Correlated isotopic and chemical evidence for condensation origins of olivine in comet 81P/Wild 2 and in AOAs from CV and CO chondrites.
ABSTRACT: Magnesium stable isotope ratios and minor element abundances of five olivine particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 were examined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Wild 2 olivine particles exhibit only small variations in δ25Mg values from -1.0 +0.4/-0.5 ‰ to 0.6 +0.5/- 0.6 ‰ (2σ). This variation can be simply explained by mass-dependent fractionation from Mg isotopic compositions of the Earth and bulk meteorites, suggesting that Wild 2 olivine particles formed in the chondritic reservoir with respect to Mg isotope compositions. We also determined minor element abundances, and O and Mg isotope ratios of olivine grains in amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from Kaba (CV3.1) and DOM 08006 (CO3.01) carbonaceous chondrites. Our new SIMS minor element data reveal uniform, low FeO contents of ~0.05 wt% among AOA olivines from DOM 08006, suggesting that AOAs formed at more reducing environments in the solar nebula than previously thought. Furthermore, the SIMS-derived FeO contents of the AOA olivines are consistently lower than those obtained by electron microprobe analyses (~1 wt% FeO), indicating possible fluorescence from surrounding matrix materials and/or Fe,Ni-metals in AOAs during electron microprobe analyses. For Mg isotopes, AOA olivines show more negative mass-dependent fractionation (-3.8 ± 0.5‰ ≤ δ25Mg ≤ -0.2 ± 0.3‰; 2σ) relative to Wild 2 olivines. Further, these Mg isotope variations are correlated with their host AOA textures. Large negative Mg isotope fractionations in olivine are often observed in pore-rich AOAs, while those in compact AOAs tend to have near-chondritic Mg isotopic compositions. These observations indicate that pore-rich AOAs preserved their gas-solid condensation histories, while compact AOAs experienced thermal processing in the solar nebula after their condensation and aggregation. Importantly, one 16O-rich Wild 2 LIME olivine particle (T77/F50) shows negative Mg isotope fractionation (δ25Mg = -0.8 ± 0.4‰, δ26Mg = -1.4 ± 0.9‰; 2σ) relative to bulk chondrites. Minor element abundances of T77/F50 are in excellent agreement with those of olivines from pore-rich AOAs in DOM 08006. The observed similarity in O and Mg isotopes, and minor element abundances suggest that T77/F50 formed in an environment similar to AOAs, probably near the proto-Sun, and then was transported to the Kuiper belt, where comet 81P/Wild 2 likely accreted.
Project description:Chondritic meteorites are composed of primitive components formed during the evolution of the Solar protoplanetary disk. The oldest of these components formed by condensation, yet little is known about their formation mechanism because of secondary heating processes that erased their primordial signature. Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates (AOAs) have never been melted and underwent minimal thermal annealing, implying they might have retained the conditions under which they condensed. We performed a multiisotope (O, Si, Mg) characterization of AOAs to constrain the conditions under which they condensed and the information they bear on the structure and evolution of the Solar protoplanetary disk. High-precision silicon isotopic measurements of 7 AOAs from weakly metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites show large, mass-dependent, light Si isotope enrichments (-9‰ < ?30Si < -1‰). Based on physical modeling of condensation within the protoplanetary disk, we attribute these isotopic compositions to the rapid condensation of AOAs over timescales of days to weeks. The same AOAs show slightly positive ?25Mg that suggest that Mg isotopic homogenization occurred during thermal annealing without affecting Si isotopes. Such short condensation times for AOAs are inconsistent with disk transport timescales, indicating that AOAs, and likely other high-temperature condensates, formed during brief localized high-temperature events.
Project description:Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), a refractory component of chondritic meteorites, formed in a high-temperature region of the protoplanetary disk characterized by approximately solar chemical and oxygen isotopic (?17O ? -24‰) compositions, most likely near the protosun. Here we describe a 16O-rich (?17O ? -22 ± 2‰) AOA from the carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrite Yamato-793261 containing both (i) an ultrarefractory CAI and (ii) forsterite, low-Ca pyroxene, and silica, indicating formation by gas-solid reactions over a wide temperature range from ?1,800 to ?1,150 K. This AOA provides direct evidence for gas-solid condensation of silica in a CAI/AOA-forming region. In a gas of solar composition, the Mg/Si ratio exceeds 1, and, therefore, silica is not predicted to condense under equilibrium conditions, suggesting that the AOA formed in a parcel of gas with fractionated Mg/Si ratio, most likely due to condensation of forsterite grains. Thermodynamic modeling suggests that silica formed by condensation of nebular gas depleted by ?10× in H and He that cooled at 50 K/hour at total pressure of 10-4 bar. Condensation of silica from a hot, chemically fractionated gas could explain the origin of silica identified from infrared spectroscopy of remote protostellar disks.
