Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Red Soil-Derived Streptomycetes via Co-Culture with Mycolic Acid-Containing Bacteria.
ABSTRACT: Our previous research has demonstrated a promising capacity of streptomycetes isolated from red soils to produce novel secondary metabolites, most of which, however, remain to be explored. Co-culturing with mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MACB) has been used successfully in activating the secondary metabolism in Streptomyces. Here, we co-cultured 44 strains of red soil-derived streptomycetes with four MACB of different species in a pairwise manner and analyzed the secondary metabolites. The results revealed that each of the MACB strains induced changes in the metabolite profiles of 35-40 streptomycetes tested, of which 12-14 streptomycetes produced "new" metabolites that were not detected in the pure cultures. Moreover, some of the co-cultures showed additional or enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the pure cultures, indicating that co-culture may activate the production of bioactive compounds. From the co-culture-induced metabolites, we identified 49 putative new compounds. Taking the co-culture of Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.264 and Mycobacterium sp. HX09-1 as a case, we further explored the underlying mechanism of co-culture activation and found that it most likely relied on direct physical contact between the two living bacteria. Overall, our results verify co-culture with MACB as an effective approach to discover novel natural products from red soil-derived streptomycetes.
Project description:Co-culture of Streptomyces with mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MACB), which we termed "combined-culture," alters the secondary metabolism pattern in Streptomyces and has been a useful method for the discovery of bioactive natural products. In the course of our investigation to identify the inducing factor(s) of MACB, we previously observed that production of pigments in Streptomyces lividans was not induced by factors such as culture extracts or mycolic acids. Although dynamic changes occurred in culture conditions because of MACB, the activation of pigment production by S. lividans was observed in a limited area where both colonies were in direct contact. This suggested that direct attachment of cells is a requirement and that components on the MACB cell membrane may play an important role in the response by S. lividans. Here we examined whether this response was influenced by dead MACB that possess intact mycolic acids assembled on the outer cell membrane. Formaldehyde fixation and ?-irradiation were used to prepare dead cells that retain their shape and mycolic acids of three MACB species: Tsukamurella pulmonis, Rhodococcus erythropolis, and Rhodococcus opacus. Culturing tests verified that S. lividans does not respond to the intact dead cells of three MACB. Observation of combined-culture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that adhesion of live MACB to S. lividans mycelia were a significant interaction that resulted in formation of co-aggregation. In contrast, in the SEM analysis, dead cells were not observed to adhere. Therefore, direct attachment by live MACB cells is proposed as one of the possible factors that causes Streptomyces to alter its specialized metabolism in combined-culture.
Project description:Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptomycetes from the rhizospheric soils are a rich resource of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. However, there is still little information related to the isolation, antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential for polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide discovery associated with the rhizospheric streptomycetes of Panax notoginseng. Thus, the aims of the present study are to (i) identify culturable streptomycetes from the rhizospheric soil of P. notoginseng by 16S rRNA gene, (ii) evaluate the antimicrobial activities of isolates and analyze the biosynthetic gene encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) of isolates, (iii) detect the bioactive secondary metabolites from selected streptomycetes, (iv) study the influence of the selected isolate on the growth of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field. This study would provide a preliminary basis for the further discovery of the secondary metabolites from streptomycetes isolated from the rhizospheric soil of P. notoginseng and their further utilization for biocontrol of plants. RESULTS:A total of 42 strains representing 42 species of the genus Streptomyces were isolated from 12 rhizospheric soil samples in the cultivation field of P. notoginseng and were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, 40 crude cell extracts out of 42 under two culture conditions showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also, the presence of biosynthesis genes encoding type I and II polyketide synthase (PKS I and PKS II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) in 42 strains were established. Based on characteristic chemical profiles screening by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD), the secondary metabolite profiles of strain SYP-A7257 were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). Finally, four compounds actinomycin X2 (F1), fungichromin (F2), thailandin B (F7) and antifungalmycin (F8) were isolated from strain SYP-A7257 by using chromatography techniques, UV, HR-ESI-MS and NMR, and their antimicrobial activities against the test bacteria and fungus were also evaluated. In the farm experiments, Streptomyces sp. SYP-A7257 showed healthy growth promotion and survival rate improvement of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated the P. notoginseng rhizospheric soil-derived Streptomyces spp. distribution and diversity with respect to their metabolic potential for polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, as well as the presence of biosynthesis genes PKS I, PKS II and NRPSs. Our results showed that cultivatable Streptomyces isolates from the rhizospheric soils of P. notoginseng have the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The farm experiments suggested that the rhizospheric soil Streptomyces sp. SYP-A7257 may be a potential biological control agent for healthy growth promotion and survival rate improvement of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field.
