Toxic Peptide From Palythoa caribaeorum Acting on the TRPV1 Channel Prevents Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epilepsy in Zebrafish Larvae.
ABSTRACT: PcActx peptide, identified from the transcriptome of zoantharian Palythoa caribaeorum, was clustered into the phylogeny of analgesic polypeptides from sea anemone Heteractis crispa (known as APHC peptides). APHC peptides were considered as inhibitors of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel expressed in epileptic brain areas, serving as a potential target for preventing epileptic seizures. Through in silico and in vitro analysis, PcActx peptide was shown to be a potential TRPV1 channel blocker. In vivo studies showed that the linear and oxidized PcActx peptides caused concentration-dependent increases in mortality of zebrafish larvae. However, monotreatment with PcActx peptides below the maximum tolerated doses (MTD) did not affect locomotor behavior. Moreover, PcActx peptides (both linear and oxidized forms) could effectively reverse pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure-related behavior in zebrafish larvae and prevent overexpression of c-fos and npas4a at the mRNA level. The excessive production of ROS induced by PTZ was markedly attenuated by both linear and oxidized PcActx peptides. It was also verified that the oxidized PcActx peptide was more effective than the linear one. In particular, oxidized PcActx peptide notably modulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in calcium signaling and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic-glutamatergic signaling, including calb1, calb2, gabra1, grm1, gria1b, grin2b, gat1, slc1a2b, gad1b, and glsa. Taken together, PcActx peptide, as a novel neuroactive peptide, exhibits prominent anti-epileptic activity, probably through modulating calcium signaling and GABAergic-glutamatergic signaling, and is a promising candidate for epilepsy management.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Peptides from venomous animals have long been important for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Ph?1?, a peptide from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer, produces analgesia by blocking the TRPA1 channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human fetal lung fibroblasts (IMR90) or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), human TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or human TRPV4 channels (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology. Nociceptive responses induced by TRPA1, TRPV1 or TRPV4 agonists or by bortezomib were investigated in mice. KEY RESULTS:Ph?1? selectively inhibited calcium responses and currents evoked by the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), on hTRPA1-HEK293, IMR90 fibroblasts and DRG neurons. Ph?1? did not affect calcium responses evoked by selective TRPV1 (capsaicin) or TRPV4 (GSK 1016790A) agonists on the various cell types. Intrathecal (i.t.) and intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of low doses of Ph?1? (up to 300 pmol per paw) attenuated acute nociception and mechanical and cold hyperalgesia evoked by AITC (i.t. or i.pl.), without affecting responses produced by capsaicin or hypotonic solution. Notably, Ph?1? abated the TRPA1-dependent neuropathic pain-like responses induced by bortezomib. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of TRPA1 by Ph?1? was reproduced by a recombinant form of the peptide, CTK 01512-2. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Ph?1? and CTK 01512-2 selectively target TRPA1, but not other TRP channels. This specific action underlines the potential of Ph?1? and CTK 01512-2 for pain treatment.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Epileptic seizures are well-known neurological complications following stroke, occurring in 3% of patients. However, the intrinsic correlation of seizures with stroke remains largely unknown. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gas transmitter that may mediate cerebral ischemic injury. But the role of H2 S in seizures has not been understood yet. We examined the effect of H2 S on seizure-like events (SLEs) and underlying mechanisms.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and pilocarpine-induced rat epileptic seizure models were tested. Low-Mg(2+) /high-K(+) - and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced epileptic seizure models were examined using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices. It was found that NaHS aggravated both PTZ- and pilocarpine-induced SLEs in rats, while both low-Mg(2+) /high-K(+) - and 4-AP-induced SLEs were also exacerbated by NaHS in brain slices, which may be due to its regulation on the voltage-gated sodium channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by blocking voltage-gated sodium channel, NMDAR, and AMPAR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest a pathological role of increased H2 S level in SLEs in vivo and in vitro. Enzymes that control H2 S biosynthesis could be interesting targets for antiepileptic strategies in poststroke epilepsy treatment.
