Integration of Metabolome and Transcriptome Reveals the Relationship of Benzenoid-Phenylpropanoid Pigment and Aroma in Purple Tea Flowers.
ABSTRACT: Tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers are normally white, even though the leaves could be purple. We previously discovered a specific variety with purple leaves and flowers. In the face of such a phenomenon, researchers usually focus on the mechanism of color formation but ignore the change of aroma. The purple tea flowers contain more anthocyanins, which belong to flavonoids. Meanwhile, phenylalanine (Phe), derived from the shikimate pathway, is a precursor for both flavonoids and volatile benzenoid-phenylpropanoids (BPs). Thus, it is not clear whether the BP aroma was attenuated for the appearance of purple color. In this study, we integrated metabolome and transcriptome of petals of two tea varieties, namely, Zijuan (ZJ) with white flowers and Baitang (BT) with purple flowers, to reveal the relationship between color (anthocyanins) and aroma (volatile BPs). The results indicated that in purple petals, the upstream shikimate pathway promoted for 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) was elevated. Among the increased anthocyanins, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (DpG) was extremely higher; volatile BPs, including benzyl aldehyde, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone (AP), 1-phenylethanol, and 2-phenylethanol, were also enhanced, and AP was largely elevated. The structural genes related to the biosynthesis of volatile BPs were induced, while the whole flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was downregulated, except for the genes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), which were highly expressed to shift the carbon flux to delphinidin, which was then conjugated to glucoside by increased bronze-1 (BZ1) (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) to form DpG. Transcription factors (TFs) highly related to AP and DpG were selected to investigate their correlation with the differentially expressed structural genes. TFs, such as MYB, AP2/ERF, bZIP, TCP, and GATA, were dramatically expressed and focused on the regulation of genes in the upstream synthesis of Phe (DAHPS; arogenate dehydratase/prephenatedehydratase) and the synthesis of AP (phenylacetaldehyde reductase; short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase), Dp (F3'H; F3'5'H), and DpG (BZ1), but inhibited the formation of flavones (flavonol synthase) and catechins (leucoanthocyanidin reductase). These results discovered an unexpected promotion of volatile BPs in purple tea flowers and extended our understanding of the relationship between the BP-type color and aroma in the tea plant.
Project description:Almost all flowers of the tea plant (<i>Camellia sinensis</i>) are white, which has caused few researchers to pay attention to anthocyanin accumulation and color changing in tea flowers. A new purple-leaf cultivar, Baitang purple tea (BTP) was discovered in the Baitang Mountains of Guangdong, whose flowers are naturally pink, and can provide an opportunity to understand anthocyanin metabolic networks and flower color development in tea flowers. In the present study, twelve anthocyanin components were identified in the pink tea flowers, namely cyanidin <i>O</i>-syringic acid, petunidin 3-<i>O</i>-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-<i>O</i>-beta-d-glucoside, which marks the first time these compounds have been found in the tea flowers. The presence of these anthocyanins seem most likely to be the reason for the pink coloration of the flowers. Twenty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in anthocyanin pathway were identified using KEGG pathway functional enrichment, and ten of these DEG's screened using venn and KEGG functional enrichment analysis during five subsequent stages of flower development. By comparing DEGs and their expression levels across multiple flower development stages, we found that anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in BTP flowers mainly occurred between the third and fourth stages (BTP3 to BTP4). Particularly, during the period of peak anthocyanin synthesis 17 structural genes were upregulated, and four structural genes were downregulated only. Ultimately, eight critical genes were identified using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), which were found to have direct impact on biosynthesis and accumulation of three flavonoid compounds, namely cyanidin 3-<i>O</i>-glucoside, petunidin 3-<i>O</i>-glucoside and epicatechin gallate. These results provide useful information about the molecular mechanisms of coloration in rare pink tea flower of anthocyanin-rich tea, enriching the gene resource and guiding further research on anthocyanin accumulation in purple tea.
