Development of Chocolates with Improved Lipid Profile by Replacing Cocoa Butter with an Oleogel.
ABSTRACT: The reformulation of chocolates seeks to find innovative alternatives to cocoa butter (CB) that are more economical and adhere to nutritional recommendations to replace saturated fats with unsaturated ones. In this research, chocolates were elaborated by substituting CB with an oleogel (OG) formulated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as an entrapper of sunflower oil by using the foam-templated approach. Four different CB/OG blends were prepared and characterized as potential CB substitutes (100/0 control), at replacement levels of 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% (70/30, 50/50, 30/70 and 0/100 blends), and subsequently, CB/OG-based chocolates (CB/OG-Ch) were formulated (100/0-Ch, 70/30-Ch, 50/50-Ch, 30/70-Ch and 0/100-Ch). Both the CB/OG blends and the CB/OG-Ch counterparts were characterized by dynamic and stationary rheology, hardness, thermal parameters, microstructure, and oil-binding capacity; in addition, the lipid profile of the chocolates was analyzed, and a sensory analysis was performed. Increasing the OG proportion in the CB/OG blend weakens the rigidity and strength of the fat-crystal network conferred by the CB, and decreases both its viscoelasticity and thermal parameters, but the differences between all the different properties and parameters of the CB/OG-Ch samples diminished in presence of the other ingredients used in the chocolate formulation. Sensory analysis evidenced that it is possible to replace up to 70% of CB with the OG, although from a technological point of view a replacement level of 50% would seem more appropriate. As compared to 100/0-Ch, 50/50-Ch and 30/70-Ch involve saturated fat reductions of 55% and 37%, respectively.
Project description:Cocoa butter (CB) is an ingredient traditionally used in the manufacturing of chocolates, but its availability is decreasing due to its scarcity and high cost. For this reason, other vegetable oils, known as cocoa butter equivalents (CBE), are used to replace CB partially or wholly. In the present work, two Peruvian vegetable oils, coconut oil (CNO) and sacha inchi oil (SIO), are proposed as novel CBEs. Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was used for the chemical differentiation and polymorphism of these oils with CB based on their Raman spectra. To analyze their miscibility, two types of blends were prepared: CB with CNO, and CB with SIO. Both were prepared at 5 different concentrations (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, and 45%). Raman mapping was used to obtain the chemical maps of the blends and analyze their miscibility through distribution maps, histograms and relative standard deviation (RSD). These values were obtained with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. The results show that both vegetable oils are miscible with CB at high concentrations: 45% for CNO and 35% for SIO. At low concentrations, their miscibility decreases. This shows that it is possible to consider these vegetable oils as novel CBEs in the manufacturing of chocolates.
Project description:Cocoa butter (CB) is a main ingredient in pastry due to the unique functional properties of its fat, which is high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). However, excessive consumption of SFAs is associated with the occurrence of several chronic diseases. This study researched the partial or total replacement of CB by an oleogel (OG) formulated with a healthier lipid profile, for mixed systems that would allow a partial substitution of CB in confectionery products. The "emulsion-templated approach" was used to develop a sunflower oil-HPMC-based OG. Different CB:OG ratios were formulated increasing the percentage replacement of CB by OG from 50 to 100%. Rheological and textural properties were determined and compared with a CB control at 20 and 10 °C. Oil-binding capacity was also analyzed. The systems showed a solid-like behavior, with higher elastic than viscous modulus, which increased with CB concentration. Compared with 20 °C, at 10 °C there was an increase in connectivity, viscoelasticity, and consistency of the systems, in response to a more complete CB crystallization. The replaced systems also presented a better lipid profile than CB. This evidence suggests that formulated CB:OG system at 50:50 ratio could become useful as a CB equivalent in chocolate products.
Project description:Interfacial localization of carbon fillers in cocontinuous-structured polymer blends is well-known as a high-efficiency strategy for conductive network formation. However, a comparison with interfacial localization of carbon fillers in sea-island-structured polymer blends is lacking. Here, three types of highly efficient conductive networks formed on the basis of interfacial localization of carbon black (CB) in polyamide 6 (PA6)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) blends with different blend compositions (80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 <i>vol/vol</i>) were investigated and compared in terms of electrical resistivity, morphology as well as rheological and mechanical properties. The order of the electrical percolation threshold of CB in the three blends is 50/50 < 20/80 < 80/20, which can be attributed to different network structures. The rheological percolation thresholds are close to the electrical ones, confirming the formation of CB networks. The formation mechanisms for the three types of CB network structures are analyzed. All the three types of PA6/PBT-6 vol% CB composites showed improved tensile strength compared with PA6/PBT blends, being in favor for practical applications.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment.<h4>Design</h4>Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study.<h4>Setting</h4>Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom.<h4>Participants</h4>Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates.<h4>Intervention</h4>Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten.<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Median survival time of a chocolate.<h4>Results</h4>191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, P<0.001), with a survival half life (time taken for 50% of the chocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.
