The Na+-activated K+ channel Slack contributes to synaptic development and plasticity.
ABSTRACT: Human mutations of the Na+-activated K+ channel Slack (KCNT1) are associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Accordingly, Slack knockout mice (Slack-/-) exhibit cognitive flexibility deficits in distinct behavioral tasks. So far, however, the underlying causes as well as the role of Slack in hippocampus-dependent memory functions remain enigmatic. We now report that infant (P6-P14) Slack-/- lack both hippocampal LTD and LTP, likely due to impaired NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling. Postsynaptic GluN2B levels are reduced in infant Slack-/-, evidenced by lower amplitudes of NMDAR-meditated excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Low GluN2B affected NMDAR-mediated Ca2+-influx, rendering cultured hippocampal Slack-/-neurons highly insensitive to the GluN2B-specific inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA1 at S845, which is involved in AMPAR endocytosis during homeostatic and neuromodulator-regulated plasticity, is reduced after chemical LTD (cLTD) in infant Slack-/-. We additionally detect a lack of mGluR-induced LTD in infant Slack-/-, possibly caused by upregulation of the recycling endosome-associated small GTPase Rab4 which might accelerate AMPAR recycling from early endosomes. Interestingly, LTP and mGluR LTD, but not LTD and S845 dephosphorylation after cLTD are restored in adult Slack-/-. This together with normalized expression levels of GluN2B and Rab4 hints to developmental "restoration" of LTP expression despite Slack ablation, whereas in infant and adult brain, NMDAR-dependent LTD induction depends on this channel. Based on the present findings, NMDAR and vesicular transport might represent novel targets for the therapy of intellectual disability associated with Slack mutations. Consequently, careful modulation of hippocampal Slack activity should also improve learning abilities.
Project description:Bidirectional synaptic plasticity occurs locally at individual synapses during long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), or globally during homeostatic scaling. LTP, LTD, and homeostatic scaling alter synaptic strength through changes in postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), suggesting the existence of overlapping molecular mechanisms. Phosphorylation controls AMPAR trafficking during LTP/LTD. We addressed the role of AMPAR phosphorylation during homeostatic scaling. We observed bidirectional changes of the levels of phosphorylated GluA1 S845 during scaling, resulting from a loss of protein kinase A (PKA) from synapses during scaling down and enhanced activity of PKA in synapses during scaling up. Increased phosphorylation of S845 drove scaling up, while a knockin mutation of S845, or knockdown of the scaffold AKAP5, blocked scaling up. Finally, we show that AMPARs scale differentially based on their phosphorylation status at S845. These results show that rearrangement in PKA signaling controls AMPAR phosphorylation and surface targeting during homeostatic plasticity.
Project description:Although NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic transmission are candidate mechanisms for long-term spatial memory, the precise contributions of LTP and LTD remain poorly understood. Here, we report that LTP and LTD in the hippocampal CA1 region of freely moving adult rats were prevented by NMDAR 2A (GluN2A) and 2B subunit (GluN2B) preferential antagonists, respectively. These results strongly suggest that NMDAR subtype preferential antagonists are appropriate tools to probe the roles of LTP and LTD in spatial memory. Using a Morris water maze task, the LTP-blocking GluN2A antagonist had no significant effect on any aspect of performance, whereas the LTD-blocking GluN2B antagonist impaired spatial memory consolidation. Moreover, similar spatial memory deficits were induced by inhibiting the expression of LTD with intrahippocampal infusion of a short peptide that specifically interferes with AMPA receptor endocytosis. Taken together, our findings support a functional requirement of hippocampal CA1 LTD in the consolidation of long-term spatial memory.
Project description:Activity-dependent changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS have been shown to depend on the regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that reversible phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1, also referred to as GluA1 or GluR-A) plays a role in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We previously reported that regulation of serines (S) 831 and 845 on the GluR1 subunit may play a critical role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1. Specifically, gene knockin mice lacking both S831 and S845 phosphorylation sites ("double phosphomutants"), where both serine residues were replaced by alanines (A), showed a faster decaying LTP and a deficit in LTD. To determine which of the two phosphorylation sites was responsible for the phenotype, we have now generated two lines of gene knockin mice: one that specifically lacks S831 (S831A mutants) and another that lacks only S845 (S845A mutants). We found that S831A mutants display normal LTP and LTD, whereas S845A mutants show a specific deficit in LTD. Taken together with our previous results from the "double phosphomutants," our data suggest that either S831 or S845 alone may support LTP, whereas the S845 site is critical for LTD expression.
