Synergistic stimulation of surface topography and biphasic electric current promotes muscle regeneration.
ABSTRACT: Developing a universal culture platform that manipulates cell fate is one of the most important tasks in the investigation of the role of the cellular microenvironment. This study focuses on the application of topographical and electrical field stimuli to human myogenic precursor cell (hMPC) cultures to assess the influences of the adherent direction, proliferation, and differentiation, and induce preconditioning-induced therapeutic benefits. First, a topographical surface of commercially available culture dishes was achieved by femtosecond laser texturing. The detachable biphasic electrical current system was then applied to the hMPCs cultured on laser-textured culture dishes. Laser-textured topographies were remarkably effective in inducing the assembly of hMPC myotubes by enhancing the orientation of adherent hMPCs compared with flat surfaces. Furthermore, electrical field stimulation through laser-textured topographies was found to promote the expression of myogenic regulatory factors compared with nonstimulated cells. As such, we successfully demonstrated that the combined stimulation of topographical and electrical cues could effectively enhance the myogenic maturation of hMPCs in a surface spatial and electrical field-dependent manner, thus providing the basis for therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Human mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (hMPCs), which are required for the uptake of pyruvate into mitochondria, are associated with several metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and various cancers. Yeast MPC was recently demonstrated to form a functional unit of heterodimers. However, human MPC-1 (hMPC-1) and MPC-2 (hMPC-2) have not yet been individually isolated for their detailed characterization, in particular in terms of their structural and functional properties, namely, whether they exist as homo- or heterodimers. In this study, hMPC-1 and hMPC-2 were successfully isolated in micelles and they formed stable homodimers. However, the heterodimer state was found to be dominant when both hMPC-1 and hMPC-2 were present. In addition, as heterodimers, the molecules exhibited a higher binding capacity to both substrates and inhibitors, together with a larger structural stability than when they existed as homodimers. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the hetero-dimerization of hMPCs is the main functional unit of the pyruvate metabolism, providing a structural insight into the transport mechanisms of hMPCs.
Project description:Peptide YY (PYY) is considered a gut peptide with roles in post-prandial appetite and glucose regulation. Circulating PYY protein levels increase during aerobic exercise. Furthermore, people who have greater increases in muscle progenitor cells (hMPCs), the adult stem cell population responsible for skeletal muscle (SkM) repair, after resistance training have higher PYY transcript levels in SkM prior to training. Currently, examination of PYY expression patterns in SkM and/or hMPCs is lacking. Our objective was to identify the expression patterns of PYY in SkM and hMPCs. PYY and the associated Y receptors were analyzed in SkM biopsy tissue and cultured hMPCs from young and old human participants. Additional experiments to assess the role and regulation of PYY in hMPCs were performed. In SkM, PYY and one of the three Y receptors (Y1r) were detectable, but expression patterns were not affected by age. In expanding hMPCs, PYY and all three Y receptor (Y1r, Y2r, and Y5r) proteins were expressed in a temporal fashion with young hMPCs having greater levels of Y receptors at various time points. Exogenous PYY did not affect hMPC population expansion. hMPC PYY levels increased following the metabolic stimulus, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), but were not affected by the inflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). In conclusion, PYY and Y receptor expression are not impacted by age in SkM tissue but are reduced in old vs. young expanding hMPCs. Furthermore, endogenous PYY production is stimulated by low energy states and thus may be integral for skeletal muscle and hMPC responses to metabolic stimuli.
Project description:Transplantation of human muscle precursor cells (hMPCs) is envisioned for the treatment of various muscle diseases. However, a feasible noninvasive tool to monitor cell survival, migration, and integration into the host tissue is still missing.In this study, we designed an adenoviral delivery system to genetically modify hMPCs to express a signaling-deficient form of human dopamine D2 receptor (hD2R). The gene expression levels of the receptor were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and infection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. The viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity of the transduced cells, as well as their myogenic phenotype, were determined by flow cytometry analysis and fluorescent microscopy. (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluoromisonidazole, two well-established PET radioligands, were assessed for their potential to image engineered hMPCs in a mouse model and their uptakes were evaluated at different time points after cell inoculation in vivo. Biodistribution studies, autoradiography, and PET experiments were performed to determine the extent of signal specificity. To address feasibility for tracking hMPCs in an in vivo model, the safety of the adenoviral gene delivery was evaluated. Finally, the harvested tissues were histologically examined to determine whether survival of the transplanted cells was sustained at different time points.Adenoviral gene delivery was shown to be safe, with no detrimental effects on the primary human cells. The viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity of the transduced cells were confirmed, and flow cytometry analysis and fluorescent microscopy showed that their myogenic phenotype was sustained. (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluoromisonidazole were successfully synthesized. Specific binding of (18)F-fallypride to hD2R hMPCs was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the (18)F-fluoromisonidazole signal was high at the early stages. Finally, sustained survival of the transplanted cells at different time points was confirmed histologically, with formation of muscle tissue at the site of injection.Our proposed use of a signaling-deficient hD2R as a potent reporter for in vivo hMPC PET tracking by (18)F-fallypride is a significant step toward potential noninvasive tracking of hD2R hMPCs and bioengineered muscle tissues in the clinic.
