Genome-Wide Association Study of Body Weight Traits in Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goats.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Body weight is an important economic trait for a goat, which greatly affects animal growth and survival. The purpose of this study was to identify genes associated with birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW). Materials and Methods: In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BW, WW, and YW was determined using the GGP_Goat_70K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip in 1,920 Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. Results: We discovered that 21 SNPs were significantly associated with BW on the genome-wide levels. These SNPs were located in 10 genes, e.g., Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 (MAPK3), LIM domain binding 2 (LDB2), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B), which may be related to muscle growth and development in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were significantly enriched in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton and phospholipase D signaling pathway etc. Conclusion: In summary, this study will improve the marker-assisted breeding of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and the molecular mechanisms of important economic traits.
Project description:Inner Mongolia and Liaoning cashmere goats in China are well-known for their cashmere quality and yield. Thus, they are great models for identifying genomic regions associated with cashmere traits. Herein, 53 Inner Mongolia cashmere goats, Liaoning cashmere goats and Huanghuai goats were genotyped, and 53,347 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were produced using the Illumina Caprine 50K SNP chip. Additionally, we identified some positively selected SNPs by analyzing Fst and XP-EHH. The top 5% of SNPs had selection signatures. After gene annotation, 222 and 173 candidate genes were identified in Inner Mongolia and Liaoning cashmere goats, respectively. Several genes were related to hair follicle development, such as TRPS1, WDR74, LRRC14, SPTLC3, IGF1R, PADI2, FOXP1, WNT10A and CSN3. Gene enrichment analysis of these cashmere trait-associated genes related 67 enriched signaling pathways that mainly participate in hair follicle development and stem cell pluripotency regulation. Furthermore, we identified 20 overlapping genes that were selected in both cashmere goat breeds. Among these overlapping genes, WNT10A and CSN3, which are associated with hair follicle development, are potentially involved in cashmere production. These findings may improve molecular breeding of cashmere goats in the future.
Project description:Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat is a well-known local cashmere goat breed in China. It is famous for excellent fleece quality and a significant advantage in cashmere yield compared to other cashmere goat breeds. In this study, a genome-wide association study was used to investigate fiber length, fiber diameter, and cashmere yield of 192 Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats using the Illumina GoatSNP52K Beadchip panel. We discovered that four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance levels. These SNPs were located in some genes, e.g. FGF12, SEMA3D, EVPL, and SOX5, possibly related to fleece traits in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were enriched in several biological pathways that were involved in hair follicle development in cashmere goats. In summary, the identified significant SNPs and genes provide useful information to explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in fleece traits and genomic selection of Chinese cashmere goat.
Project description:Data on calving ease (CE) and birth, weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW) were obtained from the American Simmental Association (ASA) and included pedigree and performance information on 11,640,735 animals. Our objective was to quantify differential response from selection for high CE vs. low birth weight (LBW) in first-calf Simmental heifers. We hypothesized that direct selection for CE should be used as the primary approach to reduce dystocia and mitigate losses in growth-related traits. WW and YW were adjusted to 205 and 365 d of age, respectively. Sire and maternal grandsire (co)variance components for CE, birth weight (BW), and 205-d weaning weight (205-d WW), and sire covariance components for 160-d postweaning gain (160-d gain) were estimated using a sire-maternal grandsire model. Direct and maternal expected progeny differences (EPD) for CE, BW, and 205-d WW and direct EPD for 160-d gain and 365-d yearling weight (365-d YW) for first-calf Simmental heifers population (465,710 animals) were estimated using a threshold-linear multivariate maternal animal model. This population was used to estimate genetic trends and as a selection pool (control) for various selection scenarios. Selection scenarios were high CE (HCE), LBW, the all-purpose selection index (API = -1.8 BW + 1.3 CE + 0.10 WW + 0.20 YW) of the ASA and its two derived subindices: (API1 = 1.3 CE + 0.20 YW) and (API2 = -1.8 BW + 0.20 YW), and lastly Dickerson's selection index (DSI = -3.2 BW + YW). Data for each selection scenario were created by selecting sires with EPD greater than or equal to the average along with the top 75% of dams. Comparison between selection scenarios involved evaluating the direct and maternal genetic trends from these scenarios. Direct heritabilities for CE, BW, 205-d WW, 160-d gain, and 365-d YW of Simmental cattle were 0.23, 0.52, 0.28, 0.21, and 0.33, respectively. The single trait, HCE, selection scenario, as opposed to LBW, increased the intercept for CE by 57.7% and the slopes (P < 0.001) for BW, 205-d WW, 160-d gain, and 365-d YW by 27.9%, 37.5%, 16%, and 28%, respectively. Comparisons of various selection scenarios revealed that the CE-based selection scenarios (HCE, API, and API1) had a greater response for CE and growth traits.
