Identification of Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov., and Arthrobacter albus sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.
ABSTRACT: Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068).
Project description:Strain SJCon<sup>T</sup>, a 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) degrading bacterium, was isolated from soil collected from a pesticide-contaminated site in Punjab, India. The strain, which stained Gram positive, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle, and possessed a type A3<sub>?</sub> peptidoglycan (L-Lys-L-Ala<sub>3</sub>), MK-9(H2) as the major menaquinone, anteiso-C15 and iso-C15:0 as the major cellular fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and a glycolipid as the major polar lipids, showed morphological and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those reported for members of the genus Arthrobacter. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SJCon<sup>T</sup> confirmed that it was a member of this genus with Arthrobacter globiformis DSM 20124<sup>T</sup> being the closest relative (sequence similarity of 97 %). The DNA G + C content of strain SJCon<sup>T</sup> was 69 ± 1 mol% and DNA homology with A. globiformis DSM 20124<sup>T</sup> was 45 %, suggesting that strain SJCon<sup>T</sup> represented a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, which we have named Arthrobacter nitrophenolicus sp. nov The type strain is SJCon<sup>T</sup> (=MTCC 10104<sup>T</sup> =DSM 23165<sup>T</sup>).
Project description:A novel desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing bacterium, designated strain 4J27(T), was isolated from a Nerium oleander rhizosphere subjected to seasonal drought in Granada, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed the isolate within the genus Arthrobacter, its closest relative being Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Shep3 DSM 18606(T), with which it showed 99.23?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization measurements showed less than 25?% relatedness between strain 4J27(T) and Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans DSM 18606(T). The DNA base composition of strain 4J27(T) was 65.3 mol%. The main fatty acids were anteiso C15?:?0, anteiso C17?:?0, C16?:?0 and iso C16?:?0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9 (H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3? with an l-Lys-l-Ser-l-Thr-l-Ala interpeptide bridge. The bacterium tested positive for catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that the desiccation-tolerant strain 4J27(T) represents a novel species within the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter siccitolerans is proposed. The type strain is 4J27(T) (?=?CECT 8257(T)?=?LMG 27359(T)).
Project description:The taxonomic position of three acidophilic actinobacteria, strains FGG38, FGG39 and FSCA67(T), isolated from the fermentation litter layer of a spruce forest soil was established using a polyphasic approach. The strains were shown to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with their classification in the genus Streptacidiphilus and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptacidiphilus 16S rRNA gene tree being most closely related to Streptacidiphilus albus DSM 41753(T) (99.4 % similarity). DNA:DNA relatedness data showed that isolate FSCA67(T) and the type strain of S. albus belonged to markedly distinct genomic species. The isolates had many phenotypic properties in common and were distinguished readily from their closest phylogenetic neighbours in the Streptacidiphilus gene tree using a broad range of these features. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic data the three isolates are considered to represent a new Streptacidiphilus species. The name Streptacidiphilus durhamensis sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon with isolate FSCA67(T) (=DSM 45796(T) = KACC 17154(T) = NCIMB 14828(T)) [corrected] as the type strain.
Project description:A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the classification of strain P3B162T as a novel Arthrobacter species and we propose Arthrobacter pokkalii sp.nov.as its name. The type strain is P3B162T (= KCTC 29498T = MTCC 12358T).
Project description:Arthrobacter spp. are very widely distributed in the environment (e.g., soil) but have not been described as causing disease in humans. Over a 6-year period, two reference laboratories isolated or received 11 strains which were eventually identified as belonging to the genus Arthrobacter. These strains had been initially identified as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention coryneform group B-1 and B-3 bacteria (whitishgrayish colonies of 2 mm or greater in diameter after 24 h of incubation, respiratory metabolism, absent or weak acid production from sugars, and hydrolysis of gelatin). However, chemotaxonomic investigations revealed lysine as the diamino acid of the cell wall and the presence of branched cellular fatty acids (with anteiso-pentadecanoic acid predominating) which was compatible with an assignment of the 11 isolates to the genus Arthrobacter only. Peptidoglycan and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses demonstrated that three of the strains studied were representatives of a new Arthrobacter species for which the name Arthrobacter cumminsii sp. nov. is proposed and that one other strain represented a second new Arthrobacter species for which the name Arthrobacter woluwensis sp. nov. is proposed. This report is the first on the isolation of Arthrobacter spp. from clinical specimens.
