Multimodal Imaging Technology Effectively Monitors HER2 Expression in Tumors Using Trastuzumab-Coupled Organic Nanoparticles in Patient-Derived Xenograft Mice Models.
ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), which has been successfully used in the treatment of patients with breast cancer and gastric cancer; however, problems concerning its cardiotoxicity, drug resistance, and unpredictable efficacy still remain. Herein, we constructed novel organic dopamine-melanin nanoparticles (dMNs) as a carrier and then surface-loaded them with trastuzumab to construct a multifunctional nanoprobe named Her-PEG-dMNPs. We used micro-PET/CT and PET/MRI multimodality imaging to evaluate the retention effect of the nanoprobe in HER2 expression in gastric cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice models after labeling of the radionuclides 64Cu or 124I and MRI contrast agent Mn2+. The nanoprobes can specifically target the HER2-expressing SKOV-3 cells in vitro (3.61 ± 0.74 vs. 1.24 ± 0.43 for 2 h, P = 0.002). In vivo, micro-PET/CT and PET/MRI showed that the 124I-labeled nanoprobe had greater contrast and retention effect in PDX models than unloaded dMNPs as carrier (1.63 ± 0.07 vs. 0.90 ± 0.04 at 24 h, P = 0.002), a similarity found in 64Cu-labeled Her-PEG-dMNPs. Because 124I has a longer half-life and matches the pharmacokinetics of the nanoparticles, we focused on the further evaluation of 124I-Her-PEG-dMNPs. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry staining confirmed the overexpression of HER2 in the animal model. This study developed and validated novel HER2-specific multimodality imaging nanoprobes for quantifying HER2 expression in mice. Through the strong retention effect of the tumor site, it can be used for the promotion of monoclonal antibody treatment effect and process monitoring.
Project description:The development of targeted nanoprobes is a promising approach to cancer diagnostics and therapy. In the present work, a novel multifunctional photo/magnet-diagnostic nanoprobe (MNPs-PEG<sub>2K</sub>-FA@Ce6) has been developed. This nanoprobe is built using folic acid (FA), bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG<sub>2K</sub>) and photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6). The MNPs-PEG<sub>2K</sub>-FA@Ce6 nanoprobes are superparamagnetic, can be synthesized on a large scale by a one-pot hydrothermal process without further surface modification and are stable in an aqueous environment for eight months. Compared with free Ce6 nanoprobes in vitro studies, the MNPs-PEG<sub>2K</sub>-FA@Ce6 nanoprobes significantly enhance cellular uptake efficiency and promote the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the assistance of 633 nm laser irradiation. The unique nanoprobes show superior penetration and a retention time of more than six days with less accumulation in the liver allowing highly effective tumor recognition and monitoring. Additionally, there was little damage to healthy organs or tissues. These exciting new nanoprobes could be potential building blocks to develop new clinical therapies and translational medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Developing a universal strategy to improve the specificity and sensitivity of PEGylated nanoaparticles (PEG-NPs) for assisting in the diagnosis of tumors is important in multimodality imaging. Here, we developed the anti-methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) bispecific antibody (BsAb; mPEG?×?HER2), which has dual specificity for mPEG and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), with a diverse array of PEG-NPs to confer nanoparticles with HER2 specificity and stronger intensity. RESULT:We used a one-step formulation to rapidly modify the nanoprobes with mPEG?×?HER2 and optimized the modified ratio of BsAbs on several PEG-NPs (Lipo-DiR, SPIO, Qdot and AuNP). The ?HER2/PEG-NPs could specifically target MCF7/HER2 cells (HER2++) but not MCF7/neo1 cells (HER2+/-). The ?HER2/Lipo-DiR and ?HER2/SPIO could enhance the sensitivity of untargeted PEG-NPs on MCF7/HER2 (HER2++). In in vivo imaging, ?HER2/Lipo-DiR and ?HER2/SPIO increased the specific targeting and enhanced PEG-NPs accumulation at 175% and 187% on 24 h, respectively, in HER2-overexpressing tumors. CONCLUSION:mPEG?×?HER2, therefore, provided a simple one-step formulation to confer HER2-specific targeting and enhanced sensitivity and contrast intensity on HER2 positive tumors for multimodality imaging.