Project description:There are two main types of hair follicle in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats, the primary hair follicle (PHF) producing hair fibers and the secondary hair follicle (SHF) producing cashmere fibers. Of both fibers from cashmere-bearing goats in Aerbasi, Inner Mongolia, the timing of cyclical phases for the cashmere have been well clarified but hair fibers have been less noticeable. Herein, we evaluated transcriptome of PHF and SHF from the same three goats in Aerbasi at the catagen- and telogen phase of cashmere growth. We totally found 1977 DEGs between PHFs at the telogen and catagen phases of SHF, 1199 DEGs between telogen- and catagen SHF, 2629 DEGs between PHF at the catagen phase of SHF and catagen SHF, and 755 DEGs between PHF at the telogen phase of SHF and telogen SHF. By analyzing gene functions based on GO and KEGG database, we found that the DEGs have functions in muscle contraction and muscle filament sliding between catagen- and telogen SHF, indicating that arrector pilli muscles might play a role on the transition from catagen to telogen. Moreover, considering that the enriched GO and KEGG categories of the DEGs between PHF and SHF, we suggested that part of PHF might rest in their own anagen phase when SHF are at catagen, but PHF might enter into the telogen phase at SHF's telogen. Finally, we highly recommended the several potential genes acting as the regulators of the transition between growth phases including IL17RB and eight members of ZNF. These results provide insight into molecular mechanisms on the transition of SHF from catagen to telogen together with PHF's growth situation at SHF's catagen and telogen in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats.
Project description:Objective:An experiment was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity of 26 Chinese indigenous goats by 30 microsatellite markers, and then to define conservation priorities to set up the protection programs according to the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic diversity. Methods:Twenty-six representative populations of Chinese indigenous goats, 1351 total, were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Within-breed genetic diversity and marker polymorphism were estimated calculating the mean number of alleles (MNA), observed heterozygosities (HO), expected heterozygosities (He), fixation index (FIS), effective number of alleles (NE) and allelic richness (Rt). Conservation priorities were analyzed by statistical methods. Results:A relatively high level of genetic diversity was found in twenty-four populations, the exceptions were in the Daiyun and Fuqing goat populations. Within-breed kinship coefficients matrix identified seven highly inbred breeds which should be concerned. Of these, six breeds will get a negative contribution to heterozygosity when the method was based on proportional contribution to heterozygosity. Based on Weitzman or Piyasatian and Kinghorn methods, the breeds distant from others i.e. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, Chengdu Brown goat and Leizhou goat will obtain a high ranking. Evidence from Caballero and Toro and Fabuel et al. method prioritized Jining Gray goat, Liaoning Cashmere goat and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, that in agreement with results from Kinship-based methods. Conclusion:Conservation priorities had planned according to multiple methods. Our results suggest Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (most methods), Jining Gray goat and Liaoning Cashmere goat (high contribution to heterozygosity and total diversity) should be prioritized based on most methods. Furthermore, Daiyun goat and Shannan White goat also should be prioritized based on consideration of effective population size. However, if one breed could survive in changing conditions all the time, the straightforward approach is to increase its utilization and attraction for production via mining breed germplasm characteristic.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have facilitated discovery of genetic markers associated with complex traits in domestic cattle; thereby enabling modern breeding and selection programs. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAA) for growth traits were conducted on 10,837 geographically diverse U.S. Gelbvieh cattle using a union set of 856,527 imputed SNPs. Birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW) were analyzed using GEMMA and EMMAX (via imputed genotypes). Genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions were also investigated.<h4>Results</h4>GEMMA and EMMAX produced moderate marker-based heritability estimates that were similar for BW (0.36-0.37, SE?=?0.02-0.06), WW (0.27-0.29, SE?=?0.01), and YW (0.39-0.41, SE?=?0.01-0.02). GWAA using 856K imputed SNPs (GEMMA; EMMAX) revealed common positional candidate genes underlying pleiotropic QTL for Gelbvieh growth traits on BTA6, BTA7, BTA14, and BTA20. The estimated proportion of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by the lead SNP defining these QTL (EMMAX) was larger and most similar for BW and YW, and smaller for WW. Collectively, GWAAs (GEMMA; EMMAX) produced a highly concordant set of BW, WW, and YW QTL that met a nominal significance level (P???1e-05), with prioritization of common positional candidate genes; including genes previously associated with stature, feed efficiency, and growth traits (i.e., PLAG1, NCAPG, LCORL, ARRDC3, STC2). Genotype-by-environment QTL were not consistent among traits at the nominal significance threshold (P???1e-05); although some shared QTL were apparent at less stringent significance thresholds (i.e., P???2e-05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pleiotropic QTL for growth traits were detected on BTA6, BTA7, BTA14, and BTA20 for U.S. Gelbvieh beef cattle. Seven QTL detected for Gelbvieh growth traits were also recently detected for feed efficiency and growth traits in U.S. Angus, SimAngus, and Hereford cattle. Marker-based heritability estimates and the detection of pleiotropic QTL segregating in multiple breeds support the implementation of multiple-breed genomic selection.
