Enhanced Asymptomatic Systemic Infection Caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides in a Captive Gray Wolf (Canis lupus).
ABSTRACT: A 7-year-old male gray wolf was found dead at a zoo during exhibition. To determine the cause of death, histological and gross necropsy diagnoses and a molecular analysis were performed. The gross necropsy revealed a swollen abdomen, hemorrhagic exudates around the mouth, splenomegaly, a discolored liver, a congested kidney, hemorrhagic ascites, and dark gray-colored membranes and air bubbles in the fundus of the stomach. Rod-shaped bacteria were found in the liver parenchyma and hemorrhagic ascites using Giemsa staining. The nucleotide sequencing of the cultured bacteria identified the causative agent as Plesiomonas shigelloides, which is rarely responsible for systemic infections. This study describes a rare case and the first reported systemic gastrointestinal infection due to P. shigelloides in a zoo animal.
Project description:After many years in the family Vibrionaceae, the genus Plesiomonas, represented by a single species, P. shigelloides, currently resides in the family Enterobacteriaceae, although its most appropriate phylogenetic position may yet to be determined. Common environmental reservoirs for plesiomonads include freshwater ecosystems and estuaries and inhabitants of these aquatic environs. Long suspected as being an etiologic agent of bacterial gastroenteritis, convincing evidence supporting this conclusion has accumulated over the past 2 decades in the form of a series of foodborne outbreaks solely or partially attributable to P. shigelloides. The prevalence of P. shigelloides enteritis varies considerably, with higher rates reported from Southeast Asia and Africa and lower numbers from North America and Europe. Reasons for these differences may include hygiene conditions, dietary habits, regional occupations, or other unknown factors. Other human illnesses caused by P. shigelloides include septicemia and central nervous system disease, eye infections, and a variety of miscellaneous ailments. For years, recognizable virulence factors potentially associated with P. shigelloides pathogenicity were lacking; however, several good candidates now have been reported, including a cytotoxic hemolysin, iron acquisition systems, and lipopolysaccharide. While P. shigelloides is easy to identify biochemically, it is often overlooked in stool samples due to its smaller colony size or relatively low prevalence in gastrointestinal samples. However, one FDA-approved PCR-based culture-independent diagnostic test system to detect multiple enteropathogens (FilmArray) includes P. shigelloides on its panel. Plesiomonads produce ?-lactamases but are typically susceptible to many first-line antimicrobial agents, including quinolones and carbapenems.
Project description:Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is a gastrointestinal pathogen of increasing notoriety, often associated with diarrheal disease. P. shigelloides is waterborne, and infection is often linked to the consumption of seafood. Here, we describe the first complete genome for P. shigelloides type strain NCTC10360.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plesiomonas shigelloides can cause gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal diseases in humans. However, the prevalence of P. shigelloides infections has not been investigated in China. METHODS: Consecutive fecal specimens from outpatients with acute diarrhea and non-diarrheal patients at nine sentinel hospitals in southeast China were collected from March 2010 to May 2012. Bacterial pathogens were detected by culture, and P. shigelloides isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We also retrospectively reviewed the hospital microbiology laboratory and infection-control databases for all P. shigelloides isolates identified from 2001-2012 at our institution in addition to data on the patients' clinical and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3,536 outpatients with acute diarrhea were enrolled in the study. P. shigelloides was isolated from 104 (2.9%) patients and accounted for 7.3% of bacterial isolates. Single-pathogen infections with P. shigelloides were present in 76 (73.1%) patients. No strain of P. shigelloides was isolated from the 478 non-diarrheal patients. Based on 444,684 nonfecal specimens, eight patients developed P. shigelloides-related extra-intestinal infections over the 12-year period. All eight patients had underlying diseases, including four with biliary tract diseases and three with liver diseases. Six cases were classified as nosocomial, and five cases were polymicrobial. P. shigelloides was sensitive to most antimicrobial drugs, except ampicillin. CONCLUSIONS: In southeast China, P. shigelloides has significant clinical relevance, although the isolation rate is low.
Project description:Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from diverse environments. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant P. shigelloides strain MS-17-188, isolated from a diseased catfish. Availability of this genome will be beneficial for characterizing the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in this strain.