Project description:The performance of multi-collector secondary ion mass spectrometry (MC-SIMS) for Mg isotope ratio analysis was evaluated using 17 olivine and 5 pyroxene reference materials (RMs). The Mg isotope composition of these RMs was accurately and precisely determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and these measured isotope ratios were used to evaluate SIMS instrumental mass bias as a function of the forsterite (Fo) content of olivine. The magnitude of the Mg isotope matrix effects were ~3‰ in δ<sup>25</sup>Mg, and are a complex function of olivine Fo content, that ranged from Fo<sub>59.3</sub> to Fo<sub>100</sub>. In addition to these Mg isotope matrix effects, Si<sup>+</sup> ion yields and Mg<sup>+</sup>/Si<sup>+</sup> ion ratios varied as a complex function of the Fo content of the olivine RMs. For example, Si<sup>+</sup> ion yields varied by ~33%. Based on the observations, we propose instrumental bias correction procedures for SIMS Mg isotope analysis of olivine using a combination of Mg<sup>+</sup>/Si<sup>+</sup> ratios and Fo content of olivine. Using this correction method, the accuracy of δ<sup>25</sup>Mg analyses is 0.3‰, except for analysis of olivine with Fo<sub>86-88</sub> where instrumental biases and Mg<sup>+</sup>/Si<sup>+</sup> ratios change dramatically with Fo content, making it more difficult to assess the accuracy of Mg isotope ratio measurements by SIMS over this narrow range of Fo content. Five pyroxene RMs (3 orthopyroxenes and 2 clinopyroxenes) show smaller ranges of instrumental bias (~1.4‰ in δ<sup>25</sup>Mg) as compared to the olivine RMs. The instrumental bias for the 3 orthopyroxene RMs do not define a linear relationship with respect to enstatite (En) content, that ranged from En<sub>85.5 -96.3</sub>. The clinopyroxene RMs have similar En and wollastonite (Wo) contents but have δ<sup>25</sup>Mg values that differ by 0.5‰ relative to their δ<sup>25</sup>Mg values determined by MC-ICP-MS. These results indicate that additional factors (e.g., minor element abundances) likely contribute to SIMS instrumental mass fractionation. In order to better correct for these SIMS matrix effects, additional pyroxene RMs with various chemical compositions and known Mg isotope ratios are needed.
Project description:Refractory inclusions [Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates (AOAs)] in primitive meteorites are the oldest Solar System solids. They formed in the hot inner protoplanetary disk and, as such, provide insights into the earliest disk dynamics and physicochemical processing of the dust and gas that accreted to form the Sun and its planetary system. Using the short-lived <sup>26</sup>Al to <sup>26</sup>Mg decay system, we show that bulk refractory inclusions in CV (Vigarano-type) and CR (Renazzo-type) carbonaceous chondrites captured at least two distinct <sup>26</sup>Al-rich (<sup>26</sup>Al/<sup>27</sup>Al ratios of ~5 × 10<sup>-5</sup>) populations of refractory inclusions characterized by different initial <sup>26</sup>Mg/<sup>24</sup>Mg isotope compositions (μ<sup>26</sup>Mg*<sub>0</sub>). Another <sup>26</sup>Al-poor CAI records an even larger μ<sup>26</sup>Mg*<sub>0</sub> deficit. This suggests that formation of refractory inclusions was punctuated and recurrent, possibly associated with episodic outbursts from the accreting proto-Sun lasting as short as <8000 yr. Our results support a model in which refractory inclusions formed close to the hot proto-Sun and were subsequently redistributed to the outer disk, beyond the orbit of Jupiter, plausibly via stellar outflows with progressively decreasing transport efficiency. We show that the magnesium isotope signatures in refractory inclusions mirrors the presolar grain record, demonstrating a mutual exclusivity between <sup>26</sup>Al enrichments and large nucleosynthetic Mg isotope effects. This suggests that refractory inclusions formed by incomplete thermal processing of presolar dust, thereby inheriting a diluted signature of their isotope systematics. As such, they record snapshots in the progressive sublimation of isotopically anomalous presolar carriers through selective thermal processing of young dust components from the proto-Solar molecular cloud. We infer that <sup>26</sup>Al-rich refractory inclusions incorporated <sup>26</sup>Al-rich dust which formed <5 Myr prior to our Sun, whereas <sup>26</sup>Al-poor inclusions (such as FUN- and PLAC-type CAIs) incorporated >10 Myr old dust.