Project description:The flowers of chrysanthemum species are used as a herbal tea and in traditional medicine. In addition, members of the genus have been selected to develop horticultural cultivars of diverse floral colors and capitulum forms. In this research, we investigated the phytochemical composition of eight gamma-irradiation mutant cultivars of <i>Chrysanthemum morifolium</i> and their original cultivars. The mutant chrysanthemum cultivars were generated by treatment with various doses of <sup>60</sup>Co gamma irradiation of stem cuttings of three commercial chrysanthemum cultivars as follows: 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate' (50Gy), 'ARTI-Purple Lady' (30 Gy), and 'ARTI-Yellow Star' (50 Gy) derived from 'Noble Wine'; 'ARTI-Red Star' (50 Gy) and 'ARTI-Rising Sun' (30 Gy) from 'Pinky'; 'ARTI-Purple' (40 Gy) and 'ARTI-Queen' (30 Gy) from 'Argus'; and 'ARTI-Rollypop' (70 Gy) from 'Plaisir d'amour'. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids in the flowers of the 12 chrysanthemum cultivars was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS). Essential oils from the flowers of these cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady', 'ARTI-Purple', and 'ARTI-Queen' showed higher total amounts of flavonoid and phenolic acid compared with those of the respective original cultivars. The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady' and 'ARTI-Purple', which produce purple to pink petals, contained more than two-times higher amounts of anthocyanins compared with those of their original cultivars. Of the mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Yellow Star' in which petal color was changed to yellow, showed the greatest accumulation of carotenoids. Ninety-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which hydrocarbons and terpenoids were abundant in all cultivars analyzed. This is the first report that demonstrated the phytochemical analysis of novel chrysanthemum cultivars derived from <i>C. morifolium</i> hydrid using HPLC-DAD-ESIMS and GC-MS. These findings suggest that the selected mutant chrysanthemum cultivars show potential as a functional source of phytochemicals associated with the abundance of health-beneficial components, as well as good source for horticulture and pigment industries.
Project description:Fenghuang Dancong tea covers the oolong tea category and is widely acknowledged for its unique floral and honey flavor. In order to characterize the volatile components in nine different aroma types of Fenghuang Dancong tea, the Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS) were employed. In addition, the similarity analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were performed to compare the aroma characteristics and establish the correlation between the nine types of teas. The principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) method were employed to determine the volatile components with a high contribution to the overall aroma of each type of tea. The results presented a total of 122 volatile aroma components including 24 kinds of alcohol, 23 kinds of esters, 15 kinds of olefins, 12 kinds of aldehydes, 12 kinds of ketones, 13 kinds of alkanes and 23 kinds of other components from the nine types of Fenghuang Dancong tea. Of these volatile aroma components, 22 types were common with linalool, dehydrolinalool, linalool oxide I, linalool oxide II, etc. The similarity of the nine types of Fenghuang Dancong tea was found between 46.79% and 95.94%. The CA indicated that the nine types of Fenghuang Dancong tea could be clustered into four categories when the ordinate distance reached to 10. The PCA demonstrated that decane, octadecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, dehydrolinalool, geraniol and nerol were the important aroma components to Fenghuang Dancong Tea. OPLS-DA proved that 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, dehydrolinalool, phenylacetaldehyde, nerolidol, linalool oxide I and hexanal were the key differential compounds between the various types of tea samples. This study provides a theoretical basis for characterizing the volatile aroma components in the main types of Fenghuang Dancong tea as well as the similarity and correlation between various types of Fenghuang Dancong tea.
Project description:Chokecherry (<i>Padus virginiana</i> L.) is an important landscaping tree with high ornamental value because of its colorful purplish-red leaves (PRL). The quantifications of anthocyanins and the mechanisms of leaf color change in this species remain unknown. The potential biosynthetic and regulatory mechanisms and the accumulation patterns of anthocyanins in <i>P. virginiana</i> that determine three leaf colors were investigated by combined analysis of the transcriptome and the metabolome. The difference of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content correlated with the formation of <i>P. virginiana</i> leaf color. Using enrichment and correlation network analysis, we found that anthocyanin accumulation differed in different colored leaves and that the accumulation of malvidin 3-O-glucoside (violet) and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (orange-red) significantly correlated with the leaf color change from green to purple-red. The flavonoid biosynthesis genes (<i>PAL</i>, <i>CHS</i> and <i>CHI</i>) and their transcriptional regulators (<i>MYB</i>, <i>HD-Zip</i> and <i>bHLH</i>) exhibited specific increased expression during the purple-red periods. Two genes encoding enzymes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl-transferase (<i>UFGT</i>) and anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (<i>BZ1</i>), seem to be critical for suppressing the formation of the aforesaid anthocyanins. In PRL, the expression of the genes encoding for UGFT and BZ1 enzymes was substantially higher than in leaves of other colors and may be related with the purple-red color change. These results may facilitate genetic modification or selection for further improvement in ornamental qualities of <i>P. virginiana</i>.