Project description:<i>Plesiomonas shigelloides</i> is a gram-negative bacillus that commonly causes self-limited diarrhea in humans. We present the case of <i>P shigelloides</i> bacteremia in a 49-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis who developed septic shock a day after eating Dojo nabe (loach hotpot), a Japanese traditional dish.
Project description:We hereby present the 3.7-Mb draft genome sequence of Plesiomonas shigelloides strain FM82, isolated from a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in a fish farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. P. shigelloides strain FM82 carries antimicrobial resistance, biofilm, and CRISPR-related genes.
Project description:Plesiomonas shigelloides, the only species of the genus, is an emergent pathogenic bacterium associated with human diarrheal and extraintestinal disease. We present the whole-genome sequence analysis of the representative strain for the O1 serotype (strain 302-73), providing a tool for studying bacterial outbreaks, virulence factors, and accurate diagnostic methods.
Project description:We report here the identification of waa clusters with the genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of two Plesiomonas shigelloides strains. Both P. shigelloides waa clusters shared all of the genes besides the ones flanking waaL. In both strains, all of the genes were found in the waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wapG) was found in a different chromosome location outside the cluster. Since P. shigelloides and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up at least to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. shigelloides genes were elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined K. pneumoniae mutants. The function of strain-specific inner- or outer-core genes was identified by using as a surrogate acceptor LPS from three well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. Using this strategy, we were able to assign a proteomic function to all of the P. shigelloides waa genes identified in the two strains encoding six new glycosyltransferases (WapA, -B, -C, -D, -F, and -G). P. shigelloides demonstrated an important variety of core LPS structures, despite being a single species of the genus, as well as high homologous recombination in housekeeping genes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The anoxic redox control binary system plays an important role in the response to oxygen as a signal in the environment. In particular, phosphorylated ArcA, as a global transcription factor, binds to the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate the expression of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism genes. However, the function of ArcA in Plesiomonas shigelloides is unknown.<h4>Results</h4>In the present study, P. shigelloides was used as the research object. The differences in growth, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence between the WT strain and the ΔarcA isogenic deletion mutant strain were compared. The data showed that the absence of arcA not only caused growth retardation of P. shigelloides in the log phase, but also greatly reduced the glucose utilization in M9 medium before the stationary phase. The motility of the ΔarcA mutant strain was either greatly reduced when grown in swim agar, or basically lost when grown in swarm agar. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay results showed that ArcA bound to the promoter regions of the flaK, rpoN, and cheV genes, indicating that ArcA directly regulates the expression of these three motility-related genes in P. shigelloides. Meanwhile, the ability of the ΔarcA strain to infect Caco-2 cells was reduced by 40%; on the contrary, its biofilm formation was enhanced. Furthermore, the complementation of the WT arcA gene from pBAD33-arcA<sup>+</sup> was constructed and all of the above features of the pBAD33-arcA<sup>+</sup> complemented strain were restored to the WT level.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We showed the effect of ArcA on the growth, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence of Plesiomonas shigelloides, and demonstrated that ArcA functions as a positive regulator controls the motility of P. shigelloides by directly regulating the expression of flaK, rpoN and cheV genes.
Project description:Plesiomonas shigelloides (P. shigelloides) is implicated as an aetiological agent of human gastroenteritis in humans, for which reliable laboratory detection of P. shigelloides is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of P. shigelloides using cross?priming amplification (CPA) has been developed, with hugA as the target. The hugA gene is required for haem iron utilisation and is critical for the survival and growth of P. shigelloides. The assay output was visualised as a colour change with no need to open the reaction tubes, and no false?positive results were detected for the 33 non? P. shigelloides strains examined to assess assay specificity. The limit of detection was 200 fg P. shigelloides DNA per reaction and 3x103 CFU per g in human stools, which was 100 and 10?fold more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The CPA method was used to detect the presence of P. shigelloides in stool specimens from 70 patients with diarrhoea and 30 environmental water samples, with no difference in accuracy between the CPA assay and the biological culture. The present study, therefore, suggests that the P. shigelloides hugA CPA assay may represent a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of P. shigelloides in primary care facilities and clinical laboratories.