Effects of Phytic Acid-Degrading Bacteria on Mineral Element Content in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Trace minerals are extremely important for balanced nutrition, growth, and development in animals and humans. Phytic acid chelation promotes the use of probiotics in nutrition. The phytic acid-degrading strain Lactococcus lactis psm16 was obtained from swine milk by enrichment culture and direct plate methods. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the strain psm16 on mineral element content in a mouse model. Mice were divided into four groups: basal diet, 1% phytic acid, 1% phytic acid + psm16, 1% phytic acid + 500 U/kg commercial phytase. Concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased in the strain psm16 group compared to the phytic acid group. The concentrations of copper (p = 0.021) and zinc (p = 0.017) in liver, calcium (p = 0.000), manganese (p = 0.000), and zinc (p = 0.000) in plasma and manganese (p = 0.010) and zinc (p = 0.022) in kidney were significantly increased in psm16 group, while copper (p = 0.007) and magnesium (p = 0.001) were significantly reduced. In conclusion, the addition of phytic acid-degrading bacteria psm16 into a diet including phytic acid can affect the content of trace elements in the liver, kidney, and plasma of mice, counteracting the harmful effects of phytic acid.
Project description:Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common cause of seizures in dogs. There are several investigations regarding serum concentrations of trace nutrients, including copper, selenium, zinc, manganese, and iron in human epileptics and animal models. However, research of this nature in dogs with epilepsy is lacking. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare serum concentrations of several trace nutrients in healthy dogs to dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Healthy client-owned dogs (n = 50) and dogs with IE (n = 92) were enrolled and blood samples were collected for trace nutrient analysis. Epileptics were subdivided into three groups: controlled: n = 27, uncontrolled: n = 42, and untreated: n = 23. Serum was evaluated for concentrations of copper, selenium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, and iron using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Uncontrolled epileptics had significantly higher manganese concentrations compared to normal dogs (p = 0.007). Untreated epileptics had higher iron levels than the other three groups (p = 0.04). Significantly higher levels of copper (p < 0.0001) were found in controlled and uncontrolled epileptics compared to normal or untreated dogs. Significantly higher levels of molybdenum (p = 0.01) were found in controlled epileptics compared to normal or untreated epileptics. Uncontrolled and controlled epileptics had significantly higher levels of selenium (p = 0.0003) vs. normal dogs, and uncontrolled epileptics had higher levels of zinc (p = 0.0002) than normal and untreated dogs. The significant difference in serum concentrations of several trace nutrients (manganese, selenium, and zinc) may suggest a role for these nutrients in the pathophysiology and/or treatment of epilepsy. Additionally, these results suggest that anti-convulsant therapy may affect copper and molybdenum metabolism.
Project description:A hypothesis-generating pilot study exploring associations between essential trace elements measured in follicular fluid (FF) and urine and in vitro fertilization (IVF) endpoints.We recruited 58 women undergoing IVF between 2007 and 2008, and measured cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc in FF (n?=?46) and urine (n?=?45) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We used multivariable regression models to assess the impact of FF and urine trace elements on IVF outcomes, adjusted for age, body mass index, race, and cigarette smoking.Trace elements were mostly present at lower concentrations in FF than in urine. The average number of oocytes retrieved was positively associated with higher urine cobalt, chromium, copper, and molybdenum concentrations. FF chromium and manganese were negatively associated with the proportion of mature oocytes, yet urine manganese had a positive association. FF zinc was inversely associated with average oocyte fertilization. Urine trace elements were significant positive predictors for the total number of embryos generated. FF copper predicted lower embryo fragmentation while urine copper was associated with higher embryo cell number and urine manganese with higher embryo fragmentation. No associations were detected for implantation, pregnancy, or live birth.Our results suggest the importance of trace elements in both FF and urine for intermediate, although not necessarily clinical, IVF endpoints. The results differed using FF or urine biomarkers of exposure, which may have implications for the design of clinical and epidemiologic investigations. These initial findings will form the basis of a more definitive future study.
