WIPI1 promotes fission of endosomal transport carriers and formation of autophagosomes through distinct mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: Autophagosome formation requires PROPPIN/WIPI proteins and monophosphorylated phosphoinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) or PtdIns5P. This process occurs in association with mammalian endosomes, where the PROPPIN WIPI1 has additional, undefined roles in vesicular traffic. To explore whether these functions are interconnected, we dissected routes and subreactions of endosomal trafficking requiring WIPI1. WIPI1 specifically acts in the formation and fission of tubulo-vesicular endosomal transport carriers. This activity supports the PtdIns(3,5)P2-dependent transport of endosomal cargo toward the plasma membrane, Golgi, and lysosomes, suggesting a general role of WIPI1 in endosomal protein exit. Three features differentiate the endosomal and macroautophagic/autophagic activities of WIPI1: phosphoinositide binding site II, the requirement for PtdIns(3,5)P2, and bilayer deformation through a conserved amphipathic α-helix. Their inactivation preserves autophagy but leads to a strong enlargement of endosomes, which accumulate micrometer-long endosomal membrane tubules carrying cargo proteins. WIPI1 thus supports autophagy and protein exit from endosomes by different modes of action. We propose that the type of phosphoinositides occupying its two lipid binding sites, the most unusual feature of PROPPIN/WIPI family proteins, switches between these effector functions.Abbreviations: EGF: epidermal growth factorEGFR: epidermal growth factor receptorKD: knockdownKO: knockoutPtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatePtdIns5P: phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphatePtdIns(3,5)P2: phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphateTF: transferrinTFRC: transferrin receptorWT: wildtype.
Project description:WIPI proteins (WIPI1-4) are mammalian PROPPIN family phosphoinositide effectors essential for autophagosome biogenesis. In addition to phosphoinositides, WIPI proteins can recognize a linear WIPI-interacting-region (WIR)-motif, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we determine the structure of WIPI3 in complex with the WIR-peptide from ATG2A. Unexpectedly, the WIR-peptide entwines around the WIPI3 seven-bladed ?-propeller and binds to three sites in blades 1-3. The N-terminal part of the WIR-peptide forms a short strand that augments the periphery of blade 2, the middle segment anchors into an inter-blade hydrophobic pocket between blades 2-3, and the C-terminal aromatic tail wedges into another tailored pocket between blades 1-2. Mutations in three peptide-binding sites disrupt the interactions between WIPI3/4 and ATG2A and impair the ATG2A-mediated autophagic process. Thus, WIPI proteins recognize the WIR-motif by multi-sites in multi-blades and this multi-site-mediated peptide-recognition mechanism could be applicable to other PROPPIN proteins.
Project description:Key components of membrane trafficking and signaling machinery in eukaryotic cells are proteins that bind or synthesize phosphoinositides. PIKfyve, a product of an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene has both these features. It binds to membrane phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)3P and synthesizes PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P. Molecular functions of PIKfyve are elusive but recent advances are consistent with a key role in the course of endosomal transport. PIKfyve dysfunction induces endosome enlargement and profound cytoplasmic vacuolation, likely as a result of impaired normal endosome processing and membrane exit out of endosomes. Multicellular organisms with genetically impaired function of PIKfyve or that of the PIKfyve protein partners regulating PtdIns(3,5)P2 homeostasis display severe disorders, including embryonic/perinatal death. This review describes recent advances on PIKfyve functionality in higher eukaryotes, with particular reference to biochemical and genetic insights in PIKfyve protein partners.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4><h4>Background</h4>Autophagy is a cytoprotective, lysosomal degradation system regulated upon induced phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) generation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class III (PtdIns3KC3) downstream of mTORC1 inhibition. The human PtdIns(3)P-binding ?-propeller protein WIPI-1 accumulates at the initiation site for autophagosome formation (phagophore), functions upstream of the Atg12 and LC3 conjugation systems, and localizes at both the inner and outer membrane of generated autophagosomes. In addition, to a minor degree WIPI-1 also binds PtdIns(3,5)P2. By homology modelling we earlier identified 24 evolutionarily highly conserved amino acids that cluster at two opposite sites of the open Velcro arranged WIPI-1 ?-propeller.<h4>Results</h4>By alanine scanning mutagenesis of 24 conserved residues in human WIPI-1 we define the PtdIns-binding site of human WIPI-1 to critically include S203, S205, G208, T209, R212, R226, R227, G228, S251, T255, H257. These amino acids confer PtdIns(3)P or PtdIns(3,5)P2 binding. In general, WIPI-1 mutants unable to bind PtdIns(3)P/PtdIns(3,5)P2 lost their potential to localize at autophagosomal membranes, but WIPI-1 mutants that retained PtdIns(3)P/PtdIns(3,5)P2 binding localized at Atg12-positive phagophores upon mTORC1 inhibition. Both, downregulation of mTOR by siRNA or cellular PtdIns(3)P elevation upon PIKfyve inhibition by YM201636 significantly increased the localization of WIPI-1 at autophagosomal membranes. Further, we identified regulatory amino acids that influence the membrane recruitment of WIPI-1. Exceptional, WIPI-1 R110A localization at Atg12-positive membranes was independent of autophagy stimulation and insensitive to wortmannin. R112A and H185A mutants were unable to bind PtdIns(3)P/PtdIns(3,5)P2 but localized at autophagosomal membranes, although in a significant reduced number of cells when compared to wild-type WIPI-1.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We identified amino acids of the WIPI-1 ?-propeller that confer PtdIns(3)P or PtdIns(3,5)P2 binding (S203, S205, G208, T209, R212, R226, R227, G228, S251, T255, H257), and that regulate the localization at autophagosomal membranes (R110, R112, H185) downstream of mTORC1 inhibition.
