Influence of Nisin-Biogel at Subinhibitory Concentrations on Virulence Expression in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Diabetic Foot Infections.
ABSTRACT: A new approach to diabetic foot infections (DFIs) has been investigated, using a nisin-biogel combining the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin with the natural polysaccharide guar-gum. Since in in vivo conditions bacteria may be exposed to decreased antimicrobial concentrations, known as subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs), effects of nisin-biogel sub-MIC values corresponding to 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 of nisin's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on virulence expression by six Staphylococcus aureus DFI isolates was evaluated by determining bacteria growth rate; expression of genes encoding for staphylococcal protein A (spA), coagulase (coa), clumping factor A (clfA), autolysin (atl), intracellular adhesin A (icaA), intracellular adhesin D (icaD), and the accessory gene regulator I (agrI); biofilm formation; Coa production; and SpA release. Nisin-biogel sub-MICs decreased bacterial growth in a strain- and dose-dependent manner, decreased agrI, atl and clfA expression, and increased spA, coa, icaA and icaD expression. Biofilm formation increased in the presence of nisin-biogel at 1/4 and 1/8 MIC, whereas 1/2 MIC had no effect. Finally, nisin-biogel at sub-MICs did not affect coagulase production, but decreased SpA production in a dose-dependent manner. Results highlight the importance of optimizing nisin-biogel doses before proceeding to in vivo trials, to reduce the risk of virulence factor's up-regulation due to the presence of inappropriate antimicrobial concentrations.
Project description:Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most widespread inflammatory diseases in dogs. This disease is initiated by a polymicrobial biofilm in the teeth surface (dental plaque), leading to a local inflammatory response, with gingivitis and/or several degrees of periodontitis. For instance, the prevention of bacterial dental plaque formation and its removal are essential steps in PD control. Recent research revealed that the antimicrobial peptide nisin incorporated in the delivery system guar gum (biogel) can inhibit and eradicate bacteria from canine dental plaque, being a promising compound for prevention of PD onset in dogs. However, no information is available regarding its effect on the dog's oral microbiome. In this pilot study, the influence of the nisin-biogel on the diversity of canine oral microbiome was evaluated using next generation sequencing (NGS), aiming to access the viability of nisin-biogel to be used in long-term experiment in dogs. Composite toothbrushing samples of the supragingival plaque from two dogs were collected at three timepoints: T1-before any application of the nisin-biogel to the animals' teeth surface; T2-one hour after one application of the nisin-biogel; and T3-one hour after a total of three applications of the nisin-biogel, each 48 hours. After that, microbial profiling was performed by NGS of the V3V4 16s rRNA region. After only one application of the nisin-biogel to the oral cavity of dogs, a statistically significant reduction in microbial diversity was observed (T2) as well as a reduction of some bacterial species potentially related with distinct stages of PD, when compared with samples collected before any application (T1). However, after a total of three nisin-biogel applications (T3), a recovery of the microbial diversity was detected. In conclusion, the nisin-biogel may influence the canine oral microbiome. A reduction in some bacterial species potentially related with distinct stages of PD was observed. This pilot study will help to design a controlled <i>in vivo</i> clinical trial to evaluate nisin-biogel effect on dental plaque progression and canine periodontal indices evolution in a long-term application period.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a frequent complication of Diabetes mellitus and a major cause of nontraumatic limb amputations. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, known for its resilient biofilms and antibiotic resistant profile, is the most frequent DFI pathogen. It is urgent to develop innovative treatments for these infections, being the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin a potential candidate. We have previously proposed the use of a guar gum biogel as a delivery system for nisin. Here, we evaluated the potential of the nisin-biogel to enhance the efficacy of conventional antibiotics and antiseptics against DFIs S. aureus clinical isolates.<h4>Methods</h4>A collection of 23 S. aureus strains isolated from DFI patients, including multidrug- and methicillin-resistant strains, was used. The antimicrobial activity of the nisin-biogel was tested alone and in different combinations with the antiseptic chlorhexidine and the antibiotics clindamycin, gentamicin and vancomycin. Isolates' in vitro susceptibility to the different protocols was assessed using broth microdilution methods in order to determine their ability to inhibit and/or eradicate established S. aureus biofilms. Antimicrobials were added to the 96-well plates every 8 h to simulate a typical DFI treatment protocol. Statistical analysis was conducted using RCBD ANOVA in SPSS.<h4>Results</h4>The nisin-biogel showed a high antibacterial activity against biofilms formed by DFI S. aureus. The combined protocol using nisin-biogel and chlorhexidine presented the highest efficacy in biofilm formation inhibition, significantly higher (p<0.05) than the ones presented by the antibiotics-based protocols tested. Regarding biofilm eradication, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the activity of the combination nisin-biogel plus chlorhexidine and the conventional antibiotic-based protocols.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Results provide a valuable contribution for the development of complementary strategies to conventional antibiotics protocols. A combined protocol including chlorhexidine and nisin-biogel could be potentially applied in medical centres, contributing for the reduction of antibiotic administration, selection pressure on DFI pathogens and resistance strains dissemination.