Project description:A highly monodispersed hetero-nanostructure with two different functional nanomaterials (gold (Au) and iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4,) IO)) within one structure was successfully developed as Affibody based trimodality nanoprobe (positron emission tomography, PET; optical imaging; and magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) for imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive tumors. Unlike other regular nanostructures with a single component, the Au-IO hetero-nanostructures (Au-IONPs) with unique chemical and physical properties have capability to combine several imaging modalities together to provide complementary information. The IO component within hetero-nanostructures serve as a T(2) reporter for MRI; and gold component serve as both optical and PET reporters. Moreover, such hetero-nanoprobes could provide a robust nano-platform for surface-specific modification with both targeting molecules (anti-EGFR Affibody protein) and PET imaging reporters (radiometal (64)Cu chelators) in highly efficient and reliable manner. In vitro and in vivo study showed that the resultant nanoprobe provided high specificity, sensitivity, and excellent tumor contrast for both PET and MRI imaging in the human EGFR-expressing cells and tumors. Our study data also highlighted the EGFR targeting efficiency of hetero-nanoparticles and the feasibility for their further theranostic applications.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most common primary intracranial malignant tumours, is very difficult to be completely excised by surgery due to its irregular shape. Here, we use an MRI/NIR fluorescence dual-modal imaging nanoprobe that includes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) modified with indocyanine (Cy7) molecules and peptides (ANG or <sup>D</sup>ANG) to locate malignant gliomas and guide accurate excision. Both peptides/Cy7-SPIONs probes displayed excellent tumour-homing properties and barrier penetrating abilities in vitro, and both could mediate precise aggregation of the nanoprobes at gliomas sites in in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ex vivo near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging. However, compared with ANG/Cy7-SPIONs probes, <sup>D</sup>ANG/Cy7-SPIONs probes exhibited better enhanced MR imaging effects. Combining all these features together, this MRI/NIR fluorescence imaging dual-modal nanoprobes modified with retro-enantio isomers of the peptide have the potential to accurately display GBMs preoperatively for precise imaging and intraoperatively for real-time imaging.
Project description:"PEG-like Nanoprobes" (PN's) are pharmacokinetically and optically tunable nanomaterials whose disposition in biological systems can be determined by fluorescence or radioactivity. PN's feature a unique design where a single PEG polymer surrounds a short fluorochrome and radiometal bearing peptide, and endows the resulting nanoprobe with pharmacokinetic control (based on molecular weight of the PEG selected) and optical tunability (based on the fluorochrome selected), while the chelate provides a radiolabeling option. PN's were used to image brain capillary angiography (intravital 2-photon microscopy), tumor capillary permeability (intravital fluorescent microscopy), and the tumor enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect (111In-PN and SPECT). Clinical applications of PN's include use as long blood half-life fluorochromes for intraoperative angiography, for measurements of capillary permeability in breast cancer lesions, and to image EPR by SPECT, for stratifying patient candidates for long-circulating nanomedicines that may utilize the EPR mechanism.
Project description:<i>Background</i>: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary approach to cancer therapy that requires accumulation of boron atoms preferentially in tumour cells. This can be achieved by using nanoparticles as boron carriers and taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Here, we present the preparation and characterization of size and shape-tuned gold NPs (AuNPs) stabilised with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and functionalized with the boron-rich anion cobalt <i>bis</i>(dicarbollide), commonly known as COSAN. The resulting NPs were radiolabelled with <sup>124</sup>I both at the core and the shell, and were evaluated in vivo in a mouse model of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080 cells) using positron emission tomography (PET). <i>Methods</i>: The thiolated COSAN derivatives for subsequent attachment to the gold surface were synthesized by reaction of COSAN with tetrahydropyran (THP) followed by ring opening using potassium thioacetate (KSAc). Iodination on one of the boron atoms of the cluster was also carried out to enable subsequent radiolabelling of the boron cage. AuNPs grafted with mPEG-SH (5 Kda) and thiolated COSAN were prepared by ligand displacement. Radiolabelling was carried out both at the shell (isotopic exchange) and at the core (anionic absorption) of the NPs using <sup>124</sup>I to enable PET imaging. <i>Results</i>: Stable gold nanoparticles simultaneously functionalised with PEG and COSAN (PEG-AuNPs@[<b>4</b>]<sup>-</sup>) with hydrodynamic diameter of 37.8 ± 0.5 nm, core diameter of 19.2 ± 1.4 nm and ?-potential of -18.0 ± 0.7 mV were obtained. The presence of the COSAN on the surface of the NPs was confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. PEG-AuNPs@[<b>4</b>]<sup>-</sup> could be efficiently labelled with <sup>124</sup>I both at the core and the shell. Biodistribution studies in a xenograft mouse model of human fibrosarcoma showed major accumulation in liver, lungs and spleen, and poor accumulation in the tumour. The dual labelling approach confirmed the in vivo stability of the PEG-AuNPs@[<b>4</b>]<sup>-</sup>. <i>Conclusions</i>: PEG stabilized, COSAN-functionalised AuNPs could be synthesized, radiolabelled and evaluated in vivo using PET. The low tumour accumulation in the animal model assayed points to the need of tuning the size and geometry of the gold core for future studies.