Re-classification of Streptomyces venezuelae strains and mining secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters
ABSTRACT: Summary Streptomyces species have attracted considerable interest as a reservoir of medically important secondary metabolites, which are even diverse and different between strains. Here, we reassess ten Streptomyces venezuelae strains by presenting the highly resolved classification, using 16S rRNA sequencing, MALDI-TOF MS protein profiling, and whole-genome sequencing. The results revealed that seven of the ten strains were misclassified as S. venezuelae species. Secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (smBGC) mining and targeted LC-MS/MS based metabolite screening of S. venezuelae and misclassified strains identified in total 59 secondary metabolites production. In addition, a comparison of pyrrolamide-type antibiotic BGCs of four misclassified strains, followed by functional genomics, revealed that athv28 is critical in the synthesis of the anthelvencin precursor, 5-amino-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (ADPC). Our findings illustrate the importance of the accurate classification and better utilization of misclassified Streptomyces strains to discover smBGCs and their secondary metabolite products. Graphical abstract Highlights • Seven out of ten Streptomyces venezuelae strains were misclassified• 59secondary metabolites productions were identified from the ten strains• Athv28 converts glutamine to ADPC, the most important anthelvencin precursor Microbiology; Microbial genomics; Phylogeny; Metabolomics
Project description:Streptomyces venezuelae is well known to produce various secondary metabolites, including chloramphenicol, jadomycin, and pikromycin. Although many strains have been classified as S. venezuelae species, only a limited number of strains have been explored extensively for their genomic contents. Moreover, genomic differences and diversity in secondary metabolite production between the strains have never been compared. Here, we report complete genome sequences of three S. venezuelae strains (ATCC 10712, ATCC 10595, and ATCC 21113) harboring chloramphenicol and jadomycin biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC). With these high-quality genome sequences, we revealed that the three strains share more than 85% of total genes and most of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGC). Despite such conservation, the strains produced different amounts of chloramphenicol and jadomycin, indicating differential regulation of secondary metabolite production at the strain level. Interestingly, antagonistic production of chloramphenicol and jadomycin was observed in these strains. Through comparison of the chloramphenicol and jadomycin BGCs among the three strains, we found sequence variations in many genes, the non-coding RNA coding regions, and binding sites of regulators, which affect the production of the secondary metabolites. We anticipate that these genome sequences of closely related strains would serve as useful resources for understanding the complex secondary metabolism and for designing an optimal production process using Streptomyces strains.
Project description:Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria of significant industrial importance due to their ability to produce a wide range of antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites. Recent advances in genome mining have revealed that Streptomyces genomes possess a large number of unexplored silent secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs). This indicates that Streptomyces genomes continue to be an invaluable source for new drug discovery. Here, we present high-quality genome sequences of 22 Streptomyces species and eight different Streptomyces venezuelae strains assembled by a hybrid strategy exploiting both long-read and short-read genome sequencing methods. The assembled genomes have more than 97.4% gene space completeness and total lengths ranging from 6.7 to 10.1 Mbp. Their annotation identified 7,000 protein coding genes, 20 rRNAs, and 68 tRNAs on average. In silico prediction of smBGCs identified a total of 922 clusters, including many clusters whose products are unknown. We anticipate that the availability of these genomes will accelerate discovery of novel secondary metabolites from Streptomyces and elucidate complex smBGC regulation.
Project description:In members of genus <i>Streptomyces</i>, AdpA is a master transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of hundreds of genes involved in morphological differentiation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, chromosome replication, etc. However, the function of AdpASv, an AdpA ortholog of Streptomyces venezuelae, is unknown. This bacterial species is a natural producer of chloramphenicol and has recently become a model organism for studies on <i>Streptomyces</i>. Here, we demonstrate that AdpASv is essential for differentiation and antibiotic biosynthesis in S. venezuelae and provide evidence suggesting that AdpASv positively regulates its own gene expression. We speculate that the different modes of AdpA-dependent transcriptional autoregulation observed in <i>S. venezuelae</i> and other <i>Streptomyces</i> species reflect the arrangement of AdpA binding sites in relation to the transcription start site. Lastly, we present preliminary data suggesting that AdpA may undergo a proteolytic processing and we speculate that this may potentially constitute a novel regulatory mechanism controlling cellular abundance of AdpA in <i>Streptomyces</i>. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> <i>Streptomyces</i> are well-known producers of valuable secondary metabolites which include a large variety of antibiotics and important model organisms for developmental studies in multicellular bacteria. The conserved transcriptional regulator AdpA of <i>Streptomyces</i> exerts a pleiotropic effect on cellular processes, including the morphological differentiation and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite extensive studies, the function of AdpA in these processes remains elusive. This work provides insights into the role of a yet unstudied AdpA ortholog of Streptomyces venezuelae, now considered a novel model organism. We found that AdpA plays essential role in morphological differentiation and biosynthesis of chloramphenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic. We also propose that AdpA may undergo a proteolytic processing that presumably constitutes a novel mechanism regulating cellular abundance of this master regulator.
