MIA SH3 Domain ER Export Factor 3 Deficiency Prevents Neointimal Formation by Restoring BAT-Like PVAT and Decreasing VSMC Proliferation and Migration.
ABSTRACT: Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and excessive accumulation of dysfunctional PVAT are hallmarks of pathogenesis after angioplasty. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MIA3 is associated with atherosclerosis-relevant VSMC phenotypes. However, the role of MIA3 in the vascular remodeling response to injury remains unknown. Here, we found that expression of MIA3 is increased in proliferative VSMCs and knockdown of MIA3 reduces VSMCs proliferation, migration, and inflammation, whereas MIA3 overexpression promoted VSMC migration and proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of MIA3 ameliorates femoral artery wire injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and increases brown-like perivascular adipocytes. Collectively, the data suggest that MIA3 deficiency prevents neointimal formation by decreasing VSMC proliferation, migration, and inflammation and maintaining BAT-like perivascular adipocytes in PVAT during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) after arterial injury contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia. As a major component of epigenetics, histone methylation plays an important role in several cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in restenosis is still unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Human aortic VSMCs were challenged with PDGF-BB, and total histones were extracted and analysed by HPLC/MS. For the in vivo study, rats were subjected to wire-guided common carotid injury. KEY RESULTS:PDGF-BB markedly increased the H3K27me3 level, as demonstrated by use of HPLC/MS and confirmed by western blot analysis. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), the histone H3K27 methyltransferase component of polycomb repressive complex 2, was also up-regulated by PDGF-BB in VSMCs, and in the neointimal hyperplasia induced by wire injury of the rat carotid artery. Furthermore, inhibiting H3K27me3 by treatment with 3-?M UNC1999, an EZH2/1 inhibitor, significantly suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation compared with the PDGF-BB-treated group. Consistently, neointimal formation was significantly attenuated by oral or perivascular administration of UNC1999 compared with the sham group. Mechanistically, the increase in H3K27me3 inhibited the transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4A and thus promoted VSMC proliferation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Vascular injury elevated the expression of EZH2 and the downstream target H3K27me3, which suppressed p16INK4A expression in VSMCs and promoted VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia. EZH2 inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target for restenosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neointimal hyperplasia is a prominent pathological event during in-stent restenosis. Phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from a differentiated/contractile to a dedifferentiated/synthetic phenotype, accompanied by migration and proliferation of VSMCs play an important role in neointimal hyperplasia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotype switching of VSMCs have yet to be fully understood.<h4>Methods</h4>The mouse carotid artery ligation model was established to evaluate Sema3A expression and its role during neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and promoter-luciferase reporter assays were used to examine regulatory mechanism of Sema3A expression. SiRNA transfection and lentivirus infection were performed to regulate Sema3A expression. EdU assays, Wound-healing scratch experiments and Transwell migration assays were used to assess VSMC proliferation and migration.<h4>Findings</h4>In this study, we found that semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) was significantly downregulated in VSMCs during neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in mice and in human atherosclerotic plaques. Meanwhile, Sema3A was transcriptionally downregulated by PDGF-BB via p53 in VSMCs. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of Sema3A inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration, as well as increasing differentiated gene expression. Mechanistically, Sema3A increased the NRP1-plexin-A1 complex and decreased the NRP1-PDGFR? complex, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of PDGFR?. Moreover, we found that overexpression of Sema3A suppressed neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in vivo.<h4>Interpretation</h4>These results suggest that local delivery of Sema3A may act as a novel therapeutic option to prevent in-stent restenosis.
Project description:Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.
Project description:Background Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the main contributor to neointimal formation. The Arp2/3 (actin-related proteins 2 and 3) complex activates actin polymerization and is involved in lamellipodia formation during VSMC migration. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein expressed in VSMCs. We hypothesized that MFG-E8 regulates VSMC migration through modulation of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. Methods and Results To determine whether MFG-E8 is essential for VSMC migration, a model of neointimal hyperplasia was induced in the common carotid artery of wild-type and MFG-E8 knockout mice, and the extent of neointimal formation was evaluated. Genetic deletion of MFG-E8 in mice attenuated injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Cultured VSMCs deficient in MFG-E8 exhibited decreased cell migration. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting revealed decreased Arp2 but not Arp3 expression in the common carotid arteries and VSMCs deficient in MFG-E8. Exogenous administration of recombinant MFG-E8 biphasically and dose-dependently regulated the cultured VSMCs. At a low concentration, MFG-E8 upregulated Arp2 expression. By contrast, MFG-E8 at a high concentration reduced the Arp2 level and significantly attenuated actin assembly. Arp2 upregulation mediated by low-dose MFG-E8 was abolished by treating cultured VSMCs with β1 integrin function-blocking antibody and Rac1 inhibitors. Moreover, treatment of the artery with a high dose of recombinant MFG-E8 diminished injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and reduced VSMC migration. Conclusions MFG-E8 plays a critical role in VSMC migration through dose-dependent regulation of Arp2-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that high doses of MFG-E8 may have therapeutic potential for treating vascular occlusive diseases.