Project description:GluN2B subunit containing NMDARs (GluN2B-NMDARs) mediate pathophysiological effects of acutely applied amyloid beta (A?), including impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). However, in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models which feature gradual A? accumulation, the function of GluN2B-NMDARs and their contribution to synaptic plasticity are unknown. Therefore, we examined the role of GluN2B-NMDARs in synaptic function and plasticity in the hippocampus of PS2APP transgenic mice. Although LTP induced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) was normal in PS2APP mice, it was significantly reduced by the selective GluN2B-NMDAR antagonist Ro25-6981 (Ro25) in PS2APP mice, but not wild type (wt) mice. While NMDARs activated by single synaptic stimuli were not blocked by Ro25, NMDARs recruited during burst stimulation showed larger blockade by Ro25 in PS2APP mice. Thus, the unusual dependence of LTP on GluN2B-NMDARs in PS2APP mice suggests that non-synaptic GluN2B-NMDARs are activated by glutamate that spills out of synaptic cleft during the burst stimulation used to induce LTP. While long-term depression (LTD) was normal in PS2APP mice, and Ro25 had no impact on LTD in wt mice, Ro25 impaired LTD in PS2APP mice, again demonstrating aberrant GluN2B-NMDAR function during plasticity. Together these results demonstrate altered GluN2B-NMDAR function in a model of early AD pathology that has implications for the therapeutic targeting of NMDARs in AD.
Project description:Information processing in the brain requires multiple forms of synaptic plasticity that converge on regulation of NMDA and AMPA-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR, AMPAR), including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) and homeostatic scaling. In some cases, LTP and homeostatic plasticity regulate synaptic AMPAR subunit composition to increase the contribution of Ca(2+)-permeable receptors (CP-AMPARs) containing GluA1 but lacking GluA2 subunits. Here, we show that PKA anchored to the scaffold protein AKAP150 regulates GluA1 phosphorylation and plays a novel role controlling CP-AMPAR synaptic incorporation during NMDAR-dependent LTD. Using knockin mice that are deficient in AKAP-anchoring of either PKA or the opposing phosphatase calcineurin, we found that CP-AMPARs are recruited to hippocampal synapses by anchored PKA during LTD induction but are then rapidly removed by anchored calcineurin. Importantly, blocking CP-AMPAR recruitment, removal, or activity interferes with LTD. Thus, CP-AMPAR synaptic recruitment is required to transiently augment NMDAR Ca(2+) signaling during LTD induction.
Project description:Synaptic plasticity of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission was investigated in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro. Isolated NMDAR EPSCs were recorded from granule cells of the dentate gyrus in response to stimulation of the medial perforant path. Long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of NMDAR EPSCs was observed in response to brief high-frequency stimulation (HFS), with the direction and extent of plasticity dependent on the concentration and type (EGTA vs BAPTA) of the intracellular Ca2+ buffer. LTD was induced in higher concentrations of EGTA and BAPTA than LTP, and BAPTA was approximately 100-fold more potent than EGTA. Although LTD was induced in a high concentration of EGTA (10 mM), a high concentration of BAPTA (10 mM) blocked both LTP and LTD. LTP of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-EPSCs exhibited a lower dependency on Ca2+ buffering than LTP of NMDAR EPSCs, because LTP of AMPAR EPSCs was induced by HFS in high EGTA (10 mM). We also identified a role for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in NMDAR plasticity. HFS LTD was blocked by the group I/II mGluR antagonist LY341495 ((2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S, 2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid) and by the mGluR5-selective antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP). Similarly, low-frequency stimulation-induced LTD of NMDAR EPSCs was also blocked by MPEP. These findings suggest that the direction of plasticity of NMDARs is determined by the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and is dependent on activation of mGluR5.
