Mild mitochondrial impairment enhances innate immunity and longevity through ATFS-1 and p38 signaling.
ABSTRACT: While mitochondrial function is essential for life in all multicellular organisms, a mild impairment of mitochondrial function can extend longevity in model organisms. By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved, these pathways might be targeted to promote healthy aging. In studying two long-lived mitochondrial mutants in C. elegans, we found that disrupting subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain results in upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, which is driven by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) but also dependent on the canonical p38-mediated innate immune signaling pathway. Both of these pathways are required for the increased resistance to bacterial pathogens and extended longevity of the long-lived mitochondrial mutants, as is the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. This work demonstrates that both the p38-mediated innate immune signaling pathway and the mitoUPR act in concert on the same innate immunity genes to promote pathogen resistance and longevity and that input from the mitochondria can extend longevity by signaling through these pathways. This indicates that multiple evolutionarily conserved genetic pathways controlling innate immunity also function to modulate lifespan.
Project description:While mitochondrial function is essential for life in all multicellular organisms, a mild impairment of mitochondrial function can extend longevity in model organisms. By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved, these pathways might be targeted to promote healthy aging. In studying two long-lived mitochondrial mutants in C. elegans, we found that disrupting subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain results in upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, which is driven by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) but also dependent on the canonical p38-mediated innate immune signaling pathway. Both of these pathways are required for the increased resistance to bacterial pathogens and extended longevity of the long-lived mitochondrial mutants, as is the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. This work demonstrates that both the p38-mediated innate immune signaling pathway and the mitoUPR act in concert on the same innate immunity genes to promote pathogen resistance and longevity, and that input from the mitochondria can extend longevity by signaling through these pathways. This indicates that multiple evolutionarily conserved genetic pathways controlling innate immunity also function to modulate lifespan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) is a stress response pathway activated by disruption of proteostasis in the mitochondria. This pathway has been proposed to influence lifespan, with studies suggesting that mitoUPR activation has complex effects on longevity. RESULTS:Here, we examined the contribution of the mitoUPR to the survival and lifespan of three long-lived mitochondrial mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating the levels of ATFS-1, the central transcription factor that mediates the mitoUPR. We found that clk-1, isp-1, and nuo-6 worms all exhibit an ATFS-1-dependent activation of the mitoUPR. While loss of atfs-1 during adulthood does not affect lifespan in any of these strains, absence of atfs-1 during development prevents clk-1 and isp-1 worms from reaching adulthood and reduces the lifespan of nuo-6 mutants. Examining the mechanism by which deletion of atfs-1 reverts nuo-6 lifespan to wild-type, we find that many of the transcriptional changes present in nuo-6 worms are mediated by ATFS-1. Genes exhibiting an ATFS-1-dependent upregulation in nuo-6 worms are enriched for transcripts that function in stress response and metabolism. Consistent, with this finding, loss of atfs-1 abolishes the enhanced stress resistance observed in nuo-6 mutants and prevents upregulation of multiple stress response pathways including the HIF-1-mediated hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response and DAF-16-mediated stress response. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that in the long-lived mitochondrial mutant nuo-6 activation of the mitoUPR causes atfs-1-dependent changes in the expression of genes involved in stress response and metabolism, which contributes to the extended longevity observed in this mutant. This work demonstrates that the mitoUPR can modulate multiple stress response pathways and suggests that it is crucial for the development and lifespan of long-lived mitochondrial mutants.
Project description:In response to pathogen infection, the host innate immune system activates microbial killing pathways and cellular stress pathways that need to be balanced because insufficient or excessive immune responses have deleterious consequences. Recent studies demonstrate that two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans control immune homeostasis. To investigate further how GPCR signaling controls immune homeostasis at the organismal level, we studied arrestin-1 (ARR-1), which is the only GPCR adaptor protein in C. elegans. The results indicate that ARR-1 is required for GPCR signaling in ASH, ASI, AQR, PQR, and URX neurons, which control the unfolded protein response and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway required for innate immunity. ARR-1 activity also controlled immunity through ADF chemosensory and AFD thermosensory neurons that regulate longevity. Furthermore, we found that although ARR-1 played a key role in the control of immunity by AFD thermosensory neurons, it did not control longevity through these cells. However, ARR-1 partially controlled longevity through ADF neurons.
Project description:Chronic inflammation predisposes to aging-associated disease, but it is unknown whether immunity regulation might be important for extending healthy lifespan. Here we show that in C. elegans, dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan by modulating a conserved innate immunity pathway that is regulated by p38 signaling and the transcription factor ATF-7. Longevity from DR depends upon p38-ATF-7 immunity being intact but downregulated to a basal level. p38-ATF-7 immunity accelerates aging when hyperactive, influences lifespan independently of pathogen exposure, and is activated by nutrients independently of mTORC1, a major DR mediator. Longevity from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling (rIIS) also involves p38-ATF-7 downregulation, with signals from DAF-16/FOXO reducing food intake. We conclude that p38-ATF-7 is an immunometabolic pathway that senses bacterial and nutrient signals, that immunity modulation is critical for DR, and that DAF-16/FOXO couples appetite to growth regulation. These conserved mechanisms may influence aging in more complex organisms.