Project description:Introduction:Progenitor cells cultured on biomaterials with optimal physical-topographical properties respond with alignment and differentiation. Stromal cells from connective tissue can adversely differentiate to profibrotic myofibroblasts or favorably to smooth muscle cells (SMC). We hypothesized that myogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) depends on gradient directional topographic features. Methods:Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples with nanometer and micrometer directional topography gradients (wavelength (w) = 464-10, 990?nm; amplitude (a) = 49-3, 425?nm) were fabricated. ASC were cultured on patterned PDMS and stimulated with TGF-?1 to induce myogenic differentiation. Cellular alignment and adhesion were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy after 24?h. After seven days, myogenic differentiation was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, gene expression, and immunoblotting. Results:Cell alignment occurred on topographies larger than w = 1758?nm/a = 630?nm. The number and total area of focal adhesions per cell were reduced on topographies from w = 562?nm/a = 96?nm to w = 3919?nm/a = 1430?nm. Focal adhesion alignment was increased on topographies larger than w = 731?nm/a = 146?nm. Less myogenic differentiation of ASC occurred on topographies smaller than w = 784?nm/a = 209?nm. Conclusion:ASC adherence, alignment, and differentiation are directed by topographical cues. Our evidence highlights a minimal topographic environment required to facilitate the development of aligned and differentiated cell layers from ASC. These data suggest that nanotopography may be a novel tool for inhibiting fibrosis.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on muscle-specific adult stem cells (MuSCs), MuSC progeny, muscle progenitor cells (MPCs), and a coordinated myogenic program that is influenced by the extracellular environment. Following injury, MPCs undergo a transient and rapid period of population expansion, which is necessary to repair damaged myofibers and restore muscle homeostasis. Certain pathologies (e.g., metabolic diseases and muscle dystrophies) and advanced age are associated with dysregulated muscle regeneration. The availability of serine and glycine, two nutritionally non-essential amino acids, is altered in humans with these pathologies and these amino acids have been shown to influence the proliferative state of non-muscle cells. Our objective was to determine the role of serine/glycine in MuSC/MPC function.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Primary human MPCs (hMPCs) were used for in vitro experiments, and young (4-6 mo) and old (>20 mo) mice were used for in vivo experiments. Serine/glycine availability was manipulated using specially formulated media in vitro or dietary restriction in vivo followed by downstream metabolic and cell proliferation analyses.<br><br><b>Results: </b>We identified that serine/glycine are essential for hMPC proliferation. Dietary restriction of serine/glycine in a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration lowered the abundance of MuSCs 3 days post-injury. Stable isotope-tracing studies showed that hMPCs rely on extracellular serine/glycine for population expansion because they exhibit a limited capacity for de novo serine/glycine biosynthesis. Restriction of serine/glycine to hMPCs resulted in cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Extracellular serine/glycine was necessary to support glutathione and global protein synthesis in hMPCs. Using an aged mouse model, we found that reduced serine/glycine availability augmented intermyocellular adipocytes 28 days post-injury.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>These studies demonstrated that despite an absolute serine/glycine requirement for MuSC/MPC proliferation, de novo synthesis was inadequate to support these demands, making extracellular serine and glycine conditionally essential for efficient skeletal muscle regeneration.
