Proteomic Analysis of a Syntrophic Coculture of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans MPOBT and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCAT.
ABSTRACT: We established a syntrophic coculture of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans MPOBT (SF) and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCAT (GS) growing on propionate and Fe(III). Neither of the bacteria was capable of growth on propionate and Fe(III) in pure culture. Propionate degradation by SF provides acetate, hydrogen, and/or formate that can be used as electron donors by GS with Fe(III) citrate as electron acceptor. Proteomic analyses of the SF-GS coculture revealed propionate conversion via the methylmalonyl-CoA (MMC) pathway by SF. The possibility of interspecies electron transfer (IET) via direct (DIET) and/or hydrogen/formate transfer (HFIT) was investigated by comparing the differential abundance of associated proteins in SF-GS coculture against (i) SF coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei (SF-MH), which relies on HFIT, (ii) GS pure culture growing on acetate, formate, hydrogen as propionate products, and Fe(III). We noted some evidence for DIET in the SF-GS coculture, i.e., GS in the coculture showed significantly lower abundance of uptake hydrogenase (43-fold) and formate dehydrogenase (45-fold) and significantly higher abundance of proteins related to acetate metabolism (i.e., GltA; 62-fold) compared to GS pure culture. Moreover, SF in the SF-GS coculture showed significantly lower abundance of IET-related formate dehydrogenases, Fdh3 (51-fold) and Fdh5 (29-fold), and the rate of propionate conversion in SF-GS was 8-fold lower than in the SF-MH coculture. In contrast, compared to GS pure culture, we found lower abundance of pilus-associated cytochrome OmcS (2-fold) and piliA (5-fold) in the SF-GS coculture that is suggested to be necessary for DIET. Furthermore, neither visible aggregates formed in the SF-GS coculture, nor the pili-E of SF (suggested as e-pili) were detected. These findings suggest that the IET mechanism is complex in the SF-GS coculture and can be mediated by several mechanisms rather than one discrete pathway. Our study can be further useful in understanding syntrophic propionate degradation in bioelectrochemical and anaerobic digestion systems.
Project description:Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans is a sulfate-reducing bacterium able to grow on propionate axenically or in syntrophic interaction with methanogens or other sulfate-reducing bacteria. We performed a proteome analysis of S. fumaroxidans growing with propionate axenically with sulfate or fumarate, and in syntrophy with Methanospirillum hungatei, Methanobacterium formicicum or Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Special attention was put on the role of hydrogen and formate in interspecies electron transfer (IET) and energy conservation. Formate dehydrogenase Fdh1 and hydrogenase Hox were the main confurcating enzymes used for energy conservation. In the periplasm, Fdh2 and hydrogenase Hyn play an important role in reverse electron transport associated with succinate oxidation. Periplasmic Fdh3 and Fdh5 were involved in IET. The sulfate reduction pathway was poorly regulated and many enzymes associated with sulfate reduction (Sat, HppA, AprAB, DsrAB and DsrC) were abundant even at conditions where sulfate was not present. Proteins similar to heterodisulfide reductases (Hdr) were abundant. Hdr/Flox was detected in all conditions while HdrABC/HdrL was exclusively detected when sulfate was available; these complexes most likely confurcate electrons. Our results suggest that S. fumaroxidans mainly used formate for electron release and that different confurcating mechanisms were used in its sulfidogenic metabolism.
Project description:Propionate accumulation is an important bottleneck for anaerobic degradation of organic matter. We hypothesized that propionate conversion by a novel coculture of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and Geobacter sulfurreducens can be an alternative strategy for propionate oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction. In this study, we successfully cocultured S. fumaroxidans and G. sulfurreducens on propionate and Fe(III). Proteomic analyses of this coculture provided insights into the underlying mechanisms of propionate metabolism pathway and interspecies electron transfer mechanism. Our study can be further useful in understanding syntrophic propionate degradation in bioelectrochemical and anaerobic digestion systems.
Project description:Geobacter sulfurreducens is a model bacterium to study the degradation of organic compounds coupled to the reduction of Fe(III). The response of G. sulfurreducens to the electron donors acetate, formate, hydrogen and a mixture of all three with Fe(III) citrate as electron acceptor was studied using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches. Variations in the supplied electron donors resulted in differential abundance of proteins involved in the citric acid cycle (CAC), gluconeogenesis, electron transport, and hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenase. Our results provided new insights into the electron donor metabolism of G. sulfurreducens. Remarkably, formate was the preferred electron donor compared to acetate, hydrogen, or acetate plus hydrogen. When hydrogen was the electron donor, formate was formed, which was associated with a high abundance of formate dehydrogenase. Notably, abundant proteins of two CO<sub>2</sub> fixation pathways (acetyl-CoA pathway and the reversed oxidative CAC) corroborated chemolithoautotrophic growth of G. sulfurreducens with formate or hydrogen and CO<sub>2</sub> , and provided novel insight into chemolithoautotrophic growth of G. sulfurreducens.