Project description:Many Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with dysfunctional mitochondrial electron transport chain are surprisingly long lived. Both short-lived (gas-1(fc21)) and long-lived (nuo-6(qm200)) mutants of mitochondrial complex I have been identified. However, it is not clear what are the pathways determining the difference in longevity. We show that even in a short-lived gas-1(fc21) mutant, many longevity assurance pathways, shown to be important for lifespan prolongation in long-lived mutants, are active. Beside similar dependence on alternative metabolic pathways, short-lived gas-1(fc21) mutants and long-lived nuo-6(qm200) mutants also activate hypoxia-inducible factor -1? (HIF-1?) stress pathway and mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)). The major difference that we detected between mutants of different longevity, is in the massive loss of complex I accompanied by upregulation of complex II levels, only in short-lived, gas-1(fc21) mutant. We show that high levels of complex II negatively regulate longevity in gas-1(fc21) mutant by decreasing the stability of complex I. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that increase in complex I stability, improves mitochondrial function and decreases mitochondrial stress, putting it inside a "window" of mitochondrial dysfunction that allows lifespan prolongation.
Project description:The PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the DAF-2-DAF-16 insulin signaling pathway control Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal innate immunity. pmk-1 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced sensitivity to pathogens, while daf-2 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced resistance to pathogens that requires upregulation of the DAF-16 transcription factor. We used genetic analysis to show that the pathogen resistance of daf-2 mutants also requires PMK-1. However, genome-wide microarray analysis indicated that there was essentially no overlap between genes positively regulated by PMK-1 and DAF-16, suggesting that they form parallel pathways to promote immunity. We found that PMK-1 controls expression of candidate secreted antimicrobials, including C-type lectins, ShK toxins, and CUB-like genes. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 25% of PMK-1 positively regulated genes are induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that PMK-1 regulates both basal and infection-induced expression of pathogen response genes, while DAF-16 does not. Finally, we used genetic analysis to show that PMK-1 contributes to the enhanced longevity of daf-2 mutants. We propose that the PMK-1 pathway is a specific, indispensable immunity pathway that mediates expression of secreted immune response genes, while the DAF-2-DAF-16 pathway appears to regulate immunity as part of a more general stress response. The contribution of the PMK-1 pathway to the enhanced lifespan of daf-2 mutants suggests that innate immunity is an important determinant of longevity.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction can increase oxidative stress and extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Homeostatic mechanisms exist to cope with disruptions to mitochondrial function that promote cellular health and organismal longevity. Previously, we determined that decreased expression of the cytosolic pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme transaldolase activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and extends lifespan. Here we report that transaldolase (tald-1) deficiency impairs mitochondrial function in vivo, as evidenced by altered mitochondrial morphology, decreased respiration, and increased cellular H2O2 levels. Lifespan extension from knockdown of tald-1 is associated with an oxidative stress response involving p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPKs and a starvation-like response regulated by the transcription factor EB (TFEB) homolog HLH-30. The latter response promotes autophagy and increases expression of the flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 (fmo-2). We conclude that cytosolic redox established through the PPP is a key regulator of mitochondrial function and defines a new mechanism for mitochondrial regulation of longevity.
Project description:Lactic-acid bacteria are widely recognized beneficial host associated groups of the microbiota of humans and animals. Some lactic-acid bacteria have the ability to extend the lifespan of the model animals. The mechanisms behind the probiotic effects of bacteria are not entirely understood. Recently, we reported the benefit effects of Lactobacillus gasseriSBT2055 (LG2055) on animal and human health, such as preventing influenza A virus, and augmentation of IgA production. Therefore, it was preconceived that LG2055 has the beneficial effects on longevity and/or aging. We examined the effects of LG2055 on lifespan and aging of Caenorhabditis elegans and analyzed the mechanism of prolongevity. Our results demonstrated that LG2055 has the beneficial effects on longevity and anti-aging of C. elegans. Feeding with LG2055 upregulated the expression of the skn-1 gene and the target genes of SKN-1, encoding the antioxidant proteins enhancing antioxidant defense responses. We found that feeding with LG2055 directly activated SKN-1 activity via p38 MAPK pathway signaling. The oxidative stress response is elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, and we examined the influence of LG2055 feeding on the membrane potential of mitochondria. Here, the amounts of mitochondria were significantly increased by LG2055 feeding in comparison with the control. Our result suggests that feeding with LG2055 is effective to the extend lifespan in C. elegans by a strengthening of the resistance to oxidative stress and by stimulating the innate immune response signaling including p38MAPK signaling pathway and others.
Project description:Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] ?-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ?/? [p-PKC?/?] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR ?-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKC?/?, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR ?-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH-IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways.
Project description:Aging is a complex trait that is affected by multiple genetic pathways. A relatively unexplored approach is to manipulate multiple independent aging pathways simultaneously in order to observe their cumulative effect on lifespan. Here, we report the phenotypic characterization of a strain with changes in five aging pathways: (1) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, (2) innate immunity, (3) stress response, (4) metabolic control and (5) developmental regulation in old age. The quintuply modified strain has a lifespan that is 160% longer than the transgenic control strain. Additionally, the quintuply modified strain maintains several physiological markers of aging for a longer time than the transgenic control. Our results support a modular approach as a general scheme to study how multiple pathways interact to achieve extreme longevity.