Project description:As <i>Streptomyces</i> have shown an outstanding capacity for drug production, different campaigns in geographically distant locations currently aim to isolate new antibiotic producers. However, many of these newly isolated <i>Streptomyces</i> strains are classified as identical to already described species. Nevertheless, as discrepancies in terms of secondary metabolites and morphology are possible, we compared two <i>Streptomyces</i> strains with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences but geographically distant origins. Chosen were an Easter Island <i>Streptomyces</i> isolate (<i>Streptomyces</i> sp. SN25_8.1) and the next related type strain, which is <i>Streptomyces griseus</i> subsp. griseus DSM 40236<sup>T</sup> isolated from Russian garden soil. Compared traits included phylogenetic relatedness based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, macro and microscopic morphology, antibiotic activity and secondary metabolite profiles. Both <i>Streptomyces</i> strains shared several common features, such as morphology and core secondary metabolite production. They revealed differences in pigmentation and in the production of accessory secondary metabolites which appear to be strain-specific. In conclusion, despite identical 16S rRNA classification <i>Streptomyces</i> strains can present different secondary metabolite profiles and may well be valuable for consideration in processes for drug discovery.
Project description:The terrestrial subsurface microbiome has gained considerable amount of interests in the recent years because of its rich potential resource for biomining novel genes coding for metabolites possessing antimicrobial activities. In our previous study, we identified two Streptomyces isolates, designated as ICC1 and ICC4, from the Iron Curtain Cave, Chilliwack, Canada that exhibited antagonistic activities against the multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli. In this study, the genomes of these two isolates were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq, assembled and annotated. The genes associated with secondary metabolite production were identified and annotated using the bioinformatics platforms antiSMASH and BAGEL. ICC1 and ICC4 were then cultivated and ICC1 metabolome characterized by UHPLC-ESI-HRMS. The Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking was used to identify metabolites based on the MS/MS spectral data. ICC1 and ICC4 showed a high level of sequence identity with the terrestrial bacteria Streptomyces lavendulae; however, they possess a greater secondary metabolite potential as estimated by the total number of identified biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). In particular, ICC1 and ICC4 had a greater number of polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide BGCs. The most frequently detected BGCs were those predicted to generate terpenes, small and low complexity dipeptides and lipids. Spectral analysis clearly identified a number of diketopiperazine products through matched reference spectra for cyclo (Leu-Pro), cyclo (Pro-Val) and cyclo [(4-hydroxyPro)-Leu]. One of the terpenes gene clusters predicted by antiSMASH possesses a seven-gene pathway consistent with diazepinomicin biosynthesis. This molecule contains a very rare core structure and its BGC, to date, has only been identified from a single bacterial genome. The tetrapeptide siderophore coelichelin BGC was unambiguously identified in the genome, however, the metabolite could not be identified from the culture extracts. Two type III polyketides, 2', 5' - dimethoxyflavone and nordentatin, were identified from the UHPLC-HRMS data of the aqueous and n-butanolic fractions of Streptomyces sp. ICC1, respectively. A BGC likely encoding these metabolites was predicted in both genomes. The predicted similarities in molecule production and genome shared by these two strains could be an indicative of a cooperative mode of living in extreme habitats instead of a competitive one. This secondary metabolite potential may contribute to the fitness of ICC1 and ICC4 in the Iron Curtain Cave.
Project description:Actinobacteria are well recognized for their production of structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites, but the rare actinobacterial genera have been underexploited for such potential. To search for new sources of active compounds, an experiment combining genomic analysis and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening was designed to isolate and characterize actinobacterial strains from a mangrove environment in Macau. Fourteen actinobacterial strains were isolated from the collected samples. Partial 16S sequences indicated that they were from six genera, including Brevibacterium, Curtobacterium, Kineococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces. The isolate sp.01 showing 99.28% sequence similarity with a reference rare actinobacterial species Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029T was selected for whole genome sequencing. Organization of its gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis revealed 21 clusters encoded to antibiotic production, which is higher than other Micromonospora species. Of the genome-predicted antibiotics, kanamycin was found through guided MS/MS analysis producible by the M. aurantiaca strain for the first time. The present study highlighted that genomic analysis combined with MS/MS screening is a promising method to discover potential of antibiotic production from rare actinobacteria.