Project description:Negative foreign body responses following the in vivo implantation of bioprinted implants motivate the development of novel bioinks which can rapidly degrade with the formation of functional tissue, whilst still maintaining desired shapes post-printing. Here, we investigated the oxidation of alginate as a means to modify the degradation rate of alginate-based bioinks for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Raw and partially oxidized alginate (OA) were combined at different ratios (Alginate:OA at 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) to provide finer control over the rate of bioink degradation. These alginate blends were then combined with a temporary viscosity modifier (gelatin) to produce a range of degradable bioinks with rheological properties suitable for extrusion bioprinting. The rate of degradation was found to be highly dependent on the OA content of the bioink. Despite this high mass loss, the initially printed geometry was maintained throughout a 4 week in vitro culture period for all bioink blends except the 0:100 group. All bioink blends also supported robust chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), resulting in the development of a hyaline-like tissue that was rich in type II collagen and negative for calcific deposits. Such tuneable inks offer numerous benefits to the field of 3D bioprinting, from providing space in a controllable manner for new extracellular matrix deposition, to alleviating concerns associated with a foreign body response to printed material inks in vivo.
Project description:Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of Okra gum (OKG) extracted from fruits of Hibiscus esculentus (Malvaceae) and chitosan (CH) were prepared using ionic gelation technique. The PECs were insoluble and maximum yield was obtained at weight ratio of 7?:?3. The supernatant obtained after extracting PECs was clearly representing complete conversion of polysaccharides into PECs. Complexation was also evaluated by measuring the viscosity of supernatant after precipitation of PECs. The dried PECs were characterized using FTIR, DSC, zeta potential, water uptake, and SEM studies. Thermal analysis of PECs prepared at all ratios (10?:?90, 20?:?80, 30?:?70, 40?:?60, 50?:?50, 60?:?40, 70?:?30, 80?:?20, and 90?:?10; OKG?:?CH) depicted an endothermic peak at approximately 240°C representing cleavage of electrostatic bond between OKG and CH. The optimized ratio (7?:?3) exhibited a zeta potential of -0.434?mV and displayed a porous structure in SEM analysis. These OKG-CH PECs can be further employed as promising carrier for drug delivery.
Project description:This study focused on the formulation of food products, based on sesame and carob. The possibility of developing blends from sesame paste and carob molasses, using molasses concentrations of 30, 40 and 50%, at 60, 70 and 80°Brix, respectively, has been studied. The blend prepared with 50% carob molasses at 60°Brix was found to be the most acceptable product, according to a sensory acceptability test. Sesame paste, supplemented with carob molasses, was evaluated for physical quality (oil separation, colour and texture) and nutritional composition (moisture, sugar, protein, fat, ash and polyphenols). Physical analysis showed that the addition of carob molasses to sesame paste improved its emulsion stability, changed its colour from beige to brown and modified its texture from fluid to solid. Nutritional analysis proved that mixing sesame paste with carob molasses provided a natural product, characterized by interesting nutritional value (protein: 16.97 g/100 g fry matter, fat: 12.05 g/100 g fry matter and sugar: 9.34 g/100 g fry matter), arising from the constituents of the two ingredients. Thus, the developed blend could offer a promising nutritious and healthy foodstuff to consumers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Soil application of biochar and straw alone or their combinations with nitrogen (N) fertilizer are becoming increasingly common, but little is known about their agronomic and environmental performance in semiarid environments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect(s) of these amendments on soil properties, nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) and methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) emissions and grain and biomass yield of spring wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.), and to produce background dataset that may be used to inform nutrient management guidelines for semiarid environments.<h4>Methods</h4>The experiment involved the application of biochar, straw or urea (46% nitrogen [N]) alone or their combinations. The treatments were: CN<sub>0</sub>-control (zero-amendment), CN<sub>50</sub> -50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, CN<sub>100</sub>-100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, BN<sub>0</sub> -15 t ha<sup>-1</sup> biochar, BN<sub>50</sub>-15 t ha<sup>-1</sup> biochar + 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, BN<sub>100</sub>-15 t ha<sup>-1</sup> biochar + 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N, SN<sub>0</sub> -4.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> straw, SN<sub>50</sub> -4.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> straw + 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N and SN<sub>100</sub>-4.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> straw + 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N. Fluxes of N<sub>2</sub>O, CH<sub>4</sub> and grain yield were monitored over three consecutive cropping seasons between 2014 and 2016 using the static chamber-gas chromatography method.