Project description:Inner Mongolia cashmere goats, as an important part of animal husbandry production, play an important role in animal fiber industry. In recent years, scientific research has made a lot of explorations on the molecular regulation mechanism of hair follicle cycle growth, but few studies have been reported on the development of cashmere hair in fetal period. This study was based on the completion of 21 skin samples of mRNA and miRNA sequencing in 7 fetal periods (45 days, 55 days,65 days,75 days,95 days,115 days and 135 days) of the Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat. The target genes of miRNA associated with the development of secondary hair follicles in the cashmere goats were selected through the combination analysis of mRNA and miRNA data. Then the overexpression vector was constructed and the interaction between the miRNA and the target gene was identified by Dual-Luciferase Reporter Gene System. The function and interaction relationship of chi-miR-199a-5p and TGF-?2 were verified by RT-qPCR and western blot at the level of the fibroblasts in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat. It provides a theoretical basis for further study of miRNA and its target genes regulating the occurrence and development of skin hair follicles. As the result shows, the expression trends of 7 genes (BAMBI, SMAD1, LTBP1, PPP2R1B, ID4, BMP8B and PITX2) and 7 miRNA (chi-miR-17-5p, chi-miR-125b-3p, chi-miR-21-5p, chi-miR-143-5p and chi-miR-106b-5p) in the skin samples for the seven stages of the fetus were shown to be consistent with the sequencing results. the results of sequencing are reliable. The correlation coefficient of TGF-?2 and chi-miR-199a-5p in fetal 45d-135d expression is -0.84, showing a strong negative correlation, The target relationship was preliminarily judged. The results of double luciferase vector report showed that chi-miR-199a-5p significantly decreased the expression of luciferase in TGF-?2 3'UTR, It is determined that there is a reciprocal relationship between them at a specific time. We transfected chi-miR199a-5p-FAM mimics into fibroblasts cultured in vitro from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. After transfection, the cells were harvested to extract total RNA and protein. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TGF-?2 in fibroblasts were detected by RT-qPCR and western blot. It was verified that chi-miR-199a-5p inhibited TGF-?2 expression at both mRNA and protein translation levels in fibroblasts. At the same time, it was again proved that the TGF-?2 gene is a target gene of chi-miR199a-5p.
Project description:Inner Mongolia and Liaoning cashmere goats are two outstanding Chinese multipurpose breeds that adapt well to the semi-arid temperate grassland. These two breeds are characterized by their soft cashmere fibers, thus making them great models to identify genomic regions that are associated with cashmere fiber traits. Whole-genome sequencing of 70 cashmere goats produced more than 5.52 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 710,600 short insertions and deletions. Further analysis of these genetic variants showed some population-specific molecular markers for the two cashmere goat breeds that are otherwise phenotypically similar. By analyzing F ST and ?? outlier values, we identified 135 genomic regions that were associated with cashmere fiber traits within the cashmere goat populations. These selected genomic regions contained genes, which are potential involved in the production of cashmere fiber, such as FGF5, SGK3, IGFBP7, OXTR, and ROCK1. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of identified short insertions and deletions also showed enrichment in keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that this genomic resource will facilitate the breeding of cashmere goat and other Capra species in future.
Project description:Liaoning cashmere goat is a well-known local cashmere goat breed in China and even in the world. It is famous for producing cashmere with superior quality and high yield. Cashmere yield, body measurements, and body weight are the primary indicators of cashmere goat breeding, but the correlation between them is not yet clear. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between certain body measurements, body weight, and cashmere yield in Liaoning cashmere goats using stepwise and factor score analyses in a multiple regression analysis. For this purpose, the body measurements (body slanting length (BSL), body height (BH), chest circumference (CC), pipe circumference (PC), chest depth (CD), chest width (CW), hip breadth (HB), body weight (BW) and cashmere yield (CY)) of 200 (2-year-old) Liaoning cashmere goats were collected. Stepwise analysis of the results showed that body weight had the greatest direct effect on cashmere yield, followed by hip breadth, while chest circumference mainly affected cashmere yield indirectly. The results of factor score analysis showed that the independent variable can be represented by two factors, which explained 49.596% and 12.095% of the total variance, respectively. The factor scores used in the regression analysis explained 75.8% of the total variance in Liaoning cashmere yield. The above studies show that the growth traits of Liaoning cashmere goats are closely related to the cashmere yield. Growth traits should be considered important factors in breed selection, germplasm identification, and rearing.
Project description:Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat is evolved from Mongolia goat in long-term breeding, as a source of high-quality cashmere, Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat type of Erlangshan is famous in the world. By using molecular biology techniques, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Erlangshan Cashmere goat. The complete length of sequence is 16,640?bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a control region (D-loop region). Our mitogenome will enlarge genomic information for further studies on evolution and domestication of Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, enhance germplasm conservation and breeding programs of domestic goat.