The Functional Role of IgA in the IgM/IgA-Enriched Immunoglobulin Preparation Trimodulin.
ABSTRACT: In comparison to human immunoglobulin (Ig) G, antibodies of IgA class are not well investigated. In line with this, the functional role of the IgA component in IgM/IgA-enriched immunoglobulin preparations is also largely unknown. In recent years, powerful anti-pathogenic and immunomodulatory properties of human serum IgA especially on neutrophil function were unraveled. Therefore, the aim of our work is to investigate functional aspects of the trimodulin IgA component, a new plasma-derived polyvalent immunoglobulin preparation containing ~56% IgG, ~23% IgM and ~21% IgA. The functional role of IgA was investigated by analyzing the interaction of IgA with FcαRI, comparing trimodulin with standard intravenous IgG (IVIG) preparation and investigating Fc receptor (FcR)-dependent functions by excluding IgM-mediated effects. Trimodulin demonstrated potent immunomodulatory, as well as anti-pathogenic effects in our neutrophil model (neutrophil-like HL-60 cells). The IgA component of trimodulin was shown to induce a strong FcαRI-dependent inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAMi) signaling, counteract lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and mediate phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. The fine-tuned balance between immunomodulatory and anti-pathogenic effects of trimodulin were shown to be dose-dependent. Summarized, our data demonstrate the functional role of IgA in trimodulin, highlighting the importance of this immunoglobulin class in immunoglobulin therapy.
Project description:The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has induced a global pandemic. Severe forms of COVID-19 are characterized by dysregulated immune response and "cytokine storm". The role of IgG and IgM antibodies in COVID-19 pathology is reasonably well studied, whereas IgA is neglected. To improve clinical outcome of patients, immune modulatory drugs appear to be beneficial. Such drugs include intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, which were successfully tested in severe COVID-19 patients. Here we established a versatile <i>in vitro</i> model to study inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory processes by therapeutic human immunoglobulins. We dissect the inflammatory activation on neutrophil-like HL60 cells, using an immune complex consisting of latex beads coated with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and opsonized with specific immunoglobulins from convalescent plasma. Our data clarifies the role of Fc-receptor-dependent phagocytosis <i>via</i> IgA-FcαRI and IgG-FcγR for COVID-19 disease followed by cytokine release. We show that COVID-19 associated inflammation could be reduced by addition of human immunoglobulin preparations (IVIG and trimodulin), while trimodulin elicits stronger immune modulation by more powerful ITAMi signaling. Besides IgG, the IgA component of trimodulin in particular, is of functional relevance for immune modulation in this assay setup, highlighting the need to study IgA mediated immune response.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Autoantibodies are detected in most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can be of the IgM, IgG or IgA subclass. Correlations between IgA autoantibodies and more severe disease activity have been previously reported, but the functional role of IgA autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of RA is ill understood. In this study, we explored the effect of IgA immune complexes on osteoclast mediated bone resorption.<h4>Methods</h4>Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) and anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibody levels of the IgA and IgG isotype and rheumatoid factor (RF) IgA were determined in synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients. Monocytes, neutrophils, and osteoclasts were stimulated with precipitated immune complexes from SF of RA patients or IgA- and IgG-coated beads. Activation was determined by neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, cytokine secretion, and bone resorption.<h4>Results</h4>NET formation by neutrophils was enhanced by SF immune complexes compared to immune complexes from healthy or RA serum. Monocytes stimulated with isolated SF immune complexes released IL-6 and IL-8, which correlated with the levels of ACPA IgA levels in SF. Osteoclasts cultured in the presence of supernatant of IgA-activated monocytes resorbed significantly more bone compared to osteoclasts that were cultured in supernatant of IgG-activated monocytes (p=0.0233). Osteoclasts expressed the Fc receptor for IgA (FcαRI; CD89) and Fc gamma receptors. IgA-activated osteoclasts however produced significantly increased levels of IL-6 (p<0.0001) and IL-8 (p=0.0007) compared to IgG-activated osteoclasts. Both IL-6 (p=0.03) and IL-8 (p=0.0054) significantly enhanced bone resorption by osteoclasts.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IgA autoantibodies induce release of IL-6 and IL-8 by immune cells as well as osteoclasts, which enhances bone resorption by osteoclasts. We anticipate that this will result in more severe disease activity in RA patients. Targeting IgA-FcαRI interactions therefore represents a promising novel therapeutic strategy for RA patients with IgA autoantibodies.