Project description:Anaerobic propionic acid degradation relies on interspecies electron transfer (IET) between propionate oxidisers and electron acceptor microorganisms, via either molecular hydrogen, formate or direct transfers. We evaluated the possibility of stimulating direct IET, hence enhancing propionate oxidation, by increasing availability of proton carriers to decrease solution resistance and reduce pH gradients. Phosphate was used as a proton carrying anion, and chloride as control ion together with potassium as counter ion. Propionic acid consumption in anaerobic granules was assessed in a square factorial design with ratios (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1) of total phosphate (TP) to Cl(-), at 1X, 10X, and 30X native conductivity (1.5 mS.cm(-1)). Maximum specific uptake rate, half saturation, and time delay were estimated using model-based analysis. Community profiles were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The strongest performance was at balanced (1:1) ratios at 10X conductivity where presumptive propionate oxidisers namely Syntrophobacter and Candidatus Cloacamonas were more abundant. There was a shift from Methanobacteriales at high phosphate, to Methanosaeta at low TP:Cl ratios and low conductivity. A lack of response to TP, and low percentage of presumptive electroactive organisms suggested that DIET was not favoured under the current experimental conditions.
Project description:Syntrophic bacteria drive the anaerobic degradation of certain fermentation products (e.g., butyrate, ethanol, propionate) to intermediary substrates (e.g., H2, formate, acetate) that yield methane at the ecosystem level. However, little is known about the in situ activities and identities of these syntrophs in peatlands, ecosystems that produce significant quantities of methane. The consumption of butyrate, ethanol or propionate by anoxic peat slurries at 5 and 15?°C yielded methane and CO2 as the sole accumulating products, indicating that the intermediates H2, formate and acetate were scavenged effectively by syntrophic methanogenic consortia. 16S rRNA stable isotope probing identified novel species/strains of Pelobacter and Syntrophomonas that syntrophically oxidized ethanol and butyrate, respectively. Propionate was syntrophically oxidized by novel species of Syntrophobacter and Smithella, genera that use different propionate-oxidizing pathways. Taxa not known for a syntrophic metabolism may have been involved in the oxidation of butyrate (Telmatospirillum-related) and propionate (unclassified Bacteroidetes and unclassified Fibrobacteres). Gibbs free energies (?Gs) for syntrophic oxidations of ethanol and butyrate were more favorable than ?Gs for syntrophic oxidation of propionate. As a result of the thermodynamic constraints, acetate transiently accumulated in ethanol and butyrate treatments but not in propionate treatments. Aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta) appeared to outnumber hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanocella, Methanoregula), reinforcing the likely importance of aceticlastic methanogenesis to the overall production of methane. ?Gs for acetogenesis from H2 to CO2 approximated to -20?kJ?mol(-1) when acetate concentrations were low, indicating that acetogens may have contributed to the flow of carbon and reductant towards methane.
Project description:Purpose: To understand the adaptive mechanisms of Methanocellales to low H2 and syntrophic growth. Methods: We analyzed the transcriptomes of M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum under monoculture and syntrophic coculture conditions by strand specific mRNA sequencing using Illumina Hiseq 2000. Four biological replicates were sequenced. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed by Burrows–Wheeler Aligner (BWA) followed by HTSeq and DESeq2. qRT–PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays Results: The results showed that M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum interacted closely and synchronized their gene transcription during the syntrophic growth. In coculture, M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum significantly enhanced the transcription of genes related to energy conservation processes, including methanogenesis, propionate degradation and electron bifurcation. By contrast, the genes coding for biosynthesis steps were downregulated in both M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum during the syntrophic growth. The physiology experiment showed that formate but not H2 inhibited syntrophic oxidation of propionate. Accordingly, formate dehydrogenase-encoding genes in both M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum were markedly upregulated, indicating that formate plays an important role in the interspecies electron transfer between M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum in coculture. Conclusions: our study provides abundant transcriptome data indicating the adaptations of Methanocella spp. to H2 limitation and suggests that flavin based electron bifurcations are critical to the syntrophic growth in both M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum. Overall design: M. conradii and P. thermopropionicum under monoculture and syntrophic coculture conditions by strand specific mRNA sequencing using Illumina Hiseq 2000, four biological replicates were sequenced.
