Identification of a glucose-insensitive variant of Gal2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibiting a high pentose transport capacity.
ABSTRACT: As abundant carbohydrates in renewable feedstocks, such as pectin-rich and lignocellulosic hydrolysates, the pentoses arabinose and xylose are regarded as important substrates for production of biofuels and chemicals by engineered microbial hosts. Their efficient transport across the cellular membrane is a prerequisite for economically viable fermentation processes. Thus, there is a need for transporter variants exhibiting a high transport rate of pentoses, especially in the presence of glucose, another major constituent of biomass-based feedstocks. Here, we describe a variant of the galactose permease Gal2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Gal2N376Y/M435I), which is fully insensitive to competitive inhibition by glucose, but, at the same time, exhibits an improved transport capacity for xylose compared to the wildtype protein. Due to this unique property, it significantly reduces the fermentation time of a diploid industrial yeast strain engineered for efficient xylose consumption in mixed glucose/xylose media. When the N376Y/M435I mutations are introduced into a Gal2 variant resistant to glucose-induced degradation, the time necessary for the complete consumption of xylose is reduced by approximately 40%. Moreover, Gal2N376Y/M435I confers improved growth of engineered yeast on arabinose. Therefore, it is a valuable addition to the toolbox necessary for valorization of complex carbohydrate mixtures.
Project description:Background:l-Arabinose occurs at economically relevant levels in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Its low-affinity uptake via the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal2 galactose transporter is inhibited by d-glucose. Especially at low concentrations of l-arabinose, uptake is an important rate-controlling step in the complete conversion of these feedstocks by engineered pentose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae strains. Results:Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis yielded 16 putative sugar transporter genes in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum whose transcript levels were at least threefold higher in l-arabinose-limited cultures than in d-glucose-limited and ethanol-limited cultures. Of five genes, that encoded putative transport proteins and showed an over 30-fold higher transcript level in l-arabinose-grown cultures compared to d-glucose-grown cultures, only one (Pc20g01790) restored growth on l-arabinose upon expression in an engineered l-arabinose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain in which the endogenous l-arabinose transporter, GAL2, had been deleted. Sugar transport assays indicated that this fungal transporter, designated as PcAraT, is a high-affinity (Km = 0.13 mM), high-specificity l-arabinose-proton symporter that does not transport d-xylose or d-glucose. An l-arabinose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae strain in which GAL2 was replaced by PcaraT showed 450-fold lower residual substrate concentrations in l-arabinose-limited chemostat cultures than a congenic strain in which l-arabinose import depended on Gal2 (4.2 × 10-3 and 1.8 g L-1, respectively). Inhibition of l-arabinose transport by the most abundant sugars in hydrolysates, d-glucose and d-xylose was far less pronounced than observed with Gal2. Expression of PcAraT in a hexose-phosphorylation-deficient, l-arabinose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae strain enabled growth in media supplemented with both 20 g L-1 l-arabinose and 20 g L-1 d-glucose, which completely inhibited growth of a congenic strain in the same condition that depended on l-arabinose transport via Gal2. Conclusion:Its high affinity and specificity for l-arabinose, combined with limited sensitivity to inhibition by d-glucose and d-xylose, make PcAraT a valuable transporter for application in metabolic engineering strategies aimed at engineering S. cerevisiae strains for efficient conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.
Project description:Cas9-assisted genome editing was used to construct an engineered glucose-phosphorylation-negative S. cerevisiae strain, expressing the Lactobacillus plantaruml-arabinose pathway and the Penicillium chrysogenum transporter PcAraT. This strain, which showed a growth rate of 0.26 h-1 on l-arabinose in aerobic batch cultures, was subsequently evolved for anaerobic growth on l-arabinose in the presence of d-glucose and d-xylose. In four strains isolated from two independent evolution experiments the galactose-transporter gene GAL2 had been duplicated, with all alleles encoding Gal2N376T or Gal2N376I substitutions. In one strain, a single GAL2 allele additionally encoded a Gal2T89I substitution, which was subsequently also detected in the independently evolved strain IMS0010. In 14C-sugar-transport assays, Gal2N376S, Gal2N376T and Gal2N376I substitutions showed a much lower glucose sensitivity of l-arabinose transport and a much higher Km for d-glucose transport than wild-type Gal2. Introduction of the Gal2N376I substitution in a non-evolved strain enabled growth on l-arabinose in the presence of d-glucose. Gal2N376T, T89I and Gal2T89I variants showed a lower Km for l-arabinose and a higher Km for d-glucose than wild-type Gal2, while reverting Gal2N376T, T89I to Gal2N376 in an evolved strain negatively affected anaerobic growth on l-arabinose. This study indicates that optimal conversion of mixed-sugar feedstocks may require complex 'transporter landscapes', consisting of sugar transporters with complementary kinetic and regulatory properties.