Project description:Objective- Dysregulated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays an essential role in neointimal hyperplasia. CD36 functions critically in atherogenesis and thrombosis. We hypothesize that CD36 regulates VSMC proliferation and contributes to the development of obstructive vascular diseases. Approach and Results- We found by immunofluorescent staining that CD36 was highly expressed in human vessels with obstructive diseases. Using guidewire-induced carotid artery injury and shear stress-induced intima thickening models, we compared neointimal hyperplasia in Apoe-/-, Cd36-/- /Apoe-/-, and CD36 specifically deleted in VSMC (VSMC cd36-/-) mice. CD36 deficiency, either global or VSMC-specific, dramatically reduced injury-induced neointimal thickening. Correspondingly, carotid artery blood flow was significantly increased in Cd36-/- /Apoe-/- compared with Apoe-/- mice. In cultured VSMCs from thoracic aorta of wild-type and Cd36-/- mice, we found that loss of CD36 significantly decreased serum-stimulated proliferation and increased cell populations in S phase, suggesting that CD36 is necessary for VSMC S/G2-M-phase transition. Treatment of VSMCs with a TSR (thrombospondin type 1 repeat) peptide significantly increased wild-type, but not Cd36-/- VSMC proliferation. TSR or serum treatment significantly increased cyclin A expression in wild-type, but not in Cd36-/- VSMCs. STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription), which reportedly enhances both VSMC differentiation and maturation, was higher in Cd36-/- VSMCs. CD36 deficiency significantly decreased expression of Col1A1 (type 1 collagen A1 chain) and TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor beta 1), and increased expression of contractile proteins, including calponin 1 and smooth muscle ? actin, and dramatically increased cell contraction. Conclusions- CD36 promotes VSMC proliferation via upregulation of cyclin A expression that contributes to the development of neointimal hyperplasia, collagen deposition, and obstructive vascular diseases.
Project description:Adipose tissue-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs (miRNAs) convey intercellular message signaling. The biogenesis of EV-miRNAs from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and their roles in intercellular communication in response to obesity-associated inflammation have not yet been fully explored. By feeding mice a high-fat diet for 16 wk, we established obesity-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation in PVAT, characterized as hypertrophy of perivascular adipocytes, decreased adipogenesis, and proinflammatory macrophage infiltration. We show that PVAT-derived EVs and their encapsulated miRNAs can be taken up into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i>. miR-221-3p is one of the highly enriched miRNAs in obese PVAT and PVAT-derived EVs. Transfer and direct overexpression of miR-221-3p dramatically enhances VSMC proliferation and migration. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α is identified as a miR-221-3p target in VSMC phenotypic modulation. Obese mice secrete abundant miRNA-containing EVs, evoking inflammatory responses in PVAT and vascular phenotypic switching in abdominal aorta of lean mice. Local delivery of miR-221-3p mimic in femoral artery causes vascular dysfunction by suppressing the contractile genes in the arterial wall. Our findings provide an EV-miR-221-3p-mediated mechanism by which PVAT triggers an early-stage vascular remodeling in the context of obesity-associated inflammation.-Li, X., Ballantyne, L. L., Yu, Y., Funk, C. D. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived extracellular vesicle miR-221-3p mediates vascular remodeling.
Project description:Neointimal hyperplasia, stimulated by injury and certain vascular diseases, promotes artery obstruction and tissue ischemia. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs), multiple modulators of protein handling machinery regulate intimal hyperplasia. These include elements of the VSMC unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (UPRER), and transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which catalyzes post-translational protein modification. Previous results for deficiency of UPRER-specific mediator XBP1, and of TG2, have been significant, but in multiple instances contradictory, for effects on cultured VSMC function, and, using multiple models, for neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Here, we engineered VSMC-specific deficiency of XBP1, and studied cultured VSMCs, and neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation in vivo. Intimal area almost doubled in Xbp1fl/fl SM22?-CRE+ mice 21 days post-ligation. Cultured murine Xbp1 deficient VSMCs migrated more in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) than control VSMCs, and had an increased level of inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (Ire1?), a PDGF receptor-binding UPRER transmembrane endonuclease whose substrates include XBP1. Cultured XBP1-deficient VSMCs demonstrated decreased levels of TG2 protein, in association with increased TG2 polyubiquitination, but with increased TG transamidation catalytic activity. Moreover, IRE1?, and TG2-specific transamidation cross-links were increased in carotid artery neointima in Xbp1fl/fl SM22?-CRE+ mice. Cultured TG2-deficient VSMCs had decreased XBP1 associated with increased IRE1?, and increased migration in response to PDGF. Neointimal hyperplasia also was significantly increased in Tgm2fl/fl SM22?-CRE+ mice at 21 days after carotid ligation. In conclusion, a VSMC regulatory circuit between XBP1 and TG2 limits neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid ligation.