Project description:A gram-positive, coryneform bacterium was isolated from swollen scleromata of a dermatosis patient. An analysis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic characteristics showed that this bacterium is closely associated with Arthrobacter oxydans and Arthrobacter polychromogenes but that it belongs to a distinct species, for which the name Arthrobacter scleromae sp. nov. is proposed.
Project description:Thirty-three Yersinia strains previously characterized by the French Yersinia National Reference Laboratory (YNRL) and isolated from humans and animals were suspected to belong to six novel species by a recently described core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme. These strains and five additional strains from the YNRL were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including a phylogenetic analysis based on 500 core genes, determination of average nucleotide identity (ANI), determination of DNA G+C content and identification of phenotypic features. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the 38 studied strains formed six well-demarcated clades. ANI values between these clades and their closest relatives were <94.7?%?and ANI values within each putative novel species were >97.5?%. Distinctive biochemical characteristics were identified in five out of the six novel species. All of these data demonstrated that the 38 strains belong to six novel species of the genus Yersinia: Yersinia artesiana sp. nov., type strain IP42281T (=CIP 111845T=DSM 110725T); Yersinia proxima sp. nov., type strain IP37424T (=CIP 111847T=DSM 110727T); Yersinia alsatica sp. nov., type strain IP38850T (=CIP 111848T=DSM 110726T); Yersinia vastinensis sp. nov., type strain IP38594T (=CIP 111844T=DSM 110738T); Yersinia thracica sp. nov., type strain IP34646T (=CIP 111842T=DSM 110736T); and Yersinia occitanica sp. nov., type strain IP35638T (=CIP 111843T=DSM 110739T).
Project description:The genus Elizabethkingia is genetically heterogeneous, and the phenotypic similarities between recognized species pose challenges in correct identification of clinically derived isolates. In addition to the type species Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and more recently proposed Elizabethkingia miricola, Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica, four genomospecies have long been recognized. By comparing historic DNA-DNA hybridization results with whole genome sequences, optical maps, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra on a large and diverse set of strains, we propose a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this genus. Genomospecies 1 and 2 contain the type strains E. anophelis and E. miricola, respectively. Genomospecies 3 and 4 are herein proposed as novel species named as Elizabethkingia bruuniana sp. nov. (type strain, G0146T = DSM 2975T = CCUG 69503T = CIP 111191T) and Elizabethkingia ursingii sp. nov. (type strain, G4122T = DSM 2974T = CCUG 69496T = CIP 111192T), respectively. Finally, the new species Elizabethkingia occulta sp. nov. (type strain G4070T = DSM 2976T = CCUG 69505T = CIP 111193T), is proposed.