Project description:Purple-leaf tea is a phenotype with unique color because of its high anthocyanin content. The special flavor of purple-leaf tea is highly different from that of green-leaf tea, and its main ingredient is also of economic value. To probe the genetic mechanism of the phenotypic characteristics of tea leaf color, we conducted widely targeted metabolic and transcriptomic profiling. The metabolites in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway of purple- and green-leaf tea were compared, and results showed that phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins, accumulated in purple-leaf tea. The high expression of genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis (e.g., PAL and LAR) exhibits the specific expression of biosynthesis and the accumulation of these metabolites. Our result also shows that two CsUFGTs were positively related to the accumulation of anthocyanin. Moreover, genes encoding transcription factors that regulate flavonoids were identified by coexpression analysis. These results may help to identify the metabolic factors that influence leaf color differentiation and provide reference for future research on leaf color biology and the genetic improvement of tea.
Project description:Tea aroma is a key indicator for evaluating tea quality. Although notable success in tea aroma improvement has been achieved with heterosis breeding technology, the molecular basis underlying heterosis remains largely unexplored. Thus, the present report studies the tea plant volatile heterosis using a high-throughput next-generation RNA-seq strategy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phenotypically, we found higher terpenoid volatile and green leaf volatile contents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the F1 hybrids than in their parental lines. Volatile heterosis was obvious in both F1 hybrids. At the molecular level, the comparative transcriptomics analysis revealed that approximately 41% (9027 of 21,995) of the genes showed non-additive expression, whereas only 7.83% (1723 of 21,995) showed additive expression. Among the non-additive genes, 42.1% showed high parental dominance and 17.6% showed over-dominance. Among different expression genes with high parental dominance and over-dominance expression patterns, KEGG and GO analyses found that plant hormone signal transduction, tea plant physiological process related pathways and most pathways associated with tea tree volatiles were enriched. In addition, we identified multiple genes (CsDXS, CsAATC2, CsSPLA2, etc.) and transcription factors (CsMYB1, CsbHLH79, CsWRKY40, etc.) that played important roles in tea volatile heterosis. Based on transcriptome and metabolite profiling, we conclude that non-additive action plays a major role in tea volatile heterosis. Genes and transcription factors involved in tea volatiles showing over-dominance expression patterns can be considered candidate genes and provide novel clues for breeding high-volatile tea varieties.
Project description:Characteristic aroma formation in tea (<i>Camellia sinensis</i>) leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process might result from the defense responses of tea leaves against these various stresses, which involves upregulation of the upstream signal phytohormones related to leaf chloroplasts, such as jasmonic acid (JA). Whether chloroplast changes affect the formation of JA and characteristic aroma compounds in tea leaves exposed to stresses is unknown. In tea germplasms, albino-induced yellow tea leaves have defects in chloroplast ultrastructure and composition. Herein, we have compared the differential responses of phytohormone and characteristic aroma compound formation in normal green and albino-induced yellow tea leaves exposed to continuous wounding stress, which is the main stress in oolong tea manufacture. In contrast to single wounding stress (from picking, as a control), continuous wounding stress can upregulate the expression of <i>CsMYC2</i>, a key transcription factor of JA signaling, and activate the synthesis of JA and characteristic aroma compounds in both normal tea leaves (normal chloroplasts) and albino tea leaves (chloroplast defects). Chloroplast defects had no significant effect on the expression levels of <i>CsMYC2</i> and JA synthesis-related genes in response to continuous wounding stress, but reduced the increase in JA content in response to continuous wounding stress. Furthermore, chloroplast defects reduced the increase in volatile fatty acid derivatives, including jasmine lactone and green leaf volatile contents, in response to continuous wounding stress. Overall, the formation of metabolites derived from fatty acids, such as JA, jasmine lactone, and green leaf volatiles in tea leaves, in response to continuous wounding stress, was affected by chloroplast defects. This information will improve understanding of the relationship of the stress responses of JA and aroma compound formation with chloroplast changes in tea.