Project description:Cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcription regulator controlling diverse cellular processes in many bacteria. In Streptomyces coelicolor, it is well established that Crp plays a critical role in spore germination and colony development. Here, we demonstrate that Crp is a key regulator of secondary metabolism and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor and show that it may additionally coordinate precursor flux from primary to secondary metabolism. We found that crp deletion adversely affected the synthesis of three well-characterized antibiotics in S. coelicolor: actinorhodin (Act), undecylprodigiosin (Red), and calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray (ChIP-chip) assays, we determined that eight (out of 22) secondary metabolic clusters encoded by S. coelicolor contained Crp-associated sites. We followed the effect of Crp induction using transcription profiling analyses and found secondary metabolic genes to be significantly affected: included in this Crp-dependent group were genes from six of the clusters identified in the ChIP-chip experiments. Overexpressing Crp in a panel of Streptomyces species led to enhanced antibiotic synthesis and new metabolite production, suggesting that Crp control over secondary metabolism is broadly conserved in the streptomycetes and that Crp overexpression could serve as a powerful tool for unlocking the chemical potential of these organisms. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces produces a remarkably diverse array of secondary metabolites, including many antibiotics. In recent years, genome sequencing has revealed that these products represent only a small proportion of the total secondary metabolite potential of Streptomyces. There is, therefore, considerable interest in discovering ways to stimulate the production of new metabolites. Here, we show that Crp (the classical regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Escherichia coli) is a master regulator of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces. It binds to eight of 22 secondary metabolic gene clusters in the Streptomyces coelicolor genome and directly affects the expression of six of these. Deletion of crp in S. coelicolor leads to dramatic reductions in antibiotic levels, while Crp overexpression enhances antibiotic production. We find that the antibiotic-stimulatory capacity of Crp extends to other streptomycetes, where its overexpression activates the production of "cryptic" metabolites that are not otherwise seen in the corresponding wild-type strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. RESULTS: Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. CONCLUSIONS: Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.
Project description:Marine natural product drug discovery has begun to play an important role in the treatment of disease, with several recently approved drugs. In addition, numerous microbial natural products have been discovered from members of the order Actinomycetales, particularly in the genus <i>Streptomyces</i>, due to their metabolic diversity for production of biologically active secondary metabolites. However, many secondary metabolites cannot be produced under laboratory conditions because growth conditions in flask culture differ from conditions in the natural environment. Various experimental conditions (e.g., mixed fermentation) have been attempted to increase yields of previously described metabolites, cause production of previously undetected metabolites, and increase antibiotic activity. Adult ascidians-also known as tunicates-are sessile marine invertebrates, making them vulnerable to predation and therefore are hypothesized to use host-associated bacteria that produce biologically active secondary metabolites for chemical defense. A marine-derived <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. strain PTY087I2 was isolated from a Panamanian tunicate and subsequently co-cultured with human pathogens including <i>Bacillus subtilis</i>, methicillin-sensitive <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MSSA), methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA), and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, followed by extraction. Co-culture of <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. PTY087I2 with each of these human pathogens resulted in increased production of three antibiotics: granaticin, granatomycin D, and dihydrogranaticin B, as well as several analogues seen via molecular networking. In addition, co-cultures resulted in strongly enhanced biological activity against the Gram positive human pathogens used in these experiments. Expanded utilization of co-culture experiments to allow for competitive interactions may enhance metabolite production and further our understanding of these microbial interactions.