Project description:Membrane dynamics is necessary for cell homeostasis and signal transduction and is in part regulated by phosphoinositides. Pikfyve/Fab1p is a phosphoinositide kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate into phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] and is implicated in membrane homeostasis in yeast and in mammalian cells. These two phosphoinositides are substrates of myotubularin phosphatases found mutated in neuromuscular diseases. We studied the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase 3 (PPK-3), the orthologue of PIKfyve/Fab1p, in a multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Complete loss of ppk-3 function induces developmental defects characterized by embryonic lethality, whereas partial loss of function leads to growth retardation. At the cellular level, ppk-3 mutants display a striking enlargement of vacuoles positive for lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 in different tissues. In the intestine, RAB-7-positive late endosomes are also enlarged. Membranes of the enlarged lysosomes originate at least in part from smaller lysosomes, and functional and genetic analyses show that the terminal maturation of lysosomes is defective. Protein degradation is not affected in the hypomorphic ppk-3 mutant and is thus uncoupled from membrane retrieval. We measured the level of PtdIns(3,5)P2 and showed that its production is impaired in this mutant. This work strongly suggests that the main function of PPK-3 is to mediate membrane retrieval from matured lysosomes through regulation of PtdIns(3,5)P2.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PIs) are lipid second messengers implicated in signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Seven distinct PIs can be synthesized by phosphorylation of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), and their metabolism is accurately regulated by PI kinases and phosphatases. Two of the PIs, PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2), are present on intracellular endosomal compartments, and several studies suggest that they have a role in membrane remodeling and trafficking. We refer to them as 'endosomal PIs'. An increasing number of human genetic diseases including myopathy and neuropathies are associated to mutations in enzymes regulating the turnover of these endosomal PIs. The PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) 3-phosphatase myotubularin gene is mutated in X-linked centronuclear myopathy, whereas its homologs MTMR2 and MTMR13 and the PtdIns(3,5)P(2) 5-phosphatase SAC3/FIG4 are implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth peripheral neuropathies. Mutations in the gene encoding the PtdIns3P 5-kinase PIP5K3/PIKfyve have been found in patients affected with François-Neetens fleck corneal dystrophy. This review presents the roles of the endosomal PIs and their regulators and proposes defects of membrane remodeling as a common pathological mechanism for the corresponding diseases.
Project description:The multiprotein Fab1p/PIKfyve-complex regulating the abundance of the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub>) is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In yeast/mammals, it is composed of the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase Fab1p/PIKfyve, the PtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub> phosphatase Fig4p/Sac3 and the scaffolding subunit Vac14p/ArPIKfyve. The complex is located to vacuolar membranes in yeast and to endosomal membranes in mammals, where it controls the synthesis and turnover of PtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub>. In this study, we analyzed the role and function of the Fab1p/PIKfyve-complex scaffold protein SmVAC14 in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora (Sm). We generated the Smvac14 deletion strain ∆vac14 and performed phenotypic analysis of the mutant. Furthermore, we conducted fluorescence microscopic localization studies of fluorescently labeled SmVAC14 with vacuolar and late endosomal marker proteins. Our results revealed that SmVAC14 is important for maintaining vacuolar size and appearance as well as proper sexual development in S. macrospora. In addition, SmVAC14 plays an important role in starvation stress response. Accordingly, our results propose that the turnover of PtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub> is of great significance for developmental processes in filamentous fungi.