Project description:L-Arabinose occurs at economically relevant levels in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Especially at low concentrations of L-arabinose, its uptake via the Gal2 galactose transporter is an important rate-controlling step in the complete conversion of these feedstocks by engineered, pentose-metabolizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis yielded 16 putative sugar transporter genes in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum whose transcript levels were at least three-fold higher in L-arabinose-limited cultures than in glucose-limited and ethanol-limited cultures. Of five genes that showed an over 30-fold higher transcript level in arabinose-grown cultures, only one (Pc20g01790) restored growth on L-arabinose upon expression in an engineered L-arabinose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain in which GAL2 had been deleted. Sugar-transport assays indicated that Pc20g01790this transporter, designated as PcAraT, encodes functions as a high-affinity (Km = 0.13 mM) L-arabinose-proton symporter that does not transport xylose or glucose. An L-arabinose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae strain co-expressing Pc20g01790PcAraT and GAL2 showed lower residual substrate concentrations in L-arabinose-limited chemostat cultures (4 mg L-1) than a congenic strain in which L-arabinose import exclusively depended on Gal2 (1.8 g L-1). Inhibition of L-arabinose transport by these sugars was less pronounced than observed with Gal2. A hexose-phosphorylation-deficient, L-arabinose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae strain expressing PcAraT Pc20g0190 grew on 20 g L-1 L-arabinose in the presence of 20 g L-1 glucose, which completely inhibited growth on L-arabinose of a congenic strain dependent on L-arabinose transport via Gal2. Its high affinity and specificity for L-L-arabinose, combined with limited sensitivity to inhibition by glucose and D-D-xylose make PcAraT/ Pc20g01790 a valuable transporter gene for application in metabolic engineering strategies aimed at engineering S. cerevisiae strains for efficient conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Overall design: The goal of this study was to explore the P. chrysogenum genome for L-arabinose transporters that can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae and support glucose- and D-xylose insensitive, high-affinity transport of L-arabinose. To this end, transcriptomes of L-arabinose-, ethanol- and glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum were compared, and putative L-arabinose transporter genes were tested for their ability to support L-arabinose transport upon expression in an S. cerevisiae strain engineered for L-arabinose fermentation in which GAL2 had been deleted. A P. chrysogenum transporter identified in this screen, PcAraTPc20g01790, was subjected to more detailed analysis, including kinetic sugar-uptake studies with radiolabelled substrates, in vivo studies on uptake inhibition, and physiological studies with engineered S. cerevisiae strains in L-arabinose-limited chemostat cultures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to ferment pentose sugars like d-xylose. Through the introduction of the respective metabolic pathway, S. cerevisiae is able to ferment xylose but first utilizes d-glucose before the d-xylose can be transported and metabolized. Low affinity d-xylose uptake occurs through the endogenous hexose (Hxt) transporters. For a more robust sugar fermentation, co-consumption of d-glucose and d-xylose is desired as d-xylose fermentation is in particular prone to inhibition by compounds present in pretreated lignocellulosic feedstocks. RESULTS:Evolutionary engineering of a d-xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain lacking the major transporter HXT1-7 and GAL2 genes yielded a derivative that shows improved growth on xylose because of the expression of a normally cryptic HXT11 gene. Hxt11 also supported improved growth on d-xylose by the wild-type strain. Further selection for glucose-insensitive growth on d-xylose employing a quadruple hexokinase deletion yielded mutations at N366 of Hxt11 that reversed the transporter specificity for d-glucose into d-xylose while maintaining high d-xylose transport rates. The Hxt11 mutant enabled the efficient co-fermentation of xylose and glucose at industrially relevant sugar concentrations when expressed in a strain lacking the HXT1-7 and GAL2 genes. CONCLUSIONS:Hxt11 is a cryptic sugar transporter of S. cerevisiae that previously has not been associated with effective d-xylose transport. Mutagenesis of Hxt11 yielded transporters that show a better affinity for d-xylose as compared to d-glucose while maintaining high transport rates. d-glucose and d-xylose co-consumption is due to a redistribution of the sugar transport flux while maintaining the total sugar conversion rate into ethanol. This method provides a single transporter solution for effective fermentation on lignocellulosic feedstocks.
