Novel Dual-Organelle-Targeting Probe (RCPP) for Simultaneous Measurement of Organellar Acidity and Alkalinity in Living Cells.
ABSTRACT: Many organelles, such as lysosomes and mitochondria, maintain a pH that is different from the cytoplasmic pH. These pH differences have important functional ramifications for those organelles. Many cellular events depend upon a well-compartmentalized distribution of H+ ions spanning the membrane for the optimal function. Cells have developed a variety of mechanisms that enable the regulation of organelle pH. However, the measurement of organellar acidity/alkalinity in living cells has remained a challenge. Currently, most existing probes for the estimation of intracellular pH show a single -organelle targeting capacity. Such probes provide data that fails to comprehensively reveal the pathological and physiological roles and connections between mitochondria and lysosomes in different species. Mitochondrial and lysosomal functions are closely related and important for regulating cellular homeostasis. Accordingly, the design of a single fluorescent probe that can simultaneously target mitochondria and lysosomes is highly desirable, enabling a better understanding of the crosstalk between these organelles. We report the development of a novel fluorescent sensor, rhodamine-coumarin pH probe (RCPP), for detection of organellar acidity/alkalinity. RCPP simultaneously moves between mitochondrion and lysosome subcellular locations, facilitating the simultaneous monitoring of pH alterations in mitochondria and lysosomes.
Project description:Dysfunctional organelles and defective turnover of organelles are engaged in multiple human diseases, but are elusive to image with conventional organelle probes. To overcome this, we developed intra-mitochondrial CLICK to assess mitophagy (IMCLAM), using a pair of conventional ΔΨm probes, where each probe alone fails to track dysfunctional mitochondria. The <i>in situ</i> formed optical triad is stably trapped in mitochondria without resorting to ΔΨm. Utilizing an acidity-responsive ΔΨm probe, IMCLAM enabled fluorescence-on detection of mitophagy by sensing pH acidification upon delivery of mitochondria into lysosomes. Moreover, we applied IMCLAM to assay mitophagy induced by pharmacological compounds in living cells and wild-type zebrafish embryos. Thus, IMCLAM offers a simplified tool to study mitochondria and mitophagy and provide a basis for screening mitophagy-inducing compounds. <b>Abbreviations:</b> CCCP, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; IMCLAM, intra-mitochondrial CLICK to assess mitophagy; ROX, X-rhodamine; SPAAC, stain-promoted azide-alkyne Click Chemistry; TPP, triphenylphosphonium.
Project description:Malfunctioning organelles are often difficult to probe with classical organelle-homing sensors owing to disruption of physiological organelle-probe affinity. We herein report the use of a responsive hetero-organelle partition and signal activable probe (RC-TPP) for detecting mitochondrial depolarization, a pathologically relevant event featuring loss of the electrical potentials across the mitochondrial membrane (?<i>?</i><sub>m</sub>). Partitioned in mitochondria to give blue fluorescence, RC-TPP relocates into lysosomes upon mitochondrial depolarization and exhibits red fluorescence triggered by lysosomal acidity, enabling determination of autophagy relevant mitochondrial depolarization and the chronological sequence of mitochondrial depolarization and lysosomal neutralization in distinct cell death signalling pathways. As an alternative to classic homo-organelle specific molecular systems, this hetero-organelle responsive approach provides a new perspective from which to study dysfunctional organelles.
Project description:Multiplexed cellular organelle imaging using single wavelength excitation is highly desirable for unravelling cellular functions but remains challenging. This requires the design of organelle specific fluorophores with distinct emission but similar absorption. Herein, we present two unique aggregation-induced emission (AIE) probes to track mitochondria and lysosomes simultaneously with emission colors that can be distinguished from that of the nucleus stain Hoechst 33342 upon single wavelength excitation. Compared to conventional organelle stains, the two AIE probes have larger Stokes shifts and higher photostability, which endow them with the capability to monitor bioprocesses, such as mitophagy with strong and sustained fluorescent signals. Moreover, both probes can also stain intracellular organelles in zebrafish larvae with good cell-penetrating capabilities, showing their great potential to monitor bioprocesses in vivo.
Project description:Following the acquisition of chloroplasts and mitochondria by eukaryotic cells during endosymbiotic evolution, most of the genes in these organelles were either lost or transferred to the nucleus. Encoding organelle-destined proteins in the nucleus allows for host control of the organelle. In return, organelles send signals to the nucleus to coordinate nuclear and organellar activities. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, additional interactions exist between mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we review recent advances in elucidating the intracellular signalling pathways that coordinate gene expression between organelles and the nucleus, with a focus on photosynthetic plants.