Project description:Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody class present at mucosal surfaces. The production of IgA exceeds the production of all other antibodies combined, supporting its prominent role in host-pathogen defense. IgA closely interacts with the intestinal microbiota to enhance its diversity, and IgA has a passive protective role via immune exclusion. Additionally, inhibitory ITAMi signaling via the IgA Fc receptor (Fc?RI; CD89) by monomeric IgA may play a role in maintaining homeostatic conditions. By contrast, IgA immune complexes (e.g., opsonized pathogens) potently activate immune cells via cross-linking Fc?RI, thereby inducing pro-inflammatory responses resulting in elimination of pathogens. The importance of IgA in removal of pathogens is emphasized by the fact that several pathogens developed mechanisms to break down IgA or evade Fc?RI-mediated activation of immune cells. Augmented or aberrant presence of IgA immune complexes can result in excessive neutrophil activation, potentially leading to severe tissue damage in multiple inflammatory, or autoimmune diseases. Influencing IgA or Fc?RI-mediated functions therefore provides several therapeutic possibilities. On the one hand (passive) IgA vaccination strategies can be developed for protection against infections. Furthermore, IgA monoclonal antibodies that are directed against tumor antigens may be effective as cancer treatment. On the other hand, induction of ITAMi signaling via Fc?RI may reduce allergy or inflammation, whereas blocking Fc?RI with monoclonal antibodies, or peptides may resolve IgA-induced tissue damage. In this review both (patho)physiological roles as well as therapeutic possibilities of the IgA-Fc?RI axis are addressed.
Project description:Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is currently the most studied immunoglobin class and is frequently used in antibody therapeutics in which its beneficial effector functions are exploited. IgG is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, forming the basic antibody monomeric unit. In contrast, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) are usually assembled into dimers or pentamers with the contribution of joining (J)-chains, which bind to the secretory component (SC) of the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and are transported to the mucosal surface. IgA and IgM play a pivotal role in various immune responses, especially in mucosal immunity. Due to their structural complexity, 3D structural study of these molecules at atomic scale has been slow. With the emergence of cryo-EM and X-ray crystallographic techniques and the growing interest in the structure-function relationships of IgA and IgM, atomic-scale structural information on IgA-Fc and IgM-Fc has been accumulating. Here, we examine the 3D structures of IgA and IgM, including the J-chain and SC. Disulfide bridging and <i>N</i>-glycosylation on these molecules are also summarized. With the increasing information of structure-function relationships, IgA- and IgM-based monoclonal antibodies will be an effective option in the therapeutic field.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> The addition of monoclonal antibody therapy against GD2 to the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma led to improved responses in patients. Nevertheless, administration of GD2 antibodies against neuroblastoma is associated with therapy-limiting neuropathic pain. This severe pain is evoked at least partially through complement activation on GD2-expressing sensory neurons. <h4>Methods</h4> To reduce pain while maintaining antitumor activity, we have reformatted the approved GD2 antibody ch14.18 into the IgA1 isotype. This novel reformatted IgA is unable to activate the complement system but efficiently activates leukocytes through the FcαRI (CD89). <h4>Results</h4> IgA GD2 did not activate the complement system in vitro nor induced pain in mice. Importantly, neutrophil-mediated killing of neuroblastoma cells is enhanced with IgA in comparison to IgG, resulting in efficient tumoricidal capacity of the antibody in vitro and in vivo. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Our results indicate that employing IgA GD2 as a novel isotype has two major benefits: it halts antibody-induced excruciating pain and improves neutrophil-mediated lysis of neuroblastoma. Thus, we postulate that patients with high-risk neuroblastoma would strongly benefit from IgA GD2 therapy.
Project description:To better understand the relationship between baseline immunoglobulin measurements and subsequent clinical outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we performed a retrospective analysis on 660 patients with CLL (72%), monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) (13%), and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) (14%), diagnosed between 2005 and 2014 at CancerCare Manitoba. Of 511 patients who had their first immunoglobulin level determined within 3 months of diagnosis, abnormal (either increased or decreased) immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA values were observed in 58% of patients with CLL, 27% of patients with MBL, and 20% of patients with SLL. Immunoglobulin deviances were similar for MBL and CLL Rai stage 0 and for SLL and Rai stages I and II; for CLL, IgG and IgA abnormalities occurred with increasing frequency with advancing Rai stage. In contrast, the frequency of IgM abnormalities was similar in all patient groups. IgA abnormalities significantly correlated with high ?2-microglobulin (B2M) expression, whereas abnormal IgG and IgA levels were associated with the use of <i>IGHV</i>1-69, 3-21, and 3-49 subtypes. Increases in IgG or IgM were commonly associated with the presence of a CLL-type M-band, whereas oligoclonal bands were frequently observed with increased IgA levels. Although abnormal levels of IgG and IgA at diagnosis were independent predictors for future immunoglobulin replacement, only abnormal IgA levels were associated with shorter time to first treatment and overall survival. These findings indicate that both reduced and elevated levels of IgG and IgA at diagnosis are important and independent prognostic markers for infection in CLL, with IgA being more relevant as a marker of disease progression and survival.