Project description:The death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is a potent mediator of neuronal cell death. Here, we find that DAPK1 also functions in synaptic plasticity by regulating the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). CaMKII and T286 autophosphorylation are required for both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory, and cognition. T286-autophosphorylation induces CaMKII binding to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2B, which mediates CaMKII synaptic accumulation during LTP. We find that the LTP specificity of CaMKII synaptic accumulation is due to its LTD-specific suppression by calcineurin (CaN)-dependent DAPK1 activation, which in turn blocks CaMKII binding to GluN2B. This suppression is enabled by competitive DAPK1 versus CaMKII binding to GluN2B. Negative regulation of DAPK1/GluN2B binding by Ca2+/CaM results in synaptic DAPK1 removal during LTP but retention during LTD. A pharmacogenetic approach showed that suppression of CaMKII/GluN2B binding is a DAPK1 function required for LTD.
Project description:NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. NMDAR complexes are heteromers composed of an obligatory GluN1 subunit and one or more GluN2 (GluN2A-GluN2D) subunits. Different subunits confer distinct physiological and molecular properties to NMDARs, but their contribution to synaptic plasticity and learning in the adult brain remains uncertain. Here, we generated mice lacking GluN2B in pyramidal neurons of cortex and CA1 subregion of hippocampus. We found that hippocampal principal neurons of adult GluN2B mutants had faster decaying NMDAR-mediated EPSCs than nonmutant controls and were insensitive to GluN2B but not NMDAR antagonism. A subsaturating form of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the mutants, whereas a saturating form of LTP was intact. An NMDAR-dependent form of long-term depression (LTD) produced by low-frequency stimulation combined with glutamate transporter inhibition was abolished in the mutants. Additionally, mutants exhibited decreased dendritic spine density in CA1 hippocampal neurons compared with controls. On multiple assays for corticohippocampal-mediated learning and memory (hidden platform Morris water maze, T-maze spontaneous alternation, and pavlovian trace fear conditioning), mutants were impaired. These data further demonstrate the importance of GluN2B for synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus and suggest a particularly critical role in LTD, at least the form studied here. The finding that loss of GluN2B was sufficient to cause learning deficits illustrates the contribution of GluN2B-mediated forms of plasticity to memory formation, with implications for elucidating NMDAR-related dysfunction in disease-related cognitive impairment.
Project description:Memory is essential for our normal daily lives and our sense of self. Ca(2+) influx through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) and the ensuing activation of the Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) are required for memory formation and its physiological correlate, long-term potentiation (LTP). The Ca(2+) influx induces CaMKII binding to the NMDAR to strategically recruit CaMKII to synapses that are undergoing potentiation. We generated mice with two point mutations that impair CaMKII binding to the NMDAR GluN2B subunit. Ca(2+)-triggered postsynaptic accumulation is largely abrogated for CaMKII and destabilized for TARPs, which anchor AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR). LTP is reduced by 50% and phosphorylation of the AMPAR GluA1 subunit by CaMKII, which enhances AMPAR conductance, impaired. The mutant mice learn the Morris water maze (MWM) as well as WT but show deficiency in recall during the period of early memory consolidation. Accordingly, the activity-driven interaction of CaMKII with the NMDAR is important for recall of MWM memory as early as 24 h, but not 1-2 h, after training potentially due to impaired consolidation.
Project description:Both ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have been reported as targets for treatment of epilepsy. To investigate the roles and interactions of AMPAR and NMDAR in ictogenesis of epileptic hippocampus, we analyzed AMPAR antagonists (perampanel and GYKI 52466)-mediated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulation and glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B (GluN2B) tyrosine (Y) 1472 phosphorylation in epilepsy rats. Both perampanel and GYKI 52466 increased PTEN expression and its activity (reduced phosphorylation), concomitant with decreased activities (phosphorylations) of Src family-casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling pathway. Compatible with these, they also restored the upregulated GluN2B Y1472 and Ca<sup>2+</sup>/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) serine (S) 133 phosphorylations and surface expression of glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 1 (GRIA1) to basal level in the epileptic hippocampus. These effects of perampanel and GYKI 52466 are observed in responders (whose seizure activities are responsive to AMPAR antagonists), but not non-responders (whose seizure activities were uncontrolled by AMPAR antagonists). Therefore, our findings suggest that Src/CK2/PTEN-mediated GluN2B Y1472 and CREB S133 regulations may be one of the responsible signaling pathways for the generation of refractory seizures in non-responders to AMPAR antagonists.