Project description:GlnR, an OmpR-like orphan two-component system response regulator, is a master regulator of nitrogen metabolism in the genus Streptomyces In this work, evidence that GlnR is also directly involved in the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis is provided. In the model strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, an in-frame deletion of glnR resulted in markedly increased actinorhodin (ACT) production but reduced undecylprodigiosin (RED) biosynthesis when exposed to R2YE culture medium. Transcriptional analysis coupled with DNA binding studies revealed that GlnR represses ACT but activates RED production directly via the pathway-specific activator genes actII-ORF4 and redZ, respectively. The precise GlnR-binding sites upstream of these two target genes were defined. In addition, the direct involvement of GlnR in antibiotic biosynthesis was further identified in Streptomyces avermitilis, which produces the important anthelmintic agent avermectin. We found that S. avermitilis GlnR (GlnRsav) could stimulate avermectin but repress oligomycin production directly through the respective pathway-specific activator genes, aveR and olmRI/RII To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first experimental evidence demonstrating that GlnR regulates antibiotic biosynthesis directly through pathway-specific regulators in Streptomyces Our results suggest that GlnR-mediated regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis is likely to be universal in streptomycetes. These findings also indicate that GlnR is not only a master nitrogen regulator but also an important controller of secondary metabolism, which may help to balance nitrogen metabolism and antibiotic biosynthesis in streptomycetes.
Project description:In streptomycetes, autoregulators are important signaling compounds that trigger secondary metabolism, and they are regarded as Streptomyces hormones based on their extremely low effective concentrations (nM) and the involvement of specific receptor proteins. Our previous distribution study revealed that butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, including avenolide, are a general class of signaling molecules in streptomycetes and that Streptomyces albus strain J1074 may produce butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Here, we describe metabolite profiling of a disruptant of the S. albusaco gene, which encodes a key biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, and identify four butenolide compounds from S. albus J1074 that show avenolide activity. The compounds structurally resemble avenolide and show different levels of avenolide activity. A dual-culture assay with imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis for in vivo metabolic profiling demonstrated that the butenolide compounds of S. albus J1074 stimulate avermectin production in another Streptomyces species, Streptomyces avermitilis, illustrating the complex chemical interactions through interspecies signals in streptomycetes.IMPORTANCE Microorganisms produce external and internal signaling molecules to control their complex physiological traits. In actinomycetes, Streptomyces hormones are low-molecular-weight signals that are key to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of Streptomyces secondary metabolism. This study reveals that acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase is a common and essential biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Moreover, the diffusible butenolide compounds from a donor Streptomyces strain were recognized by the recipient Streptomyces strain of a different species, resulting in the initiation of secondary metabolism in the recipient. This is an interesting report on the chemical interaction between two different streptomycetes via Streptomyces hormones. Information on the metabolite network may provide useful hints not only to clarification of the regulatory mechanism of secondary metabolism, but also to understanding of the chemical communication among streptomycetes to control their physiological traits.
Project description:<i>Streptomyces</i> spp. are saprophytic soil bacteria that produce secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential. This announcement describes the isolation and genome annotation of <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. strain Mg1 siphophage Shady. Learning more about Shady's novel 45-kb genome, containing 76 predicted protein-coding genes, could be industrially advantageous when using streptomycetes for their products.
Project description:Streptomyces, a branch of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, represents the largest genus of actinobacteria. The streptomycetes are characterized by a complex secondary metabolism and produce over two-thirds of the clinically used natural antibiotics today. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a Streptomyces strain, PP-C42, isolated from the marine environment. A subset of unique genes and gene clusters for diverse secondary metabolites as well as antimicrobial peptides could be identified from the genome, showing great promise as a source for novel bioactive compounds.