German hospital physicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WIF. Some of these predictors are accessible to alteration by improving work organisation in hospitals.
Project description:We aimed at analyzing important predictive factors for experienced negative emotional and social effects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) two years after diagnosis in patients aged 18-65 years. The first group included 41 participants, who had psychosocial problems (PSP) already at diagnosis, and who received an intervention by a medical social worker to improve coping capacity and social situation. The second group included 54 patients (NPSP) without such problems at diagnosis. All completed a questionnaire mapping their social situation, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ) at diagnosis and after 24 months. The most pronounced predictive factor for a strong impact of the disease was high scores on HADS depression scale. After 24 months, PSP participants had a more strained life situation, with higher scores on anxiety and depression and lower on SOC, in comparison with NPSP. NPSP participants improved their coping strategies regarding self-trust, cognitive revaluation, protest and intrusion, but deteriorated regarding problem focusing and social trust. PSP patients kept their initial coping strategies, except for intrusion decreasing over time, and seemed to have a more rigid coping pattern. However, the experienced negative impact of the disease increased over time in both groups despite improvement in sickness related data. Mostly influenced areas were economy, leisure time activities and social life. We conclude that psychosocial consequences of RA are more connected to emotional and social vulnerability than are RA-related clinical factors.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Few studies examine predictors of work status following injury beyond injuries presenting to a hospital or emergency department. This paper examines the combined influences of socio-demographic, occupational, injury and pre-existing health and lifestyle factors as predictors of work status 3 months after hospitalised and non-hospitalised injury in a cohort of injured New Zealand workers.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>The Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study, New Zealand.<h4>Participants</h4>2626 workforce active participants were identified from the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study; 11 participants with missing outcome responses were excluded.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>The primary outcome of interest was 'not working' at the time of interview.<h4>Results</h4>720 (27%) reported 'not working' 3 months after injury. The most important pre-injury predictors of not working following injury found by multidimensional modelling were as follows: low or unknown income, financial insecurity, physical work tasks, temporary employment, long week schedules, obesity, perceived threat to life and hospital admission. Contrary to expectations, workers reporting less frequent exercise pre-injury had lower odds of work absence. Pre-injury psychosocial and health factors were not associated with not working.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Certain pre-injury socio-demographic, physical work, work organisation, lifestyle and injury-related factors were associated with not working 3 months after injury. If these findings are confirmed, intervention strategies aimed at improving return to work should address multiple dimensions of both the worker and the workplace.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Constantly searching for a balance between work demands and their own physical and psychological health has challenged medical and nursing staff during the immediate wake of this COVID-19 viral epidemic leading to acute stress reactions and psychosomatic symptoms. Coping behavior might be a buffer for work-related stress in relation to mental well-being. The present study aims to evaluate the role of positive and negative stress-reducing activities on healthcare workers' mental and physical well-being. <b>Methods:</b> This was a cross-sectional study using an online survey that was sent out using our network of healthcare workers at the University of Antwerp and through social media. Socio-demographic data, coping behavior with the Palliative Pallet Scale (P3), and distress and somatization using the Four-dimensional symptom checklist were collected. Surveys were completed by 1,376 participants. <b>Results:</b> The results clearly showed that positive stress-reducing activities are related to fewer symptoms of distress and somatization. Providing direct care to COVID-19 patients was associated with a higher decrease of applying positive stress-reducing activities during the peak of the pandemic compared to the ideal situation. Finally, fewer symptoms of distress and somatization were associated with the following activities: reading, mind sports games, keeping a hobby collection, studying; engaging in sexual activities with your partner; cleaning the house, tidying up, working in the garden, doing household chores; exercising alone; walking, or taking a trip together with someone; exercise together with someone; watching TV, listening/playing (to) music/, playing computer games; playing a card game or other board game; and preparing something extra tasteful outside regular meals. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study demonstrated an association between concrete coping behaviors and distress and somatization in healthcare workers during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results provide relevant and additional insights to develop and investigate interventions among others in personal leadership and resilience.