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Delivery of long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to human immunodeficiency virus type one cell and tissue reservoirs underlies next generation antiretroviral therapeutics. Nanotheranostics, comprised of trackable nanoparticle adjuncts, can facilitate ARV delivery through real-time drug tracking made possible through bioimaging platforms. <b>Methods:</b> To model HIV-1 therapeutic delivery, europium sulfide (EuS) nanoprobes were developed, characterized and then deployed to cells, tissues, and rodents. Tests were performed with nanoformulated rilpivirine (NRPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) used clinically to suppress or prevent HIV-1 infection. <i>First</i>, CD4+ T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were EuS-treated with and without endocytic blockers to identify nanoprobe uptake into cells. <i>Second</i>, Balb/c mice were co-dosed with NRPV and EuS or lutetium<sup>177</sup>-doped EuS (<sup>177</sup>LuEuS) theranostic nanoparticles to assess NRPV biodistribution via mass spectrometry. <i>Third</i>, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) bioimaging were used to determine nanotheranostic and NRPV anatomic redistribution over time. <b>Results:</b> EuS nanoprobes and NRPV entered cells through dynamin-dependent pathways. SPECT-CT and MRI identified biodistribution patterns within the reticuloendothelial system for EuS that was coordinate with NRPV trafficking. <b>Conclusions:</b> EuS nanoprobes parallel the uptake and biodistribution of NRPV. These data support their use in modeling NRPV delivery to improve treatment strategies.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>There is a continuous search for imaging techniques with high sensitivity and specificity for brain tumors. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has shown promise, though many PET agents either have a low tumor specificity or impractical physical half-lives. [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 is a small molecule alkylphosphocholine analogue that is thought to bind to plasma membrane lipid rafts and has shown high tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) in a previous pilot study in brain tumor patients. This study attempts to define the clinical value of [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 PET/CT (aka CLR124).<h4>Procedures</h4>Adult patients with new or suspected recurrence of high-grade primary or metastatic brain tumors (N = 27) were injected with [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 followed by PET/CT at 6, 24, and 48 h. Standard uptake values (SUV) and TBR values were calculated for all time points. Uptake of [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 was qualitatively assessed, compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and correlated with clinical outcome. Final diagnosis (N = 25) was established based on surgically resected tissue or long-term follow-up.<h4>Results</h4>Positive uptake with high TBR was detected in all but one patient with a final diagnosis of primary/recurrent brain tumor (12/13) and in less than half of patients with treatment-related changes (5/12). Concordance between [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 uptake and contrast enhancement on MRI was seen in < 40 %, with no concordance between T<sub>2</sub>-hyperintensities and uptake. No significant difference in overall outcome was found between patients with and without [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 uptake.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The uptake pattern in these patients suggests a very high sensitivity of [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 PET/CT for diagnosing tumor tissue; however, tumor specificity needs to be further defined. Relative lack of concordance with standard MRI characteristics suggests that [<sup>124</sup>I]CLR1404 PET/CT provides additional information about brain tumors compared to MRI alone, potentially improving clinical decision-making.
Project description:The imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), the first defense against primary tumor metastasis, has been considered as an important strategy for noninvasive tracking tumor metastasis in clinics. In this study, we report the development and application of mesoporous silica-based triple-modal nanoprobes that integrate multiple functional moieties to facilitate near-infrared optical, magnetic resonance (MR) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. After embedding near-infrared dye ZW800, the nanoprobe was labeled with T(1) contrast agent Gd(3+) and radionuclide (64)Cu through chelating reactions. High stability and long intracellular retention time of the nanoprobes was confirmed by in vitro characterization, which facilitate long-term in vivo imaging. Longitudinal multimodal imaging was subsequently achieved to visualize tumor draining SLNs up to 3 weeks in a 4T1 tumor metastatic model. Obvious differences in uptake rate, amount of particles, and contrast between metastatic and contra-lateral sentinel lymph nodes were observed. These findings provide very helpful guidance for the design of robust multifunctional nanomaterials in SLNs' mapping and tumor metastasis diagnosis.
Project description:Multifunctional nanoparticles with combined diagnostic and therapeutic functions show great promise towards personalized nanomedicine. However, attaining consistently high performance of these functions in vivo in one single nanoconstruct remains extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the use of one single polymer to develop a smart 'all-in-one' nanoporphyrin platform that conveniently integrates a broad range of clinically relevant functions. Nanoporphyrins can be used as amplifiable multimodality nanoprobes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and dual modal PET-MRI. Nanoporphyrins greatly increase the imaging sensitivity for tumour detection through background suppression in blood, as well as preferential accumulation and signal amplification in tumours. Nanoporphyrins also function as multiphase nanotransducers that can efficiently convert light to heat inside tumours for photothermal therapy (PTT), and light to singlet oxygen for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Furthermore, nanoporphyrins act as programmable releasing nanocarriers for targeted delivery of drugs or therapeutic radio-metals into tumours.