Project description:Electron probe microanalyzer measurements of trace elements with high accuracy are challenging. Accurate Al measurements in olivine are required to calibrate SIMS implant reference materials for measurement of Al in the solar wind. We adopt a combined EPMA/SIMS approach that is useful for producing SIMS reference materials as well as for EPMA at the ~100 μg g<sup>-1</sup> level. Even for mounts not polished with alumina photoelectron spectroscopy shows high levels of Al surface contamination. In order to minimize electron beam current density, a rastered 50 × 100 μm electron beam was adequate and minimized sensitivity to small Al-rich contaminants. Reproducible analyses of eleven SIMS-cleaned spots on San Carlos olivine agreed at 69.3 ± 1.0 μg g<sup>-1</sup>• The known Al mass fraction was used to calibrate an Al implant into San Carlos. Accurate measurements of Al were made for olivines in the pallasites: lmilac, Eagle Station and Springwater. Our focus was on Al in olivine, but our technique could be refined to give accurate electron probe measurements for other contamination-sensitive trace elements. For solar wind, it is projected that the Al/Mg abundance ratio can be determined to 6%, a factor of 2 more precise than the solar spectroscopic ratio.
Project description:Primitive olivines from the monogenetic cones Los Hornitos, Central-South Andes, preserve dendritic, skeletal, and polyhedral growth textures. Consecutive stages of textural maturation occur along compositional gradients where high Fo-Ni cores of polyhedral olivines (Fo<sub>92.5</sub>, Ni ~3500 ppm) contrast with the composition of dendritic olivines (Fo < 91.5, Ni < 3000 ppm), indicating sequential nucleation. Here we present a new growth model for oscillatory Fo-Ni olivine zoning that contrasts with the standard interpretation of continuous, sequential core-to-rim growth. Olivine grows rapidly via concentric addition of open-structured crystal frames, leaving behind compositional boundary layers that subsequently fill-in with Fo-Ni-depleted olivine, causing reversals. Elemental diffusion modeling reveals growth of individual crystal frames and eruption at the surface occurred over 3.5-40 days. Those timescales constrain magma ascent rates of 40-500 m/h (0.011 to 0.14 m/s) from the deep crust. Compared to ocean island basalts, where dendritic and skeletal olivines have been often described, magmas erupted at arc settings, experiencing storage and degassing, may lack such textures due to fundamentally different ascent histories.
Project description:Olivine-hosted melt inclusions are commonly used to determine pre-eruptive storage conditions. However, this approach relies on the assumption that co-erupted olivines have a simple association with their carrier melts. We show that primitive olivine crystal cargoes and their melt inclusions display a high degree of geochemical disequilibrium with their carrier melts at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Within a given eruption, melt inclusions trapped in primitive olivine crystals exhibit compositional diversity exceeding that in erupted lava compositions since 1790 CE. This demonstrates that erupting liquids scavenge crystal cargoes from mush piles accumulating diverse melt inclusion populations over timescales of centuries or longer. Entrainment of hot primitive olivines into cooler, evolved carrier melts drives post-entrapment crystallization and sequestration of CO<sub>2</sub> into vapour bubbles, producing spurious barometric estimates. While scavenged melt inclusion records may not be suitable for the investigation of eruption-specific processes, they record timescales of crystal storage and remobilization within magmatic mush piles.
Project description:Chondrules, millimeter-sized igneous spherules comprising the major component of most chondritic meteorites, formed during the first 4 million to 5 million years of the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk and, therefore, can potentially offer important constraints on the conditions in the disk, provided that the processes that led to their formation can be understood. High-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) survey of chondrules from various chondrite groups revealed changes of CL activator concentrations of magnesium-rich olivines. We show that these overlooked internal zoning structures provide evidence for high-temperature gas-assisted near-equilibrium epitaxial growth of olivines during chondrule formation. We argue that this interaction with the surrounding gas, rather than various cooling histories, defined chondrule composition and texture. Chondrules are thus direct thermochemical sensors of their high-temperature gaseous environment, and high partial pressures of gaseous Mg and SiO are required in their solar protoplanetary disk-forming region to maintain olivine saturation in chondrules. The inferred crystallization of olivines, from stable melts approaching equilibrium with the surrounding gas, provides an explanation for the notable absence of large and systematic isotopic fractionations in chondrules.