Project description:Both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are important causes of infections associated with catheters and other medical devices. It has recently been shown that not only S. epidermidis but also S. aureus can produce slime and carries the ica operon responsible for slime production. In the operon, coexpression of icaA and icaD is required for full slime synthesis. In this study, the presence of icaA and icaD was determined in a collection of 91 staphylococcal (68 S. epidermidis and 23 S. aureus) strains from intravenous catheter-associated infections, in 10 strains from the skin and mucosa of healthy volunteers, and in two reference strains by a PCR method. Slime-forming ability was tested on Congo red agar plates; 49% of S. epidermidis strains from catheters and, surprisingly, 61% of S. aureus strains were icaA and icaD positive and slime forming. All the saprophytic strains turned out to be negative for both icaA and icaD and also non-slime forming. Two S. aureus and one S. epidermidis strain from catheters, detected as icaA and icaD positive by PCR analysis and as slime forming (black colonies) at 24 h on Congo red agar, at 48 h exhibited tiny red spikes at the center of black colonies. The onset of these variants could not be ascribed to a mutagenic potential of Congo red, which, in the Ames test, was devoid of mutagenicity. PCR analysis showed that these red variants were negative for both icaA and icaD and even lacking the entire icaADBC operon. The data reported indicate an important role of ica genes as a virulence marker in staphylococcal infections from intravenous catheters.
Project description:<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> is one of the most important food-borne pathogens globally. It produces various toxins and invasive enzymes and can be found in numerous food products. Milk is an important source of staphylococcal food poisoning. After pasteurization, this microorganism or its enterotoxins might still remain in pasteurized milk. Therefore, this study was to investigate the contamination of <i>S. aureus</i> in 258 pasteurized milk from 39 cities of China. The prevalence and levels of <i>S. aureus</i> in these samples as well as antibiotic susceptibility profiles, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and biofilm related genes, <i>spa</i> typing and MLST were used to determine the characterization among the isolates. It was found 3.9% of samples were detected <i>S. aureus</i> in 8 of 39 cities in China. The contaminated level were not very excessive which showed the MPN values of the most positive samples (9/10) were less than 1 MPN/g. All pasteurized milk-related <i>S. aureus</i> isolates have ability to produce biofilm and harbored <i>icaA, icaD, eno</i>, <i>clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, fib</i> genes, other biofilm related genes <i>icaC</i> were showed in 91.7% of isolates and <i>cna</i> gene were showed in 50%, except <i>bap</i> gene which were free in all isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that all isolates were resistant or intermediate-resistant to different concentrations of the antibiotics. Furthermore, 75.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes, which indicated multidrug resistance. The isolates had virulence potential, which showed 66.7% (8/12) of the isolates carried one or more virulence-associated genes. Molecular typing by MLST and <i>spa</i> typing enabled classification of these isolates into a total of 11 sequence types (STs) and <i>spa</i> types, which indicated high genetic diversity. Most of these types were related to various clinical <i>S. aureus</i> infections. Thus, the findings of this study reflect the potential risk of <i>S. aureus</i> infection in China. Our study also provides comprehensive analysis of the prevalence of <i>S. aureus</i> in pasteurized milk and helps ensure more accurate treatment of human infection with effective antibiotics.