Project description:The genus Macrococcus is a close relative of the genus Staphylococcus. Whilst staphylococci are widespread as human pathogens, macrococci have not yet been reported from human clinical specimens. Here we investigated Gram-positive and catalase-positive cocci recovered from human clinical material and identified as Macrococcus sp. by a polyphasic taxonomic approach and by comparative genomics. Relevant phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic methods divided the analyzed strains into two separate clusters within the genus Macrococcus. Comparative genomics of four representative strains revealed enormous genome structural plasticity among the studied isolates. We hypothesize that high genomic variability is due to the presence of a com operon, which plays a key role in the natural transformation of bacilli and streptococci. The possible uptake of exogenous DNA by macrococci can contribute to a different mechanism of evolution from staphylococci, where phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer predominates. The described macrococcal genomes harbor novel plasmids, genomic islands and islets, as well as prophages. Capsule gene clusters, intracellular protease, and a fibronectin-binding protein enabling opportunistic pathogenesis were found in all four strains. Furthermore, the presence of a CRISPR-Cas system with 90 spacers in one of the sequenced genomes corresponds with the need to limit the burden of foreign DNA. The highly dynamic genomes could serve as a platform for the exchange of virulence and resistance factors, as was described for the methicillin resistance gene, which was found on the novel composite SCCmec-like element containing a unique mec gene complex that is considered to be one of the missing links in SCC evolution. The phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic results demonstrated that the analyzed strains represent one novel subspecies and three novel species of the genus Macrococcus, for which the names Macrococcus caseolyticus subsp. hominis subsp. nov. (type strain CCM 7927T = DSM 103682T), Macrococcus goetzii sp. nov. (type strain CCM 4927T = DSM 103683T), Macrococcus epidermidis sp. nov. (type strain CCM 7099T = DSM 103681T), and Macrococcus bohemicus sp. nov. (type strain CCM 7100T = DSM 103680T) are proposed. Moreover, a formal description of Macrococcus caseolyticus subsp. caseolyticus subsp. nov. and an emended description of the genus Macrococcus are provided.
Project description:Corallococcus spp. are common soil-dwelling organisms which kill and consume prey microbes through the secretion of antimicrobial substances. Two species of Corallococcus have been described previously (Corallococcus coralloides and Corallococcus exiguus). A polyphasic approach, including biochemical analysis of fatty acid methyl esters, substrate utilization, and sugar assimilation assays, was taken to characterize eight Corallococcus species strains and the two type strains. The genomes of all strains, including that of C. exiguus DSM 14696T (newly reported here), shared an average nucleotide identity below 95% and digital DNA-DNA hybridization scores of less than 70%, indicating that they belong to distinct species. In addition, we characterized the prey range and antibiotic resistance profile of each strain, illustrating the diversity of antimicrobial activity and, thus, the potential for drug discovery within the Corallococcus genus. Each strain gave a distinct profile of properties, which together with their genomic differences supports the proposal of the eight candidate strains as novel species. The eight candidates are as follows: Corallococcus exercitus sp. nov. (AB043AT = DSM 108849T = NBRC 113887T), Corallococcus interemptor sp. nov. (AB047AT = DSM 108843T = NBRC 113888T), Corallococcus aberystwythensis sp. nov. (AB050AT = DSM 108846T = NBRC 114019T), Corallococcus praedator sp. nov. (CA031BT = DSM 108841T = NBRC 113889T), Corallococcus sicarius sp. nov. (CA040BT = DSM 108850T = NBRC 113890T), Corallococcus carmarthensis sp. nov. (CA043DT = DSM 108842T = NBRC 113891T), Corallococcus llansteffanensis sp. nov. (CA051BT = DSM 108844T = NBRC 114100T), and Corallococcus terminator sp. nov. (CA054AT = DSM 108848T = NBRC 113892T).IMPORTANCE Corallococcus is a genus of predators with broad prey ranges, whose genomes contain large numbers of gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The physiology and evolutionary heritage of eight Corallococcus species strains were characterized using a range of analyses and assays. Multiple metrics confirmed that each strain belonged to a novel species within the Corallococcus genus. The strains exhibited distinct patterns of drug resistance and predatory activity, which mirrored their possession of diverse sets of biosynthetic genes. The breadth of antimicrobial activities observed within the Corallococcus genus highlights their potential for drug discovery and suggests a previous underestimation of both their taxonomic diversity and biotechnological potential. Taxonomic assignment of environmental isolates to novel species allows us to begin to characterize the diversity and evolution of members of this bacterial genus with potential biotechnological importance, guiding future bioprospecting efforts for novel biologically active metabolites and antimicrobials.