Project description:There were several high concentrations of flavonoid components in tea leaves that present health benefits. A novel purple-leaf tea variety, 'Mooma1', was obtained from the natural hybrid population of Longjing 43 variety. The buds and young leaves of 'Mooma1' were displayed in bright red. HPLC and LC-MS analysis showed that anthocyanins and O-Glycosylated flavonols were remarkably accumulated in the leaves of 'Mooma1', while the total amount of catechins in purple-leaf leaves was slightly decreased compared with the control. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor (CsMYB6A) and a novel UGT gene (CsUGT72AM1), that were highly expressed in purple leaf were isolated and identified by transcriptome sequencing. The over-expression of transgenic tobacco confirmed that CsMYB6A can activate the expression of flavonoid-related structural genes, especially CHS and 3GT, controlling the accumulation of anthocyanins in the leaf of transgenic tobacco. Enzymatic assays in vitro confirmed that CsUGT72AM1 has catalytic activity as a flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and displayed broad substrate specificity. The results were useful for further elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid metabolic fluxes in the tea plant.
Project description:In response to preharvest priming with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA), tea plants adjust their physiological behavior at the molecular level. The whole-organism reconfiguration of aroma formation from the precursor to storage is poorly understood. In this study, we performed iTRAQ proteomic analysis and identified 337, 246, and 413 differentially expressed proteins in tea leaves primed with MeJA for 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 266 nonvolatile and 100 volatile differential metabolites were identified by utilizing MS-based metabolomics. A novel approach that incorporated the integration of extended self-organizing map-based dimensionality was applied. The vivid time-scale changes tracing physiological responses in MeJA-primed tea leaves are marked in these maps. Jasmonates responded quickly to the activation of the jasmonic acid pathway in tea leaves, while hydroxyl and glycosyl jasmonates were biosynthesized simultaneously on a massive scale to compensate for the exhausted defense. The levels of α-linolenic acid, geranyl diphosphate, farnesyl diphosphate, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and phenylalanine, which are crucial aroma precursors, were found to be significantly changed in MeJA-primed tea leaves. Green leaf volatiles, volatile terpenoids, and volatile phenylpropanoids/benzenoids were spontaneously biosynthesized from responding precursors and subsequently converted to their corresponding glycosidic forms, which can be stably stored in tea leaves. This study elucidated the physiological response of tea leaves primed with exogenous methyl jasmonate and revealed the molecular basis of source and sink changes on tea aroma biosynthesis and catabolism in response to exogenous stimuli. The results significantly enhance our comprehensive understanding of tea plant responses to exogenous treatment and will lead to the development of promising biotechnologies to improve fresh tea leaf quality.
Project description:Tea leaves possess numerous volatile organic compounds (VOC) that contribute to tea's characteristic aroma. Some components of tea VOC were known to exhibit antimicrobial activity; however, their impact on bacteria remains elusive. Here, we showed that the VOC of fresh aqueous tea leaf extract, recovered through hydrodistillation, promoted cell division and tryptophan-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in Pseudomonas sp. NEEL19, a solvent-tolerant isolate of the tea phylloplane. 1-octanol was identified as one of the responsible volatiles stimulating cell division, metabolic change, swimming motility, putative pili/nanowire formation and IAA production, through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microscopy and partition petri dish culture analyses. The bacterial metabolic responses including IAA production increased under 1-octanol vapor in a dose-dependent manner, whereas direct-contact in liquid culture failed to elicit such response. Thus, volatile 1-octanol emitting from tea leaves is a potential modulator of cell division, colonization and phytohormone production in NEEL19, possibly influencing the tea aroma.