Project description:Glucose, xylose and arabinose are the three most abundant monosaccharide found in lignocellulosic biomass. Effectively and simultaneously utilization of these sugars by microorganisms for production of the biofuels and bio-chemicals is essential toward directly fermentation of the lignocellulosic biomass. In our previous study, the recombinant Bacillus subtilis 168ARSRCP?acoA?bdhA strain was already shown to efficiently utilize xylose for production of acetoin, with a yield of 0.36 g/g xylose. In the current study, the Bacillus subtilis168ARSRCP?acoA?bdhA strain was further engineered to produce acetoin from a glucose, xylose, and arabinose mixtures. To accomplish this, the endogenous xylose transport protein AraE, the exogenous xylose isomerase gene xylA and the xylulokinase gene xylB from E. coli were co-overexpressed in the Bacillus subtilis 168ARSRCP?acoA?bdhA strain, which enabled the resulting strain, denoted ZB02, to simultaneously utilize glucose and xylose. Unexpectedly, the ZB02 strain could simultaneously utilize glucose and arabinose also. Further results indicated that the transcriptional inhibition of the arabinose transport protein gene araE was the main limiting factor for arabinose utilization in the presence of glucose. Additionally, the arabinose operon in B. subtilis could be activated by the addition of arabinose, even in the presence of glucose. Through fed-batch fermentation, strain ZB02 could simultaneously utilize glucose, xylose, and arabinose, with an average sugar consumption rate of 3.00 g/l/h and an average production of 62.2 g/l acetoin at a rate of 0.864 g/l/h. Finally, the strain produced 11.2 g/l acetoin from lignocellulosic hydrolysate (containing 20.6g/l glucose, 12.1 g/l xylose and 0.45 g/l arabinose) in flask cultivation, with an acetoin yield of 0.34 g/g total sugar. The result demonstrates that this strain has good potential for the utilization of lignocellulosic hydrolysate for production of acetoin.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Xylose transport is one of the bottlenecks in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Xylose consumption by the wild-type strains of xylose-utilizing yeasts occurs once glucose is depleted resulting in a long fermentation process and overall slow and incomplete conversion of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Therefore, the engineering of endogenous transporters for the facilitation of glucose-xylose co-consumption is an important prerequisite for efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, several engineering approaches formerly used for the low-affinity glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were successfully applied for earlier identified transporter Hxt1 in Ogataea polymorpha to improve xylose consumption (engineering involved asparagine substitution to alanine at position 358 and replacement of N-terminal lysine residues predicted to be the target of ubiquitination for arginine residues). Moreover, the modified versions of S. cerevisiae Hxt7 and Gal2 transporters also led to improved xylose fermentation when expressed in O. polymorpha.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The O. polymorpha strains with modified Hxt1 were characterized by simultaneous utilization of both glucose and xylose, in contrast to the wild-type and parental strain with elevated ethanol production from xylose. When the engineered Hxt1 transporter was introduced into constructed earlier advanced ethanol producer form xylose, the resulting strain showed further increase in ethanol accumulation during xylose fermentation. The overexpression of heterologous S. cerevisiae Gal2 had a less profound positive effects on sugars uptake rate, while overexpression of Hxt7 revealed the least impact on sugars consumption.
Project description:Efficient and cost-effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials requires co-fermentation of the main hydrolyzed sugars, including glucose, xylose, and L-arabinose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a glucose-fermenting yeast that is traditionally used for ethanol production. Fermentation of L-arabinose is also possible after metabolic engineering. Transport into the cell is the first and rate-limiting step for L-arabinose metabolism. The galactose permease, Gal2p, is a non-specific, endogenous monosaccharide transporter that has been shown to transport L-arabinose. However, Gal2p-mediated transport of L-arabinose occurs at a low efficiency. In this study, homologous modeling and L-arabinose docking were used to predict amino acids in Gal2p that are crucial for L-arabinose transport. Nine amino acid residues in Gal2p were identified and were the focus for site-directed mutagenesis. In the Gal2p transport-deficient chassis cells, the capacity for L-arabinose transport of the different Gal2p mutants was compared by testing growth rates using L-arabinose as the sole carbon source. Almost all the tested mutations affected L-arabinose transport capacity. Among them, F85 is a unique site. The F85S, F85G, F85C, and F85T point mutations significantly increased L-arabinose transport activities, while, the F85E and F85R mutations decreased L-arabinose transport activities compared to the Gal2p-expressing wild-type strain. These results verified F85 as a key residue in L-arabinose transport. The F85S mutation, having the most significant effect, elevated the exponential growth rate by 40%. The F85S mutation also improved xylose transport efficiency and weakened the glucose transport preference. Overall, enhancing the L-arabinose transport capacity further improved the L-arabinose metabolism of engineered S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and L-arabinose from lignocellulosic biomass by an oleaginous yeast is anticipated as a method for biodiesel