Evidence of Mycoplasma spp. transmission by migratory wild geese.
ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma infections have been found in different species of waterfowl worldwide. However, the question of how the pathogens have been transmitted and dispersed is still poorly understood. Samples collected from clinically healthy greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) (N = 12), graylag geese (Anser anser) (N = 6), taiga bean geese (Anser fabalis) (N = 10), and barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) (N = 1) were tested for Mycoplasma spp. All Mycoplasma-positive samples were specified by species-specific PCR for Mycoplasma anserisalpingitidis (formerly known as Mycoplasma sp. 1220), M. anseris, M. anatis, and M. cloacale. The presence of Mycoplasma spp. was confirmed in 22 of 29 sampled birds (75.9%). Mycoplasma anserisalpingitidis was the most frequently detected species (15 of 22, 68.2%). However, we did not detect any of the other Mycoplasma spp. typical for geese, among which are M. anatis, M. anseris, and M. cloacale. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Polish sequences of M. anserisalpingitidis formed a distinct branch, along with 2 Hungarian isolates obtained from domestic geese. Eight of the samples identified as Mycoplasma spp.-positive were negative for the aforementioned Mycoplasma species. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on partial 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that Mycoplasma spp. sequences collected from Polish wild geese represent a distinct phylogenetic group with Mycoplasma sp. strain 2445 isolated from a domestic goose from Austria. The results of our study showed that wild geese could be a reservoir and vector of different species of the Mycoplasma genus that can cause significant economic losses in the domestic goose industry.
Project description:The European domestic goose is a widely farmed species known to have descended from the wild greylag goose (<i>Anser anser</i>). However, the evolutionary history of this domesticate is still poorly known. Ancient DNA studies have been useful for many species, but there has been little such work on geese. We have studied temporal genetic variation among domestic goose specimens excavated from Russian archaeological sites (4th⁻18th centuries) using a 204 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Specimens fell into three different genetic clades: the domestic D-haplogroup, the F-haplogroup that includes both wild and domestic geese, and a clade comprising another species, the taiga bean goose. Most of the subfossil geese carried typical domestic D-haplotypes. The domestication status of the geese carrying F-haplotypes is less certain, as the haplotypes identified were not present among modern domestic geese and could represent wild geese (misclassified as domestics), introgression from wild geese, or local domestication events. The bones of taiga bean goose were most probably misidentified as domestic goose but the domestication of bean goose or hybridization with domestic goose is also possible. Samples from the 4th to 10th century were clearly differentiated from the later time periods due to a haplotype that was found only in this early period, but otherwise no temporal or geographical variation in haplotype frequencies was apparent.
Project description:Hybridization has frequently been observed between wild and domestic species and can substantially impact genetic diversity of both counterparts. Geese show some of the highest levels of interspecific hybridization across all bird orders, and two of the goose species in the genus Anser have been domesticated providing an excellent opportunity for a joint study of domestication and hybridization. Until now, knowledge of the details of the goose domestication process has come from archaeological findings and historical writings supplemented with a few studies based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we used genome-wide markers to make the first genome-based inference of the timing of European goose domestication. We also analyzed the impact of hybridization on the genome-wide genetic variation in current populations of the European domestic goose and its wild progenitor: the graylag goose (Anser anser). Our dataset consisted of 58 wild graylags sampled around Eurasia and 75 domestic geese representing 14 breeds genotyped for 33,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Demographic reconstruction and clustering analysis suggested that divergence between wild and domestic geese around 5,300 generations ago was followed by long-term genetic exchange, and that graylag populations have 3.2-58.0% admixture proportions with domestic geese, with distinct geographic patterns. Surprisingly, many modern European breeds share considerable (> 10%) ancestry with the Chinese domestic geese that is derived from the swan goose Anser cygnoid We show that the domestication process can progress despite continued and pervasive gene flow from the wild form.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mycoplasma anserisalpingitidis causes significant economic losses in the domestic goose (Anser anser) industry in Europe. As 95% of the global goose production is in China where the primary species is the swan goose (Anser cygnoides), it is crucial to know whether the agent is present in this region of the world. RESULTS:Purulent cloaca and purulent or necrotic phallus inflammation were observed in affected animals which represented 1-2% of a swan goose breeding flock (75,000 animals) near Guanghzou, China, in September 2019. From twelve sampled animals the cloaca swabs of five birds (three male, two female) were demonstrated to be M. anserisalpingitidis positive by PCR and the agent was successfully isolated from the samples of three female geese. Based on whole genome sequence analysis, the examined isolate showed high genetic similarity (84.67%) with the European isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of two swan goose isolates, determined by microbroth dilution method against 12 antibiotics and an antibiotic combination were also similar to the European domestic goose ones with tylvalosin and tiamulin being the most effective drugs. CONCLUSIONS:To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of M. anserisalpingitidis infection in swan goose, thus the study highlights the importance of mycoplasmosis in the goose industry on a global scale.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers seriously limits the cognition of genetic relationships within and between populations of many species. Likewise, the genetic diversity of domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus), with a great number of breeds throughout the world, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. FINDINGS:Thirty-five goose, seventeen duck and eight chicken microsatellite primer pairs were screened for their utility in the cross-species amplification on DNA from 96 individuals of Zatorska breed of domestic geese. Twenty-seven of 42 amplifying primer pairs revealed length-polymorphic products, but three of them were difficult to score. Fifteen primer pairs amplifying the same length product across all individuals. One polymorphic microsatellite locus was assigned by genotyping of known sex individuals to the Z-chromosome. CONCLUSIONS:We present a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers useful for population genetic studies of the domestic goose. Another 15 markers were classified as monomorphic, but they might also be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in geese.