Project description:PURPOSE:The association between the intake of trace metals and the risk of incident stones has not been longitudinally investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We performed a prospective analysis of 193,551 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Nurses' Health Study I and II. During a followup of 3,316,580 person-years there was a total of 6,576 incident stones. We used multivariate regression models to identify associations of the intake of zinc, iron, copper and manganese with the risk of stones. In a subset of participants with 24-hour urine collections we examined the association between the intake of trace metals and urine composition. RESULTS:After multivariate adjustment total and dietary intakes of zinc and iron were not significantly associated with incident stones. A higher intake of manganese was associated with a lower risk of stones. The pooled HR of the highest quintile of total manganese intake compared with the lowest intake was 0.82 (95% CI 0.68-0.98, p = 0.02). Total but not dietary copper intake was marginally associated with a higher risk of stones (pooled HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28, p = 0.01). There were no statistically significant associations of the total intake of manganese and copper with urinary supersaturation. CONCLUSIONS:Zinc and iron intake was not associated with a risk of stones. Copper intake may be associated with a higher risk in some individuals. Higher total manganese intake was associated with a lower risk of stones but not with traditional 24-hour urinary composite markers of stone risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which manganese may reduce kidney stone formation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at least one of the following elements in whole blood, serum, or plasma: antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. We calculated differences between hemodialysis patients and controls using the differences in mean trace element level, divided by the pooled standard deviation. RESULTS: We identified 128 eligible studies. Available data suggested that levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium were higher and that levels of selenium, zinc and manganese were lower in hemodialysis patients, compared with controls. Pooled standard mean differences exceeded 0.8 standard deviation units (a large difference) higher than controls for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, and lower than controls for selenium, zinc, and manganese. No studies reported data on antimony, iodine, tellurium, and thallium concentrations. CONCLUSION: Average blood levels of biologically important trace elements were substantially different in hemodialysis patients, compared with healthy controls. Since both deficiency and excess of trace elements are potentially harmful yet amenable to therapy, the hypothesis that trace element status influences the risk of adverse clinical outcomes is worthy of investigation.
Project description:Neurons are post-mitotic cells in the brain and their integrity is of central importance to avoid neurodegeneration. Yet, the inability of self-replenishment of post-mitotic cells results in the need to withstand challenges from numerous stressors during life. Neurons are exposed to oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption during metabolic activity in the brain. Accordingly, DNA damage can occur and accumulate, resulting in genome instability. In this context, imbalances in brain trace element homeostasis are a matter of concern, especially regarding iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and selenium. Although trace elements are essential for brain physiology, excess and deficient conditions are considered to impair neuronal maintenance. Besides increasing oxidative stress, DNA damage response and repair of oxidative DNA damage are affected by trace elements. Hence, a balanced trace element homeostasis is of particular importance to safeguard neuronal genome integrity and prevent neuronal loss. This review summarises the current state of knowledge on the impact of deficient, as well as excessive iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and selenium levels on neuronal genome stability.
Project description:The inbred "SJ11-3" pepper was cultured in yellow brown soil, paddy soil, fluvo-aquic soil, and pastoral soil, and the factors affecting the absorption of trace elements and fruit quality were analyzed. The results showed that the physicochemical properties of the soils were significantly different, which led to differences in the nutritional quality of pepper fruits. The pH value had a significant effect on the absorption of trace elements in pepper. The increase of pH promoted the absorption of magnesium and molybdenum but inhibited the absorption of zinc, copper, manganese, and iron. The stepwise multivariable regression analysis showed that the amount of molybdenum in soil was the main factor affecting the total amino acid content of pepper. Total nitrogen, zinc, and copper were the main factors that contributed to the soluble sugar content of pepper, and the available potassium was the major determinant of the vitamin C content of pepper. This study provides new insight on the pepper fruit quality grown on different types of soil with varying levels of trace elements.