Project description:Studies of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying human myopathies and muscular dystrophies often require animal models, but models of some human diseases are not yet available. Methods to promote the engraftment and development of myogenic cells from individuals with such diseases in mice would accelerate such studies and also provide a useful tool for testing therapeutics. Here, we investigate the ability of immortalized human myogenic precursor cells (hMPCs) to form mature human myofibers following implantation into the hindlimbs of non-obese diabetic-Rag1 (null) IL2rγ (null) (NOD-Rag)-immunodeficient mice.We report that hindlimbs of NOD-Rag mice that are X-irradiated, treated with cardiotoxin, and then injected with immortalized control hMPCs or hMPCs from an individual with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) develop mature human myofibers. Furthermore, intermittent neuromuscular electrical stimulation (iNMES) of the peroneal nerve of the engrafted limb enhances the development of mature fibers in the grafts formed by both immortal cell lines. With control cells, iNMES increases the number and size of the human myofibers that form and promotes closer fiber-to-fiber packing. The human myofibers in the graft are innervated, fully differentiated, and minimally contaminated with murine myonuclei.Our results indicate that control and FSHD human myofibers can form in mice engrafted with hMPCs and that iNMES enhances engraftment and subsequent development of mature human muscle.
Project description:The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells.
Project description:The current status of research around the world concurs on the powerful influence of micro- and nano-textured surfaces in terms of surface functionalization. In order to characterize the manufactured topographical morphology with regard to the surface quality or homogeneity, major efforts are still required. In this work, an optical approach for the indirect evaluation of the quality and morphology of surface structures manufactured with Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) is presented. For testing the designed optical configuration, line-like surface patterns are fabricated at a 1064 nm wavelength on stainless steel with a repetitive distance of 4.9 µm, utilizing a two-beam DLIP configuration. Depending on the pulse to pulse overlap and hatch distance, different single and complex pattern geometries are produced, presenting non-homogenous and homogenous surface patterns. The developed optical system permitted the successfully classification of different pattern geometries, in particular, those showing single-scale morphology (high homogeneity). Additionally, the fabricated structures were measured using confocal microscopy method, and the obtained topographies were correlated with the recorded optical images.
Project description:Cell therapies are a promising approach for the treatment of a variety of human conditions including stress urinary incontinence, but their success greatly depends on the biodistribution, migration, survival, and differentiation of the transplanted cells. Noninvasive in vivo cell tracking therefore presents an important aspect for translation of such a procedure into the clinics. Upon labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, cells can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but possible adverse effect of the labeling have to be considered when labeling stem cells with SPIOs. In this study, human muscle precursor cells (hMPC) were labeled with increasing concentrations of SPIO nanoparticles (100-1600??g/mL) and cell viability and differentiation capacity upon labeling was assessed in vitro. While a linear dependence between cell viability and nanoparticle concentration could be observed, differentiation capacity was not affected by the presence of SPIOs. Using a nude mouse model, a concentration (400??g/mL) could be defined that allows reliable detection of hMPCs by MRI but does not influence myogenic in vivo differentiation to mature and functional muscle tissue. This suggests that such an approach can be safely used in a clinical setting to track muscle regeneration in patients undergoing cell therapy without negative effects on the functionality of the bioengineered muscle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle (SkM) regenerates following injury, replacing damaged tissue with high fidelity. However, in serious injuries, non-regenerative defects leave patients with loss of function, increased re-injury risk and often chronic pain. Progress in treating these non-regenerative defects has been slow, with advances only occurring where a comprehensive understanding of regeneration has been gained. Tissue engineering has allowed the development of bioengineered models of SkM which regenerate following injury to support research in regenerative physiology. To date, however, no studies have utilised human myogenic precursor cells (hMPCs) to closely mimic functional human regenerative physiology. RESULTS:Here we address some of the difficulties associated with cell number and hMPC mitogenicity using magnetic association cell sorting (MACS), for the marker CD56, and media supplementation with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and B-27 supplement. Cell sorting allowed extended expansion of myogenic cells and supplementation was shown to improve myogenesis within engineered tissues and force generation at maturity. In addition, these engineered human SkM regenerated following barium chloride (BaCl2) injury. Following injury, reductions in function (87.5%) and myotube number (33.3%) were observed, followed by a proliferative phase with increased MyoD+ cells and a subsequent recovery of function and myotube number. An expansion of the Pax7+ cell population was observed across recovery suggesting an ability to generate Pax7+ cells within the tissue, similar to the self-renewal of satellite cells seen in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:This work outlines an engineered human SkM capable of functional regeneration following injury, built upon an open source system adding to the pre-clinical testing toolbox to improve the understanding of basic regenerative physiology.