Project description:Microbial syntrophy is a thermodynamically-based cooperation between microbial partners that share the small amounts of free energy for anaerobic growth. To gain insights into the mechanism by which syntrophic microorganisms coordinate their metabolism, we constructed cocultures of propionate-oxidizing Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum and hydrogenotrophic Methanocella conradii and compared them to monocultures. Transcriptome analysis was performed on these cultures using strand-specific mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The results showed that in coculture both P. thermopropionicum and M. conradii significantly upregulated the expression of genes involved in catabolism but downregulated those for anabolic biosynthesis. Specifically, genes coding for the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway in P. thermopropionicum and key genes for methanogenesis in M. conradii were substantially upregulated in coculture compared to monoculture. The putative flavin-based electron bifurcation/confurcation systems in both organisms were also upregulated in coculture. Formate dehydrogenase encoding genes in both organisms were markedly upregulated, indicating that formate was produced and utilized by P. thermopropionicum and M. conradii, respectively. The inhibition of syntrophic activity by formate and 2-bromoethanesulphonate (2-BES) but not H2/CO2 also suggested that formate production was used by P. thermopropionicum for the recycling of intracellular redox mediators. Finally, flagellum-induced signal transduction and amino acids exchange was upregulated for syntrophic interactions. Together, our study suggests that syntrophic organisms employ multiple strategies including global metabolic shift, utilization of electron bifurcation/confurcation and employing formate as an alternate electron carrier to optimize their metabolisms for syntrophic growth.
Project description:Interspecies electron transfer (IET) is important for many anaerobic processes, but is critically dependent on mode of transfer. In particular, direct IET (DIET) has been recently proposed as a metabolically advantageous mode compared with mediated IET (MIET) via hydrogen or formate. We analyse relative feasibility of these IET modes by modelling external limitations using a reaction-diffusion-electrochemical approach in a three-dimensional domain. For otherwise identical conditions, external electron transfer rates per cell pair (cp) are considerably higher for formate-MIET (317 × 10(3) e(-)?cp(-1)?s(-1)) compared with DIET (44.9 × 10(3) e(-)?cp(-1)?s(-1)) or hydrogen-MIET (5.24 × 10(3) e(-)?cp(-1)?s(-1)). MIET is limited by the mediator concentration gradient at which reactions are still thermodynamically feasible, whereas DIET is limited through redox cofactor (for example, cytochromes) activation losses. Model outcomes are sensitive to key parameters for external electron transfer including cofactor electron transfer rate constant and redox cofactor area, concentration or count per cell, but formate-MIET is generally more favourable for reasonable parameter ranges. Extending the analysis to multiple cells shows that the size of the network does not strongly influence relative or absolute favourability of IET modes. Similar electron transfer rates for formate-MIET and DIET can be achieved in our case with a slight (0.7?kJ?mol(-1)) thermodynamic advantage for DIET. This indicates that close to thermodynamic feasibility, external limitations can be compensated for by improved metabolic efficiency when using direct electron transfer.
Project description:The multicopper oxidases (MCOs) couple four 1<i>e</i><sup>-</sup> oxidations of substrate to the 4<i>e</i><sup>-</sup> reduction of O<sub>2</sub> to H<sub>2</sub>O. These divide into two groups: those that oxidize organic substrates with high turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to 560 s<sup>-1</sup> and those that oxidize metal ions with low TOFs, ∼1 s<sup>-1</sup> or less. The catalytic mechanism of the organic oxidases has been elucidated, and the high TOF is achieved through rapid intramolecular electron transfer (IET) to the native intermediate (NI), which only slowly decays to the resting form. Here, we uncover the factors that govern the low TOF in Fet3p, a prototypical metallooxidase, in the context of the MCO mechanism. We determine that the NI decays rapidly under optimal turnover conditions, and the mechanism thereby becomes rate-limited by slow IET to the resting enzyme. Development of a catalytic model leads to the important conclusions that proton delivery to the NI controls the mechanism and enables the slow turnover in Fet3p that is functionally significant in Fe metabolism enabling efficient ferroxidase activity while avoiding ROS generation.
Project description:The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca are the only known pair of naturally occurring metalloenzymes with distinct chemical and physical properties determined solely by the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe(2+) or Ni(2+)) in the active site. We now show that this dual chemistry can also occur in mammals. ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD) was studied to relate the metal ion identity and three-dimensional structure to enzyme function. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, which is the penultimate step in methionine salvage. The nickel-bound form of ARD catalyzes an off-pathway reaction resulting in formate, carbon monoxide (CO), and 3-(thiomethyl) propionate. Recombinant MmARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. The Fe(2+)-bound protein, which shows about 10-fold higher activity than that of others, catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas the Ni(2+), Co(2+), or Mn(2+) forms exhibit off-pathway chemistry, as has been seen with ARD from Klebsiella. Thermal stability of the isozymes is strongly affected by the metal ion identity, with Ni(2+)-bound MmARD being the most stable, followed by Co(2+) and Fe(2+), and Mn(2+)-bound ARD being the least stable. Ni(2+)- and Co(2+)-bound MmARD were crystallized, and the structures of the two proteins found to be similar. Enzyme-ligand complexes provide insight into substrate binding, metal coordination, and the catalytic mechanism.