production. However, most yeasts ferment glucose first before consuming pentoses, due to glucose repression. This preferential utilization results in delayed fermentation time and lower productivity. Therefore, co-fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars could achieve cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to microbial lipid. Comprehensive screening of oleaginous yeasts capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose, xylose, and L-arabinose was performed by measuring the concentration of sugars remaining in the medium and of lipids accumulated in the cells. We found that of 1189 strains tested, 12 had the ability to co-ferment the sugars. The basidiomycete yeast Pseudozyma hubeiensis IPM1-10, which had the highest sugars consumption rate of 94.1 %, was selected by culturing in a batch culture with the mixed-sugar medium. The strain showed (1) simultaneous utilization of all three sugars, and (2) high lipid-accumulating ability. This study suggests that P. hubeiensis IPM1-10 is a promising candidate for second-generation biodiesel production from hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:L-Arabinose is the second most abundant component of hemicellulose in lignocellulosic biomass, next to D-xylose. However, few microorganisms are capable of utilizing pentoses, and catabolic genes and operons enabling bacterial utilization of pentoses are typically subject to carbon catabolite repression by more-preferred carbon sources, such as D-glucose, leading to a preferential utilization of D-glucose over pentoses. In order to simultaneously utilize both D-glucose and L-arabinose at the same rate, a modified metabolic pathway was rationally designed based on metabolome analysis.Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831 utilized D-glucose and L-arabinose simultaneously at a low concentration (3.6 g/L each) but preferentially utilized D-glucose over L-arabinose at a high concentration (15 g/L each), although L-arabinose and D-glucose were consumed at comparable rates in the absence of the second carbon source. Metabolome analysis revealed that phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were major bottlenecks for D-glucose and L-arabinose metabolism, respectively. Based on the results of metabolome analysis, a metabolic pathway was engineered by overexpressing pyruvate kinase in combination with deletion of araR, which encodes a repressor of L-arabinose uptake and catabolism. The recombinant strain utilized high concentrations of D-glucose and L-arabinose (15 g/L each) at the same consumption rate. During simultaneous utilization of both carbon sources at high concentrations, intracellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate declined and acetyl-CoA levels increased significantly as compared with the wild-type strain that preferentially utilized D-glucose. These results suggest that overexpression of pyruvate kinase in the araR deletion strain increased the specific consumption rate of L-arabinose and that citrate synthase activity becomes a new bottleneck in the engineered pathway during the simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose.Metabolome analysis identified potential bottlenecks in D-glucose and L-arabinose metabolism and was then applied to the following rational metabolic engineering. Manipulation of only two genes enabled simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose at the same rate in metabolically engineered C. glutamicum. This is the first report of rational metabolic design and engineering for simultaneous hexose and pentose utilization without inactivating the phosphotransferase system.
Project description:Bioethanol production processes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock are challenged by the simultaneous utilization of pentose and hexose sugars from biomass hydrolysates. The pentose uptake into the cell represents a crucial role for the efficiency of the process. The focus of the here presented study was to understand the uptake and conversion of the pentose l-arabinose in S. cerevisiae and reveal its regulation by d-glucose and d-galactose. Gal2p-the most prominent transporter enabling l-arabinose uptake in S. cerevisiae wild-type strains-has an affinity for the transport of l-arabinose, d-glucose, and d-galactose. d-Galactose was reported for being mandatory for inducing GAL2 expression. GAL2 expression is also known to be regulated by d-glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression, as well as catabolite inactivation. The results of the present study demonstrate that l-arabinose can be used as sole carbon and energy source by the recombinant industrial strain S. cerevisiae DS61180. RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq experiments confirmed that l-arabinose can trigger its own uptake via the induction of GAL2 expression. Expression levels of GAL2 during growth on l-arabinose reached up to 21% of those obtained with d-galactose as sole carbon and energy source. l-Arabinose-induced GAL2 expression was also subject to catabolite repression by d-glucose. Kinetic investigations of substrate uptake, biomass, and product formation during growth on a mixture of d-glucose/l-arabinose revealed impairment of growth and ethanol production from l-arabinose upon d-glucose depletion. The presence of d-glucose is thus preventing the fermentation of l-arabinose in S. cerevisiae DS61180. Comparative transcriptome studies including the wild-type and a precursor strain delivered hints for an increased demand in ATP production and cofactor regeneration during growth of S. cerevisiae DS61180 on l-arabinose. Our results thus emphasize that cofactor and energy metabolism demand attention if the combined conversion of hexose and pentose sugars is intended, for example in biorefineries using lignocellulosics.