Project description:Circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that infect a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. Circovirus infection in birds is associated with immunosuppression and this in turn predisposes the infected animals to secondary infections that can lead to mortality. Farmed geese (Anser anser) in many parts of the world are infected with circoviruses. The majority of the current genomic information for goose circoviruses (GoCVs) (n = 40) are from birds sampled in China and Taiwan, and only two genome sequences are available from Europe (Germany and Poland). In this study, we sampled 23 wild and 19 domestic geese from the Gop?o Lake area in Poland. We determined the genomes of GoCV from 21 geese; 14 domestic Greylag geese (Anser anser), three wild Greylag geese (A. anser), three bean geese (A. fabalis), and one white fronted goose (A. albifrons). These genomes share 83-95% nucleotide pairwise identities with previously identified GoCV genomes, most are recombinants with exchanged fragment sizes up to 50% of the genome. Higher diversity levels can be seen within the genomes from domestic geese compared with those from wild geese. In the GoCV capsid protein (cp) and replication associated protein (rep) gene sequences we found that episodic positive selection appears to largely mirror those of beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ssDNA genome revealed a conserved stem-loop structure with the G-C rich stem having a high degree of negative selection on these nucleotides.
Project description:Mycoplasma anatis, M. anseris, and M. cloacale are pathogens of waterfowl. Airsacculitis, nervous disease, and reproductive disorders are the main symptoms in the affected flocks. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of the M. anatis (NCTC 10156), M. anseris (ATCC 49234), and M. cloacale (NCTC 10199) type strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The domestic goose is an economically important and scientifically valuable waterfowl; however, a lack of high-quality genomic data has hindered research concerning its genome, genetics, and breeding. As domestic geese breeds derive from both the swan goose (Anser cygnoides) and the graylag goose (Anser anser), we selected a female Tianfu goose for genome sequencing. We generated a chromosome-level goose genome assembly by adopting a hybrid de novo assembly approach that combined Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing, high-throughput chromatin conformation capture mapping, and Illumina short-read sequencing. FINDINGS:We generated a 1.11-Gb goose genome with contig and scaffold N50 values of 1.85 and 33.12 Mb, respectively. The assembly contains 39 pseudo-chromosomes (2n = 78) accounting for ?88.36% of the goose genome. Compared with previous goose assemblies, our assembly has more continuity, completeness, and accuracy; the annotation of core eukaryotic genes and universal single-copy orthologs has also been improved. We have identified 17,568 protein-coding genes and a repeat content of 8.67% (96.57 Mb) in this genome assembly. We also explored the spatial organization of chromatin and gene expression in the goose liver tissues, in terms of inter-pseudo-chromosomal interaction patterns, compartments, topologically associating domains, and promoter-enhancer interactions. CONCLUSIONS:We present the first chromosome-level assembly of the goose genome. This will be a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies on geese.
Project description:East Dongting Lake is a Ramsar site and a particularly important wintering ground for herbivorous geese along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the water regime and has a significant impact on wetland ecosystems downstream. We studied the responses of two sympatric herbivorous goose species, the Lesser white-fronted goose Anser erythropus and Bean goose Anser fabalis, to habitat change by investigating their food conditions, habitat selection, and diet composition in the wintering periods of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, which had early and late water recession, respectively. It was expected that the contrasting water regimes would result in different food conditions and geese responses. The results showed that the food quality and quantity differed significantly between winters. As responses to the high-quantity/low-quality food during 2016/2017, more geese switched to feeding on mudflat and exploited plants such as dicotyledons and moss. The tall swards of Carex spp. (dominant plants in the meadow) that developed during the first growing season decreased the food accessibility during the second growing season and hindered the exploitation of newly generated shoots by the geese, which was further confirmed by our clipping control experiment. Nearly all the geese chose to feed on meadow, and Carex spp. made up the majority of their diet in 2017/2018 when there was more low-quantity/high-quality food. Compared with the globally vulnerable Lesser white-fronted geese, the larger-sized Bean geese seemed to be less susceptible to winter food shortages and exhibited more stable responses. We concluded that the food quality-quantity condition was the external factor influencing the geese responses, while morphological and physiological traits could be the internal factors causing different responses between the two species. This study enhanced the understanding of the influence that habitat change exerts on herbivorous geese in their wintering site in the context of the Three Gorges Dam operation. We suggested that regulating hydrological regime was important in terms of wetland management and species conservation.
Project description:Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.
Project description:Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two important zoonotic pathogens that can infect humans and a broad range of animal hosts. However, few studies have been conducted to study infection of the two pathogens in domestic geese until now. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of natural infection, and the species or genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in farm-raised and free-ranging geese from Hainan Province of China. In total, 266 fecal samples of geese were collected (142 farm-raised and 124 free-ranging geese). Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were identified by nested PCR and sequencing analysis of the SSU rRNA and the ITS region of the rRNA genes. A total of 4.1% (12/226) of the geese were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., with 0.7% identified in the farm-raised geese and 7.0% in the free-ranging geese. Two bird-adapted species/genotypes were identified: C. baileyi (n = 1) and Cryptosporidium goose genotype I (n = 11). Meanwhile, E. bieneusi was found in 13.9% (37/266) of geese, with 8.9% identified in the farm-raised and 21.8% in the free-ranging geese. Eleven genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified constituted with six known genotypes: D (n = 13), I (n = 5), CHG2 (n = 1), CHG3 (n = 5), and CHG5 (n = 1), and five novel genotypes named HNE-I to V (one each). All of the genotypes identified in the geese here belonged to zoonotic Groups 1 or 2. This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in domestic geese from Hainan, China, and provides baseline data that will be useful for controlling and preventing these pathogens in goose farms. The geese infected with E. bieneusi, but not with Cryptosporidium, should be considered potential public health threats.