Project description:The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain obscure. This study explored the associations between schizophrenia risk and serum levels of 10 trace elements. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted and matched by age and sex. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of nickel, molybdenum, arsenic, aluminum, chromium, manganese, selenium, copper, iron and zinc by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations between trace elements and schizophrenia risk. Totally 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls were recruited in the study. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that copper?0.97 ?g/mL, selenium?72 ng/mL and manganese>3.95 ng/mL were associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. The study showed that lower levels of selenium, copper and higher levels of manganese were found in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls.
Project description:A decline of immune responses and dynamic modulation of the redox status are observed during aging and are influenced by trace elements such as copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc. So far, analytical studies have focused mainly on single trace elements. Therefore, we aimed to characterize age-specific profiles of several trace elements simultaneously in serum and organs of adult and old mice. This allows for correlating multiple trace element levels and to identify potential patterns of age-dependent alterations. In serum, copper and iodine concentrations were increased and zinc concentration was decreased in old as compared to adult mice. In parallel, decreased copper and elevated iron concentrations were observed in liver. The age-related reduction of hepatic copper levels was associated with reduced expression of copper transporters, whereas the increased hepatic iron concentrations correlated positively with proinflammatory mediators and Nrf2-induced ferritin H levels. Interestingly, the age-dependent inverse regulation of copper and iron was unique for the liver and not observed in any other organ. The physiological importance of alterations in the iron/copper ratio for liver function and the aging process needs to be addressed in further studies.
Project description:The biochemical abnormalities and oxidative stress during pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis could lead to alteration of trace elements. We studied the alteration of major trace elements during the pathogenesis of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. The biochemical and pathological indices of liver functions and hepatic fibrosis were evaluated. Serum and liver levels of copper, iron and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cobalt, manganese, and molybdenum in the serum and liver were estimated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serial administrations of NDMA resulted in decreased serum albumin, biochemical abnormalities, increase of total liver collagen, and well-developed fibrosis and early cirrhosis. Serum and liver zinc content significantly decreased on all the days following NDMA administration. When copper and molybdenum markedly increased in the serum, liver molybdenum decreased dramatically. Both iron and manganese content significantly increased in the liver following NDMA-induced fibrosis. The results of the present study indicate that alteration of trace elements during pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis is due to metabolic imbalance, biochemical abnormalities, decreased serum albumin, and ascites following NDMA-induced liver injury. The modulation of trace elements during hepatic fibrosis could play a prominent role in progression of the disease.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We aimed to examine the prospective association between manganese, iron, copper, zinc, iodine, selenium, selenoprotein P, free zinc, and their interplay, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC).<h4>Methods</h4>Serum trace element (TE) concentrations were measured in a case-cohort study embedded within the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, consisting of a random sub-cohort (n = 2500) and incident cases of T2D (n = 705), CVD (n = 414), and CRC (n = 219). TE patterns were investigated using principal component analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to examine the association between TEs with T2D, CVD and CRC incidence.<h4>Results</h4>Higher manganese, zinc, iodine and selenium were associated with an increased risk of developing T2D (HR Q5 vs Q1: 1.56, 1.09-2.22; HR per SD, 95% CI 1.18, 1.05-1.33; 1.09, 1.01-1.17; 1.19, 1.06-1.34, respectively). Regarding CVD, manganese, copper and copper-to-zinc ratio were associated with an increased risk (HR per SD, 95% CI 1.13, 1.00-1.29; 1.22, 1.02-1.44; 1.18, 1.02-1.37, respectively). The opposite was observed for higher selenium-to-copper ratio (HR Q5 vs Q1, 95% CI 0.60, 0.39-0.93). Higher copper and zinc were associated with increasing risk of developing CRC (HR per SD, 95% CI 1.29, 1.05-1.59 and 1.14, 1.00-1.30, respectively). Selenium, selenoprotein P and selenium-to-copper-ratio were associated to decreased risk (HR per SD, 95% CI 0.82, 0.69-0.98; 0.81, 0.72-0.93; 0.77, 0.65-0.92, respectively). Two TE patterns were identified: manganese-iron-zinc and copper-iodine-selenium.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Different TEs were associated with the risk of developing T2D, CVD and CRC. The contrasting associations found for selenium with T2D and CRC point towards differential disease-related pathways.