Project description:Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a molecular pain receptor belonging to the TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. As a polymodal receptor, TRPV1 responds to heat and a wide range of chemical stimuli. The influx of calcium after channel activation serves as a negative feedback mechanism leading to TRPV1 desensitization. The cellular calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) likely participates in the desensitization of TRPV1. Two CaM-binding sites are identified in TRPV1: the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and a short distal C-terminal (CT) segment. Here, we present the crystal structure of calcium-bound CaM (Ca(2+)-CaM) in complex with the TRPV1-CT segment, determined to 1.95-Å resolution. The two lobes of Ca(2+)-CaM wrap around a helical TRPV1-CT segment in an antiparallel orientation, and two hydrophobic anchors, W787 and L796, contact the C-lobe and N-lobe of Ca(2+)-CaM, respectively. This structure is similar to canonical Ca(2+)-CaM-peptide complexes, although TRPV1 contains no classical CaM recognition sequence motif. Using structural and mutational studies, we established the TRPV1 C terminus as a high affinity Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site in both the isolated TRPV1 C terminus and in full-length TRPV1. Although a ternary complex of CaM, TRPV1-ARD, and TRPV1-CT had previously been postulated, we found no biochemical evidence of such a complex. In electrophysiology studies, mutation of the Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site on TRPV1-ARD abolished desensitization in response to repeated application of capsaicin, whereas mutation of the Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site in TRPV1-CT led to a more subtle phenotype of slowed and reduced TRPV1 desensitization. In summary, our results show that the TRPV1-ARD is an important mediator of TRPV1 desensitization, whereas TRPV1-CT has higher affinity for CaM and is likely involved in separate regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sodium channel is a primary target for treating central nervous system disorders such as epilepsy. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of BmK IT2, a sodium channel-specific neurotoxin, was evaluated in different animal models of epilepsy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed on freely moving rats made epileptic by administration of either pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine. BmK IT2 (0.05-0.5 microg in 2 microl) was microinjected into the CA1 area and its effects on PTZ-induced widespread, seizure-like behaviour and cortex epileptiform EEG, as well as on pilocarpine-induced seizure-like behaviour and c-Fos expression were studied. KEY RESULTS: Intrahippocampal application of BmK IT2 dose-dependently inhibited PTZ-induced seizure-like behaviour, and reduced the numbers and duration of the high amplitude and frequency discharges (HAFDs) of the epileptiform EEG component induced by PTZ. Similarly, in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model, BmK IT2 significantly prolonged the latency to onset of the SE, reduced the severity of SE and suppressed hippocampal c-Fos expression during SE. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: BmK IT2 showed anticonvulsant activity as it inhibited the widespread seizures induced by PTZ and pilocarpine-induced SE in rats. This activity might be due to the modulation of sodium channels in the hippocampus. Hence, BmK IT2 could be used as a novel tool to explore the molecular and pathological mechanisms of epilepsy with regard to the involvement of sodium channels.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility.
Project description:Mapping neuronal activity during the onset and propagation of epileptic seizures can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this pathology and improve our approaches to the development of new drugs. Recently, zebrafish has become an important model for studying epilepsy both in basic research and in drug discovery. Here, we employed a transgenic line with pan-neuronal expression of the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6s to measure neuronal activity in zebrafish larvae during seizures induced by pentylenetretrazole (PTZ). With this approach, we mapped neuronal activity in different areas of the larval brain, demonstrating the high sensitivity of this method to different levels of alteration, as induced by increasing PTZ concentrations, and the rescuing effect of an anti-epileptic drug. We also present simultaneous measurements of brain and locomotor activity, as well as a high-throughput assay, demonstrating that GCaMP measurements can complement behavioural assays for the detection of subclinical epileptic seizures, thus enabling future investigations on human hypomorphic mutations and more effective drug screening methods. Notably, the methodology described here can be easily applied to the study of many human neuropathologies modelled in zebrafish, allowing a simple and yet detailed investigation of brain activity alterations associated with the pathological phenotype.
