Bispidine as a β-strand nucleator: from a β-arch to self-assembled cages and vesicles.
ABSTRACT: The development of synthetic scaffolds that nucleate well-folded secondary structures is highly challenging. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of core-modified peptides (F1, F2, F3, and F4) that fold into β-strand structures. These bispidine-scaffolded peptides were studied by CD, IR, NMR, single crystal XRD, and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate their conformational preferences. Solid-state and solution studies revealed that bispidine is a versatile scaffold that could be placed either at the terminal or at the middle of the peptide strand for nucleating the β-strand structure. Scaffolds that nucleate an isolated β-strand conformation are rare. Bispidine placed at the C-terminus of the peptide chain could nucleate a β-strand conformation, while bispidine placed at the middle resulted in a β-arch conformation. This nucleation activity stems from the ability to restrict the psi torsion angle (ψ) through intramolecular C5 hydrogen bonding between the equatorial hydrogen(s) of bispidine and the carbonyl oxygen(s) of the amino acid close to the scaffold. Furthermore, the bispidine peptidomimetic with a super secondary structure, namely β-arch, assembled into single-hole submicron cages and spherical vesicles as evident from microscopic studies. The design logic defined here will be a significant strategy for the development of β-strand mimetics and super secondary structures.
Project description:The orientation of a beta-sheet membrane peptide in lipid bilayers is determined, for the first time, using two-dimensional (2D) (15)N solid-state NMR. Retrocyclin-2 is a disulfide-stabilized cyclic beta-hairpin peptide with antibacterial and antiviral activities. We used 2D separated local field spectroscopy correlating (15)N-(1)H dipolar coupling with (15)N chemical shift to determine the orientation of multiply (15)N-labeled retrocyclin-2 in uniaxially aligned phosphocholine bilayers. Calculated 2D spectra exhibit characteristic resonance patterns that are sensitive to both the tilt of the beta-strand axis and the rotation of the beta-sheet plane from the bilayer normal and that yield resonance assignment without the need for singly labeled samples. Retrocyclin-2 adopts a transmembrane orientation in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine bilayers, with the strand axis tilted at 20 degrees +/- 10 degrees from the bilayer normal, but changes to a more in-plane orientation in thicker 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-choline (POPC) bilayers with a tilt angle of 65 degrees +/- 15 degrees . These indicate that hydrophobic mismatch regulates the peptide orientation. The 2D spectra are sensitive not only to the peptide orientation but also to its backbone (phi, psi) angles. Neither a bent hairpin conformation, which is populated in solution, nor an ideal beta-hairpin with uniform (phi, psi) angles and coplanar strands, agrees with the experimental spectrum. Thus, membrane binding orders the retrocyclin conformation by reducing the beta-sheet curvature but does not make it ideal. (31)P NMR spectra of lipid bilayers with different compositions indicate that retrocyclin-2 selectively disrupts the orientational order of anionic membranes while leaving zwitteronic membranes intact. These structural results provide insights into the mechanism of action of this beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptide.
Project description:Appropriately-placed hydrogen bond surrogates have been demonstrated to efficiently nucleate helical conformations. Herein we describe an efficient method for the synthesis of thioether-based hydrogen bond surrogate (teHBS) helices. A teHBS helix is shown to adopt a stable conformation and target its cognate protein receptor with high affinity.
Project description:In this work we used a combination of classical molecular dynamics and simulated annealing techniques to shed more light on the conformational flexibility of 12 adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogues in a water environment. We present simulations in AMBER force field for ATP and 12 published analogues [Shah et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 3565-3570]. The calculations were carried out using the generalized Born (GB) solvation model in the presence of the cation Mg(2+). The ion was placed at a close distance (2 Å) from the charged oxygen atoms of the beta and gamma phosphate groups of the -3 negatively charged ATP analogue molecules. Analysis of the results revealed the distribution of inter-proton distances H8-H1' and H8-H2' versus the torsion angle ψ (C4-N9-C1'-O4') for all conformations of ATP analogues. There are two gaps in the distribution of torsion angle ψ values: the first is between -30 and 30 degrees and is described by cis-conformation; and the second is between 90 and 175 degrees, which mostly covers a region of anti conformation. Our results compare favorably with results obtained in experimental assays [Jiang and Mao (2002) Polyhedron 21:435-438].
Project description:Solid-state NMR study shows that the 22-residue K3 peptide (Ser(20)-Lys(41)) from beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) adopts a beta-strand-loop-beta-strand conformation in its fibril state. Residue Pro(32) has a trans conformation in the fibril state of the peptide, while it adopts a cis conformation in the native state of full-length beta(2)m. To get insights into the structural properties of the K3 peptide, and determine whether the strand-loop-strand conformation is encoded at the monomeric level, we run all-atom explicit solvent replica exchange molecular dynamics on both the cis and trans variants. Our simulations show that the conformational space of the trans- and cis-K3 peptides is very different, with 1% of the sampled conformations in common at room temperature. In addition, both variants display only 0.3-0.5% of the conformations with beta-strand-loop-beta-strand character. This finding, compared to results on the Alzheimer's Abeta peptide, suggests that the biases toward aggregation leading to the beta-strand-loop-beta-strand conformation in fibrils are peptide-dependent.