Project description:The rate of ribosome biogenesis plays a vital role in cell cycle progression and proliferation and is strongly connected with coronary restenosis and atherosclerosis. Blocking of proliferation 1 (BOP1) has been found as an evolutionarily conserved gene and a pivotal regulator of ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. However, little is known about its role in neointimal formation and its relationship with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. The present study mainly explores the effect of BOP1 on VSMCs, the progression of neointimal hyperplasia, and the pathogenic mechanism. The expression of BOP1 was found to be significantly elevated during neointimal formation in human coronary samples and the rat balloon injury model. BOP1 knockdown inspires the nucleolus stress, which subsequently activates the p53-dependent stress response pathway, and inhibits the nascent protein synthesis, which subsequently inhibits the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Knockdown ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) by transfecting with siRNA or inhibiting p53 by pifithrin-<i>?</i> (PFT-<i>?</i>) partly reserved the biological effects induced by BOP1 knockdown. The present study revealed that BOP1 deletion attenuates VSMC proliferation and migration by activating the p53-dependent nucleolus stress response pathway and inhibits the synthesis of nascent proteins. BOP1 may become a novel biological target for neointimal hyperplasia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is critically important for neointimal formation after vascular injury and atherosclerosis lesion formation. Copper (Cu) chelator inhibits neointimal formation, and we previously demonstrated that Cu transport protein antioxidant-1 (Atox1) is involved in Cu-induced cell growth. However, role of Atox1 in VSMC migration and neointimal formation after vascular injury is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Here, we show that Atox1 expression is upregulated in injured vessel, and it is colocalized with the Cu transporter ATP7A, one of the downstream targets of Atox1, mainly in neointimal VSMCs at day 14 after wire injury. Atox1(-/-) mice show inhibition of neointimal formation and extracellular matrix expansion, which is associated with a decreased VSMCs accumulation within neointima and lysyl oxidase activity. Mechanistically, in cultured VSMC, Atox1 depletion with siRNA inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced Cu-dependent VSMC migration by preventing translocation of ATP7A and small G protein Rac1 to the leading edge, as well as Cu- and Rac1-dependent lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, Atox1(-/-) mice show decreased perivascular macrophage infiltration in wire-injured vessels, as well as thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophage recruitment. CONCLUSIONS:Atox1 is involved in neointimal formation after vascular injury through promoting VSMC migration and inflammatory cell recruitment in injured vessels. Thus, Atox1 is a potential therapeutic target for VSMC migration and inflammation-related vascular diseases.
Project description:Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a calcium-binding, scaffold-signalling protein expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to injury. The effects of AIF-1 attenuation on development of intimal hyperplasia are unknown, and the molecular mechanisms of these effects remain uncharacterized. The goals of the present study were to determine whether AIF-1 knockdown reduced VSMC proliferation, migration, and intimal hyperplasia, and determine AIF-1 effects on signal transduction in VSMCs.Balloon angioplasty-injured rat carotid arteries transduced with adenovirus to overexpress AIF-1 (AdAIF-1) significantly increased, and adenovirus to knock down AIF-1 (AdsiRNA) expression significantly decreased neointimal formation compared with green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) and Adscrambled controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, n = 6). Primary rat VSMCs transduced with AdAIF-1 displayed a significant increase in proliferation, and AdsiRNA-transduced VSMCs proliferated significantly more slowly than controls (P < 0.05). VSMCs transduced with AdAIF-1 show increased migration when compared with control VSMCs (P < 0.01). Rat VSMCs transduced with AdAIF-1 showed constitutive and prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38, whereas AdsiRNA-treated VSMCs showed decreased p38 activation compared with AdGFP (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of AdAIF-1-transduced carotid arteries showed increased staining with a phospho-specific p38 antibody compared with AdGFP-transduced arteries. A specific p38 inhibitor abrogated AIF-1-induced VSMC proliferation, but not AIF-1-induced migration.Taken together, AIF-1 expression plays a key role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. AIF-1 expression enhances the activation of p38 MAP kinase. AIF-1-enhanced proliferation is p38 kinase dependent, but AIF-1-enhanced VSMC migration is p38 independent.