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency defined as decreased serum level of IgA in the presence of normal levels of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Most individuals with IgA deficiency are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, allergic disorders, and autoimmune manifestations. IGA AND ITS FUNCTIONS: Although IgA is the most abundant antibody isotype produced in the body, its functions are not clearly understood. Subclass IgA1 in monomeric form is mainly found in the blood circulation, whereas subclass IgA2 in dimeric form is the dominant immunoglobulin in mucosal secretions. Secretory IgA appears to have prime importance in immune exclusion of pathogenic microorganisms and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Despite this critical role, there may be some compensatory mechanisms that would prevent disease manifestations in some IgA-deficient individuals.<h4>Pathogenesis</h4>In IgA deficiency, a maturation defect in B cells to produce IgA is commonly observed. Alterations in transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor gene appear to act as disease-modifying mutations in both IgA deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency, two diseases which probably lie in the same spectrum. Certain major histocompatibility complex haplotypes have been associated with susceptibility to IgA deficiency.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The genetic basis of IgA deficiency remains to be clarified. Better understanding of the production and function of IgA is essential in elucidating the disease mechanism in IgA deficiency.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Neonatal linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare disease that can be fatal when associated with respiratory failure. All previously reported cases of neonatal LABD have been in newborns with healthy asymptomatic mothers, and the pathogenic IgA was of unknown origin.<h4>Objective</h4>To clarify the origin of IgA associated with LABD in neonates born of healthy asymptomatic mothers.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This case study analyzed the laboratory findings of a single breast-fed newborn male with neonatal LABD admitted to the Keio University Hospital in Tokyo and his healthy asymptomatic mother. The healthy newborn developed life-threatening blisters and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes on day 4 after birth. Blood serum, skin, and maternal breast milk were examined for IgA autoantibodies.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Histopathologic and immunofluorescence analyses of specimens (serum, skin, and breast milk) from the patient and his mother.<h4>Results</h4>Histopathologic evaluation of the newborn's skin revealed subepidermal blisters with neutrophil infiltrates, and immunofluorescence testing showed linear IgA deposition along the basement membrane zone (BMZ), which lead to the diagnosis of neonatal LABD. Indirect immunofluorescence using normal human skin after treatment with 1-mol/L sodium chloride showed the patient to have circulating IgA binding to the dermal side of BMZ. Immunohistochemical staining proved the deposition of secretory IgA in the neonatal skin by demonstrating the presence of J chain-not been seen in other LABD cases-indicating that the autoantibodies producing the blisters were derived from the maternal breast milk. Although no circulating IgA against the skin was detected in mother's sera, the breast milk contained IgA that reacted with the dermal side of the BMZ. No new blister formation was observed after cessation of breastfeeding.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The results of this case study suggest a passive transfer of pathogenic IgA to a newborn from an asymptomatic mother via breast milk. In prior reports, no serum from asymptomatic mothers of newborns with LABD had IgA autoantibodies binding to skin components; however, in this case, we found that the maternal breast milk contained IgA autoantibodies associated with neonatal LABD. In neonatal LABD, maternal breast milk should be examined for IgA autoantibodies and breast milk feeding should be discontinued as soon as neonatal LABD is suspected.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects the coronary arteries. Abnormal immune reactions are thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis. The effect of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE) on inflammatory data and clinical outcomes of patients with KD was examined.<h4>Methods</h4>Ig levels in 241 patients with KD were measured during the acute, subacute, convalescent, and normal phases of the disease.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with reference Ig values, IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were significantly higher in the subacute phase, while IgE levels were elevated in 73.9% (178/241) of patients with KD in all clinical phases. However, high IgE levels were not associated with clinical outcomes, including intravenous immunoglobulin unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesions (CALs). Significantly more CALs were observed in the high IgA group than in the normal IgA group (44.7% vs. 20.8%, respectively; p<0.01). In addition, IgA levels in the acute phase (p=0.038) were 2.2-fold higher, and those in the subacute phase were 1.7-fold higher (p <0.001), in the CAL group than in the non-CAL group. IgA concentrations increased along with the size of the coronary artery aneurysm (p <0.001). Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between IgA levels and CAL size (r=0.435, p<0.001), with a high odds ratio of 2.58 (p=0.022).<h4>Conclusions</h4>High IgA levels in patients with KD are prognostic for the risk of CALs.
Project description:Here we unravel the structural features of human IgM and IgA that govern their interaction with the human Fcalpha/mu receptor (hFcalpha/muR). Ligand polymerization status was crucial for the interaction, because hFcalpha/muR binding did not occur with monomeric Ab of either class. hFcalpha/muR bound IgM with an affinity in the nanomolar range, whereas the affinity for dimeric IgA (dIgA) was tenfold lower. Panels of mutant IgM and dIgA were used to identify regions critical for hFcalpha/muR binding. IgM binding required contributions from both Cmu3 and Cmu4 Fc domains, whereas for dIgA, an exposed loop in the Calpha3 domain was crucial. This loop, comprising residues Pro440-Phe443, lies at the Fc domain interface and has been implicated in the binding of host receptors FcalphaRI and polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), as well as IgA-binding proteins produced by certain pathogenic bacteria. Substitutions within the Pro440-Phe443 loop resulted in loss of hFcalpha/muR binding. Furthermore, secretory component (SC, the extracellular portion of pIgR) and bacterial IgA-binding proteins were shown to inhibit the dIgA-hFcalpha/muR interaction. Therefore, we have identified a motif in the IgA-Fc inter-domain region critical for hFcalpha/muR interaction, and highlighted the multi-functional nature of a key site for protein-protein interaction at the IgA Fc domain interface.