Project description:Lysosomes are involved in a multitude of cellular processes and their dysfunction is associated with various diseases. They are the most acidic organelles (pH 3.8-6.6, size 0.1-1.2 ?m) with the highest viscosity (47-190 cP at 25 °C) in the cell. Because of their acidity, pH dependent non-AIE active fluorescent lysosomal probes have been developed that rely on protonation inhibited photoinduced electron transfer (PET). In this work, an acidic pH independent lysosome targetable piperazine-TPE (PIP-TPE) AIEgen has been designed with unique photophysical properties making it a suitable probe for quantifying viscosity. In a non-aggregated state PIP-TPE shows deep-blue emission as opposed to its yellowish-green emission in the bulk. It possesses high specificity for lysosomes with negligible cytotoxicity and good tracing ability due to its better photostability compared to LysoTracker Red. In contrast to most known lysosome probes that rely solely on PET, restriction of intramolecular motion (RIM) due to the larger viscosity inside the lysosomes is the mechanism responsible for PIP-TPE's fluorescence. PIP-TPE's high selectivity is attributed to its unique molecular design that features piperazine fragments providing a perfect balance between lipophilicity and polarity.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction and failing mitochondrial quality control (MQC) are major determinants of aging. Far from being standalone organelles, mitochondria are intricately related with cellular other compartments, including lysosomes. The intimate relationship between mitochondria and lysosomes is reflected by the fact that lysosomal degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria is the final step of mitophagy. Inter-organelle membrane contact sites also allow bidirectional communication between mitochondria and lysosomes as part of nondegradative pathways. This interaction establishes a functional unit that regulates metabolic signaling, mitochondrial dynamics, and, hence, MQC. Contacts of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have also been described. ER-mitochondrial interactions are relevant to Ca2+ homeostasis, transfer of phospholipid precursors to mitochondria, and integration of apoptotic signaling. Many proteins involved in mitochondrial contact sites with other organelles also participate to degradative MQC pathways. Hence, a comprehensive assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction during aging requires a thorough evaluation of degradative and nondegradative inter-organelle pathways. Here, we present a geroscience overview on (1) degradative MQC pathways, (2) nondegradative processes involving inter-organelle tethering, (3) age-related changes in inter-organelle degradative and nondegradative pathways, and (4) relevance of MQC failure to inflammaging and age-related conditions, with a focus on Parkinson's disease as a prototypical geroscience condition.
Project description:Although numerous fluorescent probes are designed to detect the pH value in the past decades, developing fluorescent probes for extreme alkalinity (pH?>?14) detection in aqueous solution is still a great challenge. In this work, we utilized 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1, 10] phenanthroline (IP) group as the recognition group of hydroxyl ion and introduced two triethylene glycol monomethyl ether groups to improve its solubility. This IP derivative, BMIP, possessed good solubility (25?mg/mL) in water. It displayed high selectivity toward extreme alkalinity (pH?>?14) over other ions and pH (from extreme acidity to pH?=?14). From 3 to 6?mol/L OH-, the exact concentration of OH- could be revealed by BMIP and the whole detection process just needed a short time (??10?s). Meanwhile, it exhibited good anti-interference ability and repeatability during the detection process. Through optical spectra and NMR analysis, its detection mechanism was proved to be deprotonation by hydroxyl ion and then aggregation-induced enhanced emission. Our study presents a new basic group based on which researchers can develop new fluorescent probes that can detect extreme alkalinity (pH?>?14) in aqueous solution.
Project description:Acquisition of mitochondria by the ancestor of all living eukaryotes represented a crucial milestone in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Nevertheless, a number of anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes have secondarily discarded certain mitochondrial features, leading to modified organelles such as hydrogenosomes and mitosomes via degenerative evolution. These mitochondrion-derived organelles have lost many of the typical characteristics of aerobic mitochondria, including certain metabolic pathways, morphological traits, and, in most cases, the organellar genome. So far, the evolutionary pathway leading from aerobic mitochondria to anaerobic degenerate organelles has remained unclear due to the lack of examples representing intermediate stages. The human parasitic stramenopile Blastocystis is a rare example of an anaerobic eukaryote with organelles that have retained some mitochondrial characteristics, including a genome, whereas they lack others, such as cytochromes. Here we report the sequence and comparative analysis of the organellar genome from two different Blastocystis isolates as well as a comparison to other genomes from stramenopile mitochondria. Analysis of the characteristics displayed by the unique Blastocystis organelle genome gives us an insight into the initial evolutionary steps that may have led from mitochondria to hydrogenosomes and mitosomes.
Project description:The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for ?-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions. However, the spatial and temporal organization of organelles within the cell remains poorly characterized, as fluorescence imaging approaches are limited in the number of different labels that can be distinguished in a single image. Here we present a systems-level analysis of the organelle interactome using a multispectral image acquisition method that overcomes the challenge of spectral overlap in the fluorescent protein palette. We used confocal and lattice light sheet instrumentation and an imaging informatics pipeline of five steps to achieve mapping of organelle numbers, volumes, speeds, positions and dynamic inter-organelle contacts in live cells from a monkey fibroblast cell line. We describe the frequency and locality of two-, three-, four- and five-way interactions among six different membrane-bound organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosome, peroxisome, mitochondria and lipid droplet) and show how these relationships change over time. We demonstrate that each organelle has a characteristic distribution and dispersion pattern in three-dimensional space and that there is a reproducible pattern of contacts among the six organelles, that is affected by microtubule and cell nutrient status. These live-cell confocal and lattice light sheet spectral imaging approaches are applicable to any cell system expressing multiple fluorescent probes, whether in normal conditions or when cells are exposed to disturbances such as drugs, pathogens or stress. This methodology thus offers a powerful descriptive tool and can be used to develop hypotheses about cellular organization and dynamics.
Project description:Anionic phospholipids can confer a net negative charge on biological membranes. This surface charge generates an electric field that serves to recruit extrinsic cationic proteins, can alter the disposition of transmembrane proteins and causes the local accumulation of soluble counterions, altering the local pH and the concentration of physiologically important ions such as calcium. Because the phospholipid compositions of the different organellar membranes vary, their surface charges are similarly expected to diverge. Yet, despite the important functional implications, remarkably little is known about the electrostatic properties of the individual organellar membranes. We therefore designed and implemented approaches to estimate the surface charges of the cytosolic membranes of various organelles in situ in intact cells. Our data indicate that the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane is most negative, with a surface potential of approximately -35 mV, followed by the Golgi complex > lysosomes > mitochondria ≈ peroxisomes > endoplasmic reticulum, in decreasing order.