Project description:Introduction:Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical alterations. Current antiepileptic drugs are associated with various adverse impacts. The main goal of the current study is to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effect of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-mediated epileptic seizures in mice hippocampus. Sodium valproate (VPA) was used as a standard anti-epileptic drug. Methods:Mice were assigned into five groups (n=15): control, SeNPs (5 mg/kg, orally), PTZ (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), SeNPs+PTZ and VPA (200 mg/kg)+PTZ. All groups were treated for 10 days. Results:PTZ injection triggered a state of oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue as represented by the elevated lipoperoxidation, heat shock protein 70 level, and nitric oxide formation while decreased glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes activity. Additionally, the blotting analysis showed downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the epileptic mice. A state of neuroinflammation was recorded following the developed seizures represented by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was recorded following the development of epileptic convulsions. At the neurochemical level, acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamines content were decreased in the epileptic mice, accompanied by high glutamate and low GABA levels in the hippocampal tissue. However, SeNP supplementation was found to delay the onset and decreased the duration of tonic, myoclonic, and generalized seizures following PTZ injection. Moreover, SeNPs were found to provide neuroprotection through preventing the development of oxidative challenge via the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptotic cascade. Additionally, SeNPs reversed the changes in the activity and levels of neuromodulators following the development of epileptic seizures. Conclusion:The obtained results suggest that SeNPs could be used as a promising anticonvulsant drug due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuromodulatory activities.
Project description:TRPV1, known as a capsaicin receptor, is the best-described transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel. Recently, it was shown to be expressed by non-excitable cells such as lymphocytes. However, the data regarding the functional expression of the TRPV1 channel in the immune cells are often contradictory. In the present study, we performed a phylogenetical analysis of the canine TRP ion channels, we assessed the expression of TRPV1 in the canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by qPCR and Western blot, and we determined the functionality of TRPV1 by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium assay. We found high expression of TRPV2, -M2, and -M7 in the canine PBMCs, while expression of TRPV1, -V4 and, -M5 was relatively low. We confirmed that TRPV1 is expressed on the protein level in the PBMC and it localizes in the plasma membrane. The whole-cell patch-clamp recording revealed that capsaicin application caused a significant increase in the current density. Similarly, the results from the calcium assay show a dose-dependent increase in intracellular calcium level in the presence of capsaicin that was partially abolished by capsazepine. Our study confirms the expression of TRPV1 ion channel on both mRNA and protein levels in the canine PBMC and indicates that the ion channel is functional.
Project description:The store-operated calcium-release-activated calcium current, I (CRAC), is a major mechanism for calcium entry into non-excitable cells. I (CRAC) refills calcium stores and permits sustained calcium signalling. The relationship between inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R)-containing stores and I (CRAC) is not understood. A model of global InsP(3)R store depletion coupling with I (CRAC) activation may be simplistic, since intracellular stores are heterogeneous in their release and refilling activities. Here we use a ligand-gated calcium channel, TRPV1 (transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1), as a new tool to probe store heterogeneity and define intracellular calcium compartments in a mast cell line. TRPV1 has activity as an intracellular release channel but does not mediate global calcium store depletion and does not invade a store coupled with I (CRAC). Intracellular TRPV1 localizes to a subset of the InsP(3)R-containing stores. TRPV1 sensitivity functionally subdivides the InsP(3)-sensitive store, as does heterogeneity in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase isoforms responsible for store refilling. These results provide unequivocal evidence that a specific 'CRAC store' exists within the InsP(3)-releasable calcium stores and describe a novel methodology for manipulation of intracellular free calcium.
Project description:Patients with diabetes develop endothelial dysfunction shortly after diabetes onset that progresses to vascular disease underlying the majority of diabetes-associated comorbidities. Increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial calcium overload, and mitochondrial dysfunction are characteristics of dysfunctional endothelial cells in diabetic patients. We here identified that targeting the lipid peroxidation product 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced [12(S)-HETE-induced] activation of the intracellularly located cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in endothelial cells is a means to causally control early-stage vascular disease in type I diabetic mice. Mice with an inducible, endothelium-specific 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15Lo) knockout were protected similarly to TRPV1-knockout mice from type 1 diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular regeneration following arterial injury. Both 12(S)-HETE in concentrations found in diabetic patients and TRPV1 agonists triggered mitochondrial calcium influx and mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells, and 12(S)-HETE effects were absent in endothelial cells from TRPV1-knockout mice. As a therapeutic consequence, we found that a peptide targeting 12(S)-HETE-induced TRPV1 interaction at the TRPV1 TRP box ameliorated diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and augmented vascular regeneration in diabetic mice. Our findings suggest that pharmacological targeting of increased endothelial lipid peroxidation can attenuate diabetes-induced comorbidities related to vascular disease.