<h4>Results</h4>On average, BN<sub>100</sub>reported the highest grain yield (2054 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), which was between 25.04% and 38.34% higher than all other treatments. In addition, biomass yield was much higher under biochar treated plots relative to the other treatments. These findings are supported by the increased in soil organic C by 17.14% and 21.65% in biochar amended soils (at 0-10 cm) compared to straw treated soils and soils without carbon respectively. The BN<sub>100</sub>treatment also improved bulk density and hydraulic properties (<i>P</i> < 0.05), which supported the above results. The greatest N<sub>2</sub>O emissions and CH<sub>4</sub> sink were recorded under the highest rate of N fertilization (100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). Cumulative N<sub>2</sub>O emissions were 39.02% and 48.23% lower in BN<sub>100</sub> compared with CN<sub>0</sub> and CN<sub>100</sub>, respectively. There was also a ≈ 37.53% reduction in CH<sub>4</sub> uptake under BN<sub>100</sub>compared with CN<sub>0</sub>-control and CN<sub>50</sub>. The mean cumulative N<sub>2</sub>O emission from biochar treated soils had a significant decrease of 10.93% and 38.61% compared to straw treated soils and soils without carbon treatment, respectively. However, differences between mean cumulative N<sub>2</sub>O emission between straw treated soils and soils without carbon were not significant. These results indicate the dependency of crop yield, N<sub>2</sub>O and CH<sub>4</sub> emissions on soil quality and imply that crop productivity could be increased without compromising on environmental quality when biochar is applied in combination with N-fertilizer. The practice of applying biochar with N fertilizer at 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N resulted in increases in crop productivity and reduced N<sub>2</sub>O and CH<sub>4</sub>soil emissions under dryland cropping systems.
Project description:Chronic hypoxia (CH) produces changes not fully understood in morphology and function of the carotid body (CB). To characterize the effect of CH, primary rat CB cells were exposed to 7 days of CH, total RNA was extracted, cDNA-32P synthesized and hybridized with 1185 genes printed on a nylon membrane. Out of 324 differentially expressed genes, 184 were up-regulated and 140 were down-regulated. Since data analyses showed that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) pathways were enriched, we studied the effect of CH at protein levels of NOS isoforms and ET-1 receptors. CH induced an increase in all NOS and in ET-1 receptor B (ETB). Combining CH and SNAP, iNOS and ETB were significantly up-regulated, whereas the ET-1 receptor A (ETA) was down-regulated, while Tezosentan up-regulated iNOS and ETA and L-NAME induced up-regulation of all NOS. These results described the changes of CH on the CB gene expression profile, affecting a possible interaction in between NOS and ET-1 receptors, as part of the adaptive CB response to CH.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Geographical differences in health outcomes are reported in many countries. Norway has led an active policy aiming for regional balance since the 1970s. Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019, we examined regional differences in development and current state of health across Norwegian counties.<h4>Methods</h4>Data for life expectancy, healthy life expectancy (HALE), years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in Norway and its 11 counties from 1990 to 2019 were extracted from GBD 2019. County-specific contributors to changes in life expectancy were compared. Inequality in disease burden was examined by use of the Gini coefficient.<h4>Findings</h4>Life expectancy and HALE improved in all Norwegian counties from 1990 to 2019. Improvements in life expectancy and HALE were greatest in the two counties with the lowest values in 1990: Oslo, in which life expectancy and HALE increased from 71·9 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·4-72·4) and 63·0 years (60·5-65·4) in 1990 to 81·3 years (80·0-82·7) and 70·6 years (67·4-73·6) in 2019, respectively; and Troms og Finnmark, in which life expectancy and HALE increased from 71·9 years (71·5-72·4) and 63·5 years (60·9-65·6) in 1990 to 80·3 years (79·4-81·2) and 70·0 years (66·8-72·2) in 2019, respectively. Increased life expectancy was mainly due to reductions in cardiovascular disease, neoplasms, and respiratory infections. No significant differences between the national YLD or DALY rates and the corresponding age-standardised rates were reported in any of the counties in 2019; however, Troms og Finnmark had a higher age-standardised YLL rate than the national rate (8394 per 100 000 [95% UI 7801-8944] vs 7536 per 100 000 [7391-7691]). Low inequality between counties was shown for life expectancy, HALE, all level-1 causes of DALYs, and exposure to level-1 risk factors.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Over the past 30 years, Norway has reduced inequality in disease burden between counties. However, inequalities still exist at a within-county level and along other sociodemographic gradients. Because of insufficient Norwegian primary data, there remains substantial uncertainty associated with regional estimates for non-fatal disease burden and exposure to risk factors.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Research Council of Norway, and Norwegian Institute of Public Health.