Urine-derived stem cells: applications in skin, bone and articular cartilage repair.
ABSTRACT: As an emerging type of adult stem cell featuring non-invasive acquisition, urine-derived stem cells (USCs) have shown great potential for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. With a growing amount of research on the topic, the effectiveness of USCs in various disease models has been shown and the underlying mechanisms have also been explored, though many aspects still remain unclear. In this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date overview of the biological characteristics of USCs and their applications in skin, bone and articular cartilage repair. In addition to the identification procedure of USCs, we also summarize current knowledge of the underlying repair mechanisms and application modes of USCs. Potential concerns and perspectives have also been summarized.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The invasive and complicated procedures involving the use of traditional stem cells limit their application in bone tissue engineering. Cell-free, tissue-engineered bones often have complex scaffold structures and are usually engineered using several growth factors (GFs), thus leading to costly and difficult preparations. Urine-derived stem cells (USCs), a type of autologous stem cell isolated noninvasively and with minimum cost, are expected to solve the typical problems of using traditional stem cells to engineer bones. In this study, a graphene oxide (GO)-modified silk fibroin (SF)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) scaffold loaded with USCs was developed for immunomodulation and bone regeneration.<h4>Methods</h4>The SF/nHA scaffolds were prepared via lyophilization and cross-linked with GO using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS). Scaffolds containing various concentrations of GO were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the elastic modulus test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Examinations of cell adhesion, proliferation, viability, morphology, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenesis-related gene expression were performed to compare the osteogenesis-related biological behaviors of USCs cultured on the scaffolds. The effect of USC-laden scaffolds on the differentiation of macrophages was tested using ELISA, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence staining. Subcutaneous implantations in rats were performed to evaluate the inflammatory response of the USC-laden scaffolds after implantation. The scaffolds loaded with USCs were implanted into a cranial defect model in rats to repair bone defects. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) analyses and histological evaluation were performed to evaluate the bone repair effects.<h4>Results</h4>GO modification enhanced the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Scaffolds containing less than 0.5% GO had good biocompatibility and promoted USC proliferation and osteogenesis. The scaffolds loaded with USCs induced the M2-type differentiation and inhibited the M1-type differentiation of macrophages. The USC-laden scaffolds containing 0.1% GO exhibited the best capacity for promoting the M2-type differentiation of macrophages and accelerating bone regeneration and almost bridged the site of the rat cranial defects at 12 weeks after surgery.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This composite system has the capacity for immunomodulation and the promotion of bone regeneration and shows promising potential for clinical applications of USC-based, tissue-engineered bones.
Project description:Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20-54 years old). About 6 × 10(4) cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a "rice grain" shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) have been widely researched as a novel cell source for stem cell therapy, but their immunomodulatory characteristics remain to be investigated. This study aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory properties of human USCs. <h4>Methods</h4> Human USCs were isolated from fresh voiding urine samples from healthy male donors and expanded. Their cell surface markers were characterized by flow cytometry analysis and the telomerase activities for several USCs clones were determined. The immunosuppressive potential of USCs was evaluated by the performing the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) [co-culture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs)] and natural killer cells (NK) cytotoxicity assay. USCs cytokines release profile was determined by using human cytokine proteome array. <h4>Results</h4> USCs exhibited high cell surface expression of embryonic/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) markers CD29, CD44, CD54, CD73, CD90, CD146, and CD166, while lacked expression of hematopoietic stem cell markers CD11, CD14, CD19, CD31, CD34, CD45, B cell marker CD79, and co-stimulatory factors CD80 and CD86, thus, exhibiting the phenotype of MSCs. MLR indicated that USCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of PBMNCs, as compared to that of the human smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In cell cytotoxicity assays, NK cells displayed less cytotoxicity against USCs than against bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and SMCs. Furthermore, upon PBMNCs stimulation, USCs secreted higher levels of immunomodulatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES, GROα, and GM-CSF, compared to those of BMSCs, especially when directly contact mix-culture with PBMNCs. <h4>Conclusions</h4> USCs secreted immunoregulatory cytokines and possessed immunomodulatory properties, comparable to those of BMSCs.