Project description:In order to explore the link between comet 81P/Wild 2 and materials in primitive meteorites, seven particles 5 to 15 ?m in diameter from comet 81P/Wild 2 have been analyzed for their oxygen isotope ratios using a secondary ion mass spectrometer. Most particles are single minerals consisting of olivine or pyroxene with Mg# higher than 85, which are relatively minor in 81P/Wild 2 particles (~1/3 of the 16O-poor cluster). Four particles extracted from Track 149 are 16O-poor and show ?17O (= ?17O - 0.52 × ?18O) values from -2%0 to +1%0, similar to previous studies, while one enstatite (En99) particle shows lower ?17O value of -7±4%o (2?). This compositional range has not been reported among 16O-poor particles in 81P/Wild 2, but is commonly observed among chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites and in particular in CR chondrites. The distribution in ?17O indicates that 16O-poor 81P/Wild 2 particles are most similar to chondrules (and their fragments) in the CR chondrites and Tagish Lake-like WIS91600 chondrite chondrule silicate grains, which indicates that they likely come from a reservoir with similar dust/ice ratios as CR chondrites and WIS91600. However, differences in the Mg# distribution imply that the 81P/Wild 2 reservoir was comparatively more oxidized, with a higher dust enrichment. Two nearly pure enstatite grains from track 172 are significantly enriched in 16O, with ?18O values of -51.2 ± 1.5%0 (2?) and -43.0 ± 1.3% (2?), respectively, and ?17O values of -22.3 ± 1.9% (2?) and -21.3 ± 2.3%0 (2?), respectively. They are the first 16O-rich pyroxenes found among 81P/Wild 2 particles, with similar ?17O values to those of 16O-rich low-iron, manganese-enriched (LIME) olivine and CAI (calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions) -like particles from 81P/Wild 2. The major element and oxygen isotopic compositions of the pyroxenes are similar to those of enstatite in amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in primitive chondrites, in which 16O-rich pyroxenes have previously been found, and thus suggest a condensation origin.
Project description:High-precision oxygen three-isotope measurements of olivine and pyroxene were performed on 29 chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen isotope ratios of analyzed chondrules all plot very close to the primitive chondrule minerals (PCM) line. In each of 24 chondrules, the olivine and/or pyroxene grains analyzed show indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios. Exceptions are minor occurrences of isotopically distinguished relict olivine grains, which were found in nine chondrules. The isotope homogeneity of these phenocrysts is consistent with a co-magmatic crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the final chondrule melts and a significant oxygen isotope exchange between the ambient gas and the melts. Homogeneous type I chondrules with Mg#'s of 98.9-99.5 have host chondrule ?17O values ranging from -6.0‰ to -4.1‰, with one exception (?17O: -1.2‰; Mg#: 99.6). Homogeneous chondrules with Mg#'s <96, including four type II chondrules (Mg# ~65-70), have ?17O values of around -2.5%. Five type I chondrules (Mg# ?99) have internally heterogeneous oxygen isotope ratios with ?17O values ranging from -6.5% to -4.0%, similar to those of host chondrule values. These heterogeneous chondrules have granular or porphyritic textures, convoluted outlines, and contain numerous metal grains dispersed within fine-grained silicates. This is consistent with a low degree of melting of the chondrule precursors, possibly because of a low temperature of the melting event and/or a shorter duration of melting. The ?17O values of relict olivine grains in nine chondrules range from -17.9% to -3.4%, while most of them overlap the range of the host chondrule values. Similar to those reported from multiple carbonaceous chondrites (Acfer 094, Y-82094, CO, CR, and CV), the ?17O ~-5% and high Mg# (?99) chondrules, which might derive from a reduced reservoir with limited dust enrichments (~50× Solar System), dominate the population of chondrules in Murchison. Other chondrules in Murchison formed in more oxidizing environment (Mg#<96) with higher ?17O values of -2.5%, in agreement with the low Mg# chondrules in Acfer 094 and CO chondrites and some chondrules in CV and CR chondrites. They might form in environments containing the same anhydrous precursors as for the ?17O ~-5% and Mg# ~99 chondrules, but enriched in 16O-poor H2O ice (~0.3-0.4× the CI dust; ?170>0%) and at dust enrichments of ~300-2000×. Regarding the Mg# and oxygen isotope ratios, the chondrule populations sampled by CM and CO chondrites are similar and indistinguishable. The similarity of these 16O-rich components in CO and CM chondrites is also supported by the common Fe/Mn ratio of olivine in type II chondrules. Although they accreted similar high-temperature silicates, CO chondrites are anhydrous compared to CM chondrites, suggesting they derived from different parent bodies formed inside and outside the snow line, respectively. If chondrules in CO and CM chondrites formed at the same disk locations but the CM parent body accreted later than the CO parent body, the snow line might have crossed the the common chondrule-forming region towards the Sun between the time of the CO and CM parent bodies accretion.