Project description:Invasion and survival in mammalian cells by Salmonella enterica is mediated by bacterial proteins that are delivered to the host cell cytoplasm by type III secretion systems. One of these proteins, SopB/SigD, is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that can hydrolyse a number of substrates in vitro including PtdIns(3,5)P2. These substrates are, however, likely to be restricted in vivo by the localization of SopB, as different phosphoinositides have distinct spatial distributions in mammalian cells. In the present study, we show that heterologously expressed SopB localizes almost exclusively to endosomes containing the lipid PtdIns(3)P, and on which ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins assemble. Furthermore, we present evidence that SopB can inhibit trafficking of activated epidermal growth factor receptor to the lysosome. These results provide further evidence that PtdIns(3,5)P2, a lipid involved in endosomal maturation, may be a relevant in vivo substrate of SopB. We hypothesize that reduction of PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels in cells by the action of SopB may perturb the function of a subset of ESCRT proteins that have previously been shown to bind to this lipid.
Project description:Here we analyzed the dependence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection on the integrity of the endosomal pathway. Using confocal immunofluorescence with antibodies against viral capsid proteins, we found colocalization of incoming viral particles with early endosomes (EE) during the first minutes of infection. Conversely, viral capsid protein was not detected in acidic late endosomal compartments, multivesicular bodies (MVBs), late endosomes (LEs) or lysosomes (LY). Using an antibody against a viral inner core protein, we found colocalization of viral cores with late compartments from 30 to 60 minutes postinfection. The absence of capsid protein staining in LEs and LYs suggested that virus desencapsidation would take place at the acid pH of these organelles. In fact, inhibitors of intraluminal acidification of endosomes caused retention of viral capsid staining virions in Rab7 expressing endosomes and more importantly, severely impaired subsequent viral protein production. Endosomal acidification in the first hour after virus entry was essential for successful infection but not thereafter. In addition, altering the balance of phosphoinositides (PIs) which are responsible of the maintenance of the endocytic pathway impaired ASFV infection. Early infection steps were dependent on the production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) which is involved in EE maturation and multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis and on the interconversion of PtdIns3P to phosphatidylinositol 3, 5-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)). Likewise, GTPase Rab7 activity should remain intact, as well as processes related to LE compartment physiology, which are crucial during early infection. Our data demonstrate that the EE and LE compartments and the integrity of the endosomal maturation pathway orchestrated by Rab proteins and PIs play a central role during early stages of ASFV infection.
Project description:It is increasingly recognized that the compartmental organization of signaling processes has a profound influence on cellular behavior. However, our inability to influence these compartmental events in a spatially restricted and acute manner limits our understanding of causation. To determine whether local compartmental loss of a phosphoinositide disrupts the normal traffic of specific cargoes through endosomes, we developed the use of a regulated dimerization device, here designed to compartmentally modify the phosphoinositide content of Rab5-positive endosomes. This modification is effected through the specific regulated recruitment of the 3-phosphatase myotubularin to endosomal membranes in intact cells. The selective manipulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositols (PIs) demonstrates that it is the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) or its metabolite PtdIns(3,5)P2 within this compartment that determines the normal maturation of the endosomal compartment and the flux of receptors through it. On local loss of PtdIns3P/PtdIns(3,5)P2, the endosomal compartment itself fails to continue its normal maturation process, leading to the microtubule-dependent tubularization of the endosomal network. Furthermore, it is shown that endosomal PtdIns3P/PtdIns(3,5)P2 is necessary for transferrin receptor traffic through this compartment while having an effect on EGF receptor (EGFR) entry into and sorting from this endosome compartment. The ability to acutely and selectively influence compartmental behavior as exemplified here for endomsomes clearly illustrates the power of the approach used to dissect the role of localized signals and events.
Project description:We developed a new method to observe distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] using electron microscopy. In freeze-fracture replicas of quick-frozen samples, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was labeled specifically using recombinant ATG18 tagged with glutathione S-transferase and 4×FLAG, which was mixed with an excess of recombinant PX domain to suppress binding of ATG18 to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Using this method, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was found to be enriched in limited domains in the yeast vacuole and mammalian endosomes. In the yeast vacuole exposed to hyperosmolar stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was distributed at a significantly higher density in the intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient liquid-ordered domains than in the surrounding IMP-rich domains. In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was observed in endosomes of tubulo-vesicular morphology labeled for RAB5 or RAB7. Notably, distribution density of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in the endosome was significantly higher in the vesicular portion than in the tubular portion. The nano-scale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 revealed in the present study is important to understand its functional roles in the vacuole and endosomes.