Project description:Stem cells in human urine have gained attention in recent years; however, urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are far from being well elucidated. In this study, we compared the biological characteristics of USCs with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and investigated whether USCs could serve as a potential cell source for neural tissue engineering. USCs were isolated from voided urine with a modified culture medium. Through a series of experiments, we examined the growth rate, surface antigens, and differentiation potential of USCs, and compared them with ASCs. USCs showed robust proliferation ability. After serial propagation, USCs retained normal karyotypes. Cell surface antigen expression of USCs was similar to ASCs. With lineage-specific induction factors, USCs could differentiate toward the osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages. To assess the ability of USCs to survive, differentiate, and migrate, they were seeded onto hydrogel scaffold and transplanted into rat brain. The results showed that USCs were able to survive in the lesion site, migrate to other areas, and express proteins that were associated with neural phenotypes. The results of our study demonstrate that USCs possess similar biological characteristics with ASCs and have multilineage differentiation potential. Moreover USCs can differentiate to neuron-like cells in rat brain. The present study shows that USCs are a promising cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Project description:The interplay between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and immune cells has been studied for MSCs isolated from different tissues. However, the immunomodulatory capacity of urine stem cells (USCs) has not been adequately researched. The present study reports on the effect of USCs on peripheral blood lymphocytes. USCs were isolated and characterized before coculture with resting and with anti-CD3/CD28 bead stimulated lymphocytes. Similarly to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), USCs inhibited the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes and induced their apoptosis. However, they also induced strong activation, proliferation, and cytokine and antibody production by B lymphocytes. Molecular phenotype and supernatant analysis revealed that USCs secrete a range of cytokines and effector molecules, known to play a central role in B cell biology. These included B cell-activating factor (BAFF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and CD40L. These findings raise the possibility of an unrecognized active role for kidney stem cells in modulating local immune cells.
Project description:Chronic non-healing wounds represent one of the most common complications of diabetes and need advanced treatment strategies. Exosomes are key mediators of cell paracrine action and can be directly utilized as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. Here, we explored the effects of exosomes from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-Exos) on diabetic wound healing and the underlying mechanism. Methods: USCs were characterized by flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation potential analyses. USC-Exos were isolated from the conditioned media of USCs and identified by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. A series of functional assays in vitro were performed to assess the effects of USC-Exos on the activities of wound healing-related cells. Protein profiles in USC-Exos and USCs were examined to screen the candidate molecules that mediate USC-Exos function. The effects of USC-Exos on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were tested by measuring wound closure rates, histological and immunofluorescence analyses. Meanwhile, the role of the candidate protein in USC-Exos-induced regulation of angiogenic activities of endothelial cells and diabetic wound healing was assessed. Results: USCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90, but negative for CD34 and CD45. USCs were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. USC-Exos exhibited a cup- or sphere-shaped morphology with a mean diameter of 51.57 ± 2.93 nm and positive for CD63 and TSG101. USC-Exos could augment the functional properties of wound healing-related cells including the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. USC-Exos were enriched in the proteins that are involved in regulation of wound healing-related biological processes. Particularly, a pro-angiogenic protein called deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) was highly expressed in USC-Exos. Further functional assays showed that DMBT1 protein was required for USC-Exos-induced promotion of angiogenic responses of cultured endothelial cells, as well as angiogenesis and wound healing in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that USC-Exos may represent a promising strategy for diabetic soft tissue wound healing by promoting angiogenesis via transferring DMBT1 protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are a valuable stem cell source for tissue engineering because they can be harvested non-invasively. Small intestine submucosa (SIS) has been used as scaffolds for soft tissue repair in the clinic. However, the feasibility and efficacy of a combination of USCs and SIS for skin wound healing has not been reported. In this study, we created a tissue-engineered skin graft, termed the SIS+USC composite, and hypothesized that hypoxic preconditioning would improve its wound healing potential. METHODS:USCs were seeded on SIS membranes to fabricate the SIS+USC composites, which were then cultured in normoxia (21% O2) or preconditioned in hypoxia (1% O2) for 24?h, respectively. The viability and morphology of USCs, the expression of genes related to wound angiogenesis and reepithelialization, and the secretion of growth factors were determined in vitro. The wound healing ability of the SIS+USC composites was evaluated in a mouse full-thickness skin wound model. RESULTS:USCs showed good cell viability and morphology in both normoxia and hypoxic preconditioning groups. In vitro, hypoxic preconditioning enhanced not only the expression of genes related to wound angiogenesis (VEGF and Ang-2) and reepithelialization (bFGF and EGF) but also the secretion of growth factors (VEGF, EGF, and bFGF). In vivo, hypoxic preconditioning significantly improved the wound healing potential of the SIS+USC composites. It enhanced wound angiogenesis at the early stage of wound healing, promoted reepithelialization, and improved the deposition and remodeling of collagen fibers at the late stage of wound healing. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, this study shows that hypoxic preconditioning provides an easy and efficient strategy to enhance the wound healing potential of the SIS+USC composite.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies revealed that urine-derived stem cells (USCs) could promote myogenesis after the impairment of the sphincter muscles. However, the effects of exosomes secreted by USCs (USCs-Exo) were not elucidated. Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles secreted by the cells. They have been proved to be effective in protecting against tissue injury and therapeutic in tissue repair. USCs are ideal sources of exosomes because of the noninvasive obtaining method and self-renewal abilitiy. This study aimed to show the therapeutic effects of USCs-Exo on improving stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS:Rat SUI models were established in this study using vaginal balloon inflation, and urodynamic and histological examination were carried out after exosome application. The proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells (SCs) were evaluated using EdU, Cell Counting Kit 8, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot analysis. mRNAs and proteins related to the activation of SCs were detected by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis. RESULTS:After exosome injection, the urodynamic parameters significantly improved and the injured muscle tissue recovered well. The activation, proliferation, and differentiation of SCs were promoted. The phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK) was enhanced. When ERK was inhibited, the promoting effect of USCs-Exo treatment disappeared. CONCLUSION:The findings of this study elucidated the functional roles of USCs-Exo in satellite cell ERK phosphorylation and identified a novel agent for skeletal muscle regeneration, providing a basis for further exploring a cell-free correction for SUI.
Project description:The availability of autologous adult stem cells is one of the essential prerequisites for human stem cell therapy. Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are considered as desirable cell sources for cell therapy because donor-specific USCs are easily and non-invasively obtained from urine. Efficient isolation, expansion, and differentiation methods of USCs are necessary to increase their availability. Here, we developed a method for efficient isolation and expansion of USCs using Matrigel, and the rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632. The prepared USCs showed significantly enhanced migration, colony forming capacity, and differentiation into osteogenic or chondrogenic lineage. The USCs were successfully reprogramed into induced pluripotent stem cells (USC-iPSCs) and further differentiated into kidney organoid and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Using flavonoid molecules, the isolation efficiency of USCs and the production of HPCs from the USC-iPSCs was increased. Taken together, we present an improved isolation method of USCs utilizing Matrigel, a ROCK inhibitor and flavonoids, and enhanced differentiation of USC-iPSC to HPC by flavonoids. These novel findings could significantly enhance the use of USCs and USC-iPSCs for stem cell research and further application in regenerative stem cell-based therapies.
Project description:Endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role in revascularization within regenerating tissue. Stem cells are often used as an alternative cell source when ECs are not available. Several cell types have been used to give rise to ECs, such as umbilical cord vessels, or differentiated from somatic stem cells, embryonic, or induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the latter carry the potential risk of chronic immune rejection and oncogenesis. Autologous endothelial precursors are an ideal resource, but currently require an invasive procedure to obtain them from the patient's own blood vessels or bone marrow. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether urine-derived stem cells (USCs) could differentiate into functional ECs in vitro. Urine-derived cells were then differentiated into cells of the endothelial lineage using endothelial differentiation medium for 14 days. Changes in morphology and ultrastructure, and functional endothelial marker expression were assessed in the induced USCs in vitro. Grafts of the differentiated USCs were then subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Induced USCs expressed significantly higher levels of specific markers of ECs (CD31, vWF, eNOS) in vitro and in vivo, compared to nondifferentiated USCs. In addition, the differentiated USC formed intricate tubular networks and presented similar tight junctions, and migration and invasion ability, as well as ability to produce nitric oxide (NO) compared to controls. Using USCs as autologous EC sources for vessel, tissue engineering strategies can yield a sufficient number of cells via a noninvasive, simple, and low-cost method suitable for rapid clinical translation. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018 Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:686-698.