Project description:The molecular conformation of peptide fragment 105-115 of transthyretin, TTR(105-115), previously shown to form amyloid fibrils in vitro, has been determined by magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. 13C and 15N linewidth measurements indicate that TTR(105-115) forms a highly ordered structure with each amino acid in a unique environment. 2D 13C-13C and 15N-13C-13C chemical shift correlation experiments, performed on three fibril samples uniformly 13C,15N-labeled in consecutive stretches of 4 aa, allowed the complete sequence-specific backbone and side-chain 13C and 15N resonance assignments to be obtained for residues 105-114. Analysis of the 15N, 13CO, 13Calpha, and 13Cbeta chemical shifts allowed quantitative predictions to be made for the backbone torsion angles phi and psi. Furthermore, four backbone 13C-15N distances were determined in two selectively 13C,15N-labeled fibril samples by using rotational-echo double-resonance NMR. The results show that TTR(105-115) adopts an extended beta-strand conformation that is similar to that found in the native protein except for substantial differences in the vicinity of the proline residue.
Project description:The 10th type III module of fibronectin possesses a beta-sandwich structure consisting of seven beta-strands (A-G) that are arranged in two antiparallel sheets. It mediates cell adhesion to surfaces via its integrin binding motif, Arg78, Gly79, and Asp80 (RGD), which is placed at the apex of the loop connecting beta-strands F and G. Steered molecular dynamics simulations in which tension is applied to the protein's terminal ends reveal that the beta-strand G is the first to break away from the module on forced unfolding whereas the remaining fold maintains its structural integrity. The separation of strand G from the remaining fold results in a gradual shortening of the distance between the apex of the RGD-containing loop and the module surface, which potentially reduces the loop's accessibility to surface-bound integrins. The shortening is followed by a straightening of the RGD-loop from a tight beta-turn into a linear conformation, which suggests a further decrease of affinity and selectivity to integrins. The RGD-loop therefore is located strategically to undergo strong conformational changes in the early stretching stages of the module and thus constitutes a mechanosensitive control of ligand recognition.
Project description:Regio- and diastereoselective reactions of a homoproline enolate enable the synthesis of novel extended dipeptide surrogates. Bicyclic carbamate 9 and fused beta-lactam scaffold 11 were prepared from L-pyroglutamic acid via substrate-controlled electrophilic azidation. Synthesis of orthogonally protected hexahydropyrrolizine, hexahydropyrrolizinone, and hexahydropyrroloazepinone dipeptide surrogates relied on allylation of proline derivative 5, followed by Curtius rearrangement to introduce the N-terminal carbamate group. A total of six azabicycloalkane derivatives were evaluated for conformational mimicry of extended dipeptides by a combination of X-ray diffraction and molecular modeling. Analysis of putative backbone dihedral angles and N- to C-terminal dipeptide distances indicate that compounds (alpha'S)-14b and 21 approximate the conformation of dipeptides found in beta-sheets, while tripeptide mimic 28 is also highly extended in the solid state. Structural data suggest that ring size and relative stereochemistry have a profound effect on the ability of these scaffolds to act as beta-strand mimetics and should inform the design of related conformational probes.
Project description:The pseudouridine (Psi) synthases Pus7p and TruD define a family of RNA-modifying enzymes with no sequence similarity to previously characterized Psi synthases. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Escherichia coli TruD reveals a U-shaped molecule with a catalytic domain that superimposes closely on that of other Psi synthases. A domain that appears to be unique to TruD/Pus7p family enzymes hinges over the catalytic domain, possibly serving to clasp the substrate RNAs. The active site comprises residues that are conserved in other Psi synthases, although at least one comes from a structurally distinct part of the protein. Remarkably, the connectivity of the structural elements of the TruD catalytic domain is a circular permutation of that of its paralogs. Because the sequence of the permuted segment, a beta-strand that bisects the catalytic domain, is conserved among orthologs from bacteria, archaea and eukarya, the permutation likely happened early in evolution.
Project description:Prions are infectious proteins that can adopt a structural conformation different from that of the normal protein. This change of conformation is then propagated among other molecules of the same protein. Prions are associated with neurodegenerative diseases in mammals, but are also found in fungi (in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina), in which they control heritable traits. They are widespread in wild yeast strains, suggesting a biologically important role. [PSI+] is one of the most widely studied yeast prions. It corresponds to an aggregated conformation of the translational release factor, eRF3, which suppresses nonsense codons. [PSI+] modifies cellular fitness, inducing various phenotypes, depending on the genetic background. However, the genes displaying [PSI+]-controlled expression remain largely unknown. We used the recently described ribosome profiling approach to identify genes displaying changes in expression in the presence of [PSI+]. This made it possible to determine the positions of all active ribosomes within the genome, in both [PSI+] and [PSI-] isogenic strains. Comparisons of the translatomes and transcriptomes of the two strains revealed that the primary effect of [PSI+] was to repress genes involved in the stress response. Thus, we provide the first description of the global translational effect of [PSI+] and a new genetic explanation of the phenotypic differences between [PSI-] and [PSI+] strains under stress conditions. Comparisons of the translatomes and transcriptomes of the two strains. Comparisons of the translatomes of the two strains : a [PSI+] strain (two replicates) and a [PSI+] overexpressing SUP35-Cter strain.
Project description:The complete ectodomain of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) reveals a bent, closed, low-affinity conformation, the beta knee, and a mechanism for linking cytoskeleton attachment to high affinity for ligand. Ca and Mg ions in the recognition site, including the synergistic metal ion binding site (SyMBS), are loaded prior to ligand binding. Electrophilicity of the ligand-binding Mg ion is increased in the open conformation. The beta(3) knee passes between the beta(3)-PSI and alpha(IIb)-knob to bury the lower beta leg in a cleft, from which it is released for extension. Different integrin molecules in crystals and EM reveal breathing that appears on pathway to extension. Tensile force applied to the extended ligand-receptor complex stabilizes the closed, low-affinity conformation. By contrast, an additional lateral force applied to the beta subunit to mimic attachment to moving actin filaments stabilizes the open, high-affinity conformation. This mechanism propagates allostery over long distances and couples cytoskeleton attachment of integrins to their high-affinity state.