Project description:Marine sediments host diverse actinomycetes that serve as a source of new natural products to combat infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we report the biodiversity, bioactivities against ESKAPE pathogens (<i>Enterococcus faecium</i>, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>, <i>Acinetobacter baumannii</i>, <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, and <i>Enterobacter</i> spp.) and ovarian cancer, and metabolites variation among culturable actinomycetes isolated from the marine sediments of Visayan Sea, Philippines. We identified 15 <i>Streptomyces</i> species based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crude extracts of 10 <i>Streptomyces</i> species have inhibited the growth of ESKAPE pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.312 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL depending on the strain and pathogens targeted. Additionally, ten crude extracts have antiproliferative activity against A2780 human ovarian carcinoma at 2 mg/mL. To highlight, we observed that four phylogenetically identical <i>Streptomyces albogriseolus</i> strains demonstrated variation in antibiotic and anticancer activities. These strains harbored type I and II polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal synthetase (NRPS) genes in their genomes, implying that their bioactivity is independent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detected bio-synthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in this study. Metabolite profiling revealed that the taxonomically identical strains produced core and strain-specific metabolites. Thus, the chemical diversity among these strains influences the variation observed in their biological activities. This study expanded our knowledge on the potential of marine-derived <i>Streptomyces</i> residing from the unexplored regions of the Visayan Sea as a source of small molecules against ESKAPE pathogens and cancer. It also highlights that <i>Streptomyces</i> species strains produce unique strain-specific secondary metabolites; thus, offering new chemical space for natural product discovery.
Project description:A metabolite profiling study of the antibiotic producing bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) has been performed. The aim of this study was to monitor intracellular metabolite pool changes occurring as strains of S. coelicolor react to nutrient depletion with metabolic re-modeling, so-called metabolic switching, and transition from growth to secondary metabolite production phase. Two different culture media were applied, providing depletion of the key nutrients phosphate and L-glutamate, respectively, as the triggers for metabolic switching. Targeted GC-MS and LC-MS methods were employed to quantify important primary metabolite groups like amino acids, organic acids, sugar phosphates and other phosphorylated metabolites, and nucleotides in time-course samples withdrawn from fully-controlled batch fermentations. A general decline, starting already in the early growth phase, was observed for nucleotide pools and phosphorylated metabolite pools for both the phosphate and glutamate limited cultures. The change in amino acid and organic acid pools were more scattered, especially in the phosphate limited situation while a general decrease in amino acid and non-amino organic acid pools was observed in the L-glutamate limited situation. A phoP deletion mutant showed basically the same metabolite pool changes as the wild-type strain M145 when cultivated on phosphate limited medium. This implies that the inactivation of the phoP gene has only little effect on the detected metabolite levels in the cell. The energy charge was found to be relatively constant during growth, transition and secondary metabolite production phase. The results of this study and the employed targeted metabolite profiling methodology are directly relevant for the evaluation of precursor metabolite and energy supply for both natural and heterologous production of secondary metabolites in S. coelicolor.
Project description:Although all Streptomyces strains are now thought to have 20-30 gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, we cannot actually identify so many kinds of metabolites from one strain by conventional methods. Using Streptomyces sp. RK95-74, previously found as a cytotrienin producer, we searched new metabolites other than cytotrienin derivatives. Following the cultivation with new media and the peak-guided fractionation, we have found new compounds with new polyketide scaffold, named linearolides A and B.
Project description:Actinomycete bacteria from marine environments represent a potential source for new antibiotics and anti-tumor drugs. Ten strains belonging to the genus Streptomyces isolated from the marine sponge Antho dichotoma collected at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway) were screened for antibiotic activity. Since only few isolates proved to be bioactive in the conditions tested, we decided to gain an insight into their biosynthetic potential using genome sequencing and analysis. Draft genomes were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) using antiSMASH software. BGCs specifying both known and potentially novel secondary metabolites were identified, suggesting that these isolates might be sources for new bioactive compounds. The results of this analysis also implied horizontal transfer of several gene clusters between the studied isolates, which was especially evident for the lantibiotic- and thiopeptide-encoding BGCs. The latter implies the significance of particular secondary metabolites for the adaptation of Streptomyces to the spatially enclosed marine environments such as marine sponges. Two bioactive isolates, one showing activity against both yeast and Bacillus subtilis, and one only against yeast were analyzed in details, leading to the identification of cycloheximide, linearmycins, and echinomycins that are presumably responsible for the observed bioactivities.