Project description:Ceftaroline (CPT) is a novel cephalosporin with in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftaroline exhibits a level of binding affinity for PBPs in S. aureus including PBP2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The aims of this study were to investigate the morphological, physiological and molecular responses of MRSA clinical strains and MRSA biofilms to sub-MICs (1/4 and 1/16 MIC) of ceftaroline by using transmission, scanning and confocal microscopy. We have also used quantitative Real-Time PCR to study the effect of sub-MICs of ceftaroline on the expression of the staphylococcal icaA, agrA, sarA and sasF genes in MRSA biofilms. In one set of experiments, ceftaroline was able to inhibit biofilm formation in all strains tested at MIC, however, a strain dependent behavior in presence of sub-MICs of ceftaroline was shown. In a second set of experiments, destruction of preformed biofilms by addition of ceftaroline was evaluated. Ceftaroline was able to inhibit biofilm formation at MIC in all strains tested but not at the sub-MICs. Destruction of preformed biofilms was strain dependent because the biofilm formed by a matrix-producing strain was resistant to a challenge with ceftaroline at MIC, whereas in other strains the biofilm was sensitive. At sub-MICs, the impact of ceftaroline on expression of virulence genes was strain-dependent at 1/4 MIC and no correlation between ceftaroline-enhanced biofilm formation and gene regulation was established at 1/16 MIC. Our findings suggest that sub-MICs of ceftaroline enhance bacterial attachment and biofilm formation by some, but not all, MRSA strains and, therefore, stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of ceftaroline to fight biofilm-MRSA related infections.
Project description:Biofilm-forming ability is increasingly being recognized as an important virulence factor in several Staphylococcus species. This study evaluated the biofilm-forming ability of sixty canine derived clinical isolates of S. pseudintermedius, using three phenotypic methods, microtiter plate test (MtP), Congo red agar method (CRA) and tube adherence test, and the presence and impact of biofilm-associated genes (icaA and icaD). The results showed that icaA and icaD genes were detected concomitantly in 55 (91.7%) of 60 isolates. A majority (88.3%) of the strains screened had matching results by the tube adherence test, MtP and PCR analysis. Better agreement (95%) was found between the PCR-based analysis and the CRA. Results of the icaA and icaD gene PCRs showed good agreement with CRA results, with a kappa of 0.7. Comparing the phenotypic methods, the statistical analysis showed that the agreement among the phenotypical tests using categorical data was generally good. Considering two classes (biofilm producer and biofilm non-producer), the percentage of matching results between the CRA method and the tube adherence test and between the CRA method and the MtP was 93.3%. A concordance of 100% was revealed between the MtP and the tube adherence test. The results indicate a high prevalence of the ica genes within S. pseudintermedius isolates, and their presence is associated with in vitro formation of a biofilm. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic tests is recommended for investigating biofilm formation in S. pseudintermedius.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus encodes many proteins that act as virulence factors, leading to a variety of diseases, including mastitis in cows. Among these virulence factors, SpA, ClfA, ClfB, FnbA, and FnbB are important for the ability of S. aureus to adhere to and invade host cells as well as to evade host immune responses. The interaction between these S. aureus surface proteins and human immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen that are coupled to latex particles is utilized to induce latex agglutination reactions, which are used widely in diagnostic kits for confirmation of presumptive S. aureus isolates. In this study, the Staphaurex latex agglutination test was performed on a collection of confirmed bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates. Notably, 54% (43/79 isolates) of these isolates exhibited latex agglutination-negative phenotypes (Staphaurex-negative result). To gain insights into the reasons for the high frequency of Staphaurex-negative bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates, the spa, clfA, clfB, fnbA, and fnbB genes were examined. Specific genetic changes in spa, clfA, and fnbA, as well as a loss of fnbB, which may impair SpA, ClfA, FnbA, and FnbB functions in latex agglutination reactions, were detected in Staphaurex-negative S. aureus isolates. The genetic changes included a premature stop codon in the spa gene, leading to a truncated SpA protein that is unable to participate in S. aureus cell-mediated agglutination of latex particles. In addition, clfA and fnbA genetic polymorphisms were detected that were linked to ClfA and FnbA amino acid changes that may significantly reduce fibrinogen-binding activity. The genetic variations in these S. aureus isolates might also have implications for their bovine mastitis virulence capacity.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolated from pediatricians in China.SA strains were isolated from Beijing Children's hospital from February 2016 to January 2017. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing (for Methicillin-resistant SA [MRSA] only). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method except sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (E-test method). Biofilm formation and biofilm associated genes were detected.Totally 104 children (41 females and 63 males; median age, 5.2 months) were enrolled in this study, in which 60 patients suffered from MRSA infection. Among the 104 cases, 54.8% were categorized as community associated SA (CA-SA) infections. The children under 3 years were more likely to occur CA-SA infections compared with older ones (P?=?0.0131). ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 (61.7%) was the most prevalent genotype of MRSA, and ST22-t309 (18.2%), ST5-t002 (9.1%), ST6-t701 (9.1%), ST188-t189 (9.1%) were the top four genotypes of methicillin-sensitive SA (MSSA). All the present isolates were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mupirocin, tigecyclin, fusidic acid. No erythromycin-susceptible isolate was determined, and only a few isolates (3.8%) were identified as susceptible to penicillin. Multi-drug resistant isolates were reponsible for 83.8% of the ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 isolates. The isolates with strong biofilm formation were found in 85% of MRSA and 53.2% of MSSA, and in 88.7% of ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 isolates. Biofilm formation ability varied not only between MRSA and MSSA (P?= 0.0053), but also greatly among different genotypes (P?<?0.0001). The prevalence of the biofilm associated genes among ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 clone was: icaA (100.0%), icaD (97.3%), fnbpA (100.0%), fnbpB (0), clfA (100%), clfB (100%), cna (2.7%), bbp (0), ebpS (88.5%), sdrC (78.4%), sdrD (5.4%), and sdrE (94.5%).These results indicated strong homology of the MRSA stains isolated from Chinese children, which was caused by spread of multiresistant ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 clone with strong biofilm formation ability. The MSSA strains, in contrast, were very heterogeneity, half of which could produce biofilm strongly.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of infective endocarditis (IE). While the role of S. aureus cell-wall associated protein clumping factor A (ClfA) in promoting IE has been already demonstrated, that of the secreted plasma-clotting factors staphylocoagulase (Coa) and von Willebrand factor-binding protein (vWbp) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the role of Coa and vWbp in IE initiation in rats with catheter-induced aortic vegetations, using Lactococcus lactis expressing coa, vWbp, clfA or vWbp/clfA, and S. aureus Newman ?coa, ?vWbp, ?clfA or ?coa/?vWbp/?clfA mutants. vWbp-expression increased L. lactis valve infection compared to parent and coa-expressing strains (incidence: 62%, versus 0% and 13%, respectively; P < 0.01). Likewise, expression of clfA increased L. lactis infectivity (incidence: 80%), which was not further affected by co-expression of vWbp. In symmetry, deletion of the coa or vWbp genes in S. aureus did not decrease infectivity (incidence: 68 and 64%, respectively) whereas deletion of clfA did decrease valve infection (incidence: 45%; P = 0.03 versus parent), which was not further affected by the triple deletion ?coa/?vWbp/?clfA (incidence: 36%; P > 0.05 versus ?clfA mutant). Coa does not support the initial colonization of IE (in L. lactis) without other key virulence factors and vWbp contributes to initiation of IE (in L. lactis) but is marginal in the present of ClfA.
Project description:<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (<i>S. aureus</i>) infections are notoriously complicated by the ability of the organism to grow in biofilms and are difficult to eradicate with antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the current study was to clarify the influence of sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of daptomycin and tigecycline antibiotics on biofilm adhesion factors and exoproteins expressions by <i>S. aureus</i> clinical isolates. Six clinical isolates representing positive biofilm <i>S. aureus</i> clones (3 methicillin-sensitive <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) and 3 methicillin-resistant <i>S. aureus</i> (MRSA)) were grown with sub-MICs (0.5 MIC) of two antibiotics (daptomycin and tigecycline) for 12 h of incubation. RNA extracted from culture pellets was used via relative quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) to determine expression of specific adhesion (<i>fnbA</i>, <i>fnbB</i>, <i>clfA</i>, <i>clfB</i>, <i>fib</i>, <i>ebps</i>, <i>cna</i>, <i>eno</i>) and biofilm (<i>icaADBC</i>) genes. To examine the effect of sub-MIC of these antibiotics on the expression of extracellular proteins, samples from the culture supernatants of six isolates were collected after 12 h of treatment with or without tigecycline in order to profile protein production via 2D gel sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D gel-SDS-PAGE). Sub-MIC treatment of all clinical MRSA and MSSA strains with daptomycin or tigecycline dramatically induced or suppressed <i>fnbA</i>, <i>fnbB</i>, <i>clfA</i>, <i>clfB</i>, <i>fib</i>, <i>ebps</i>, <i>cna</i>, <i>eno</i>, and <i>icaADBC</i> gene expression. Furthermore, sub-MIC use of tigecycline significantly reduced the total number of separated protein spots across all the isolates, as well as decreasing production of certain individual proteins. Collectively, this study showed very different responses in terms of both gene expression and protein secretion across the various isolates. In addition, our results suggest that sub-MIC usage of daptomycin and tigecycline could signal virulence induction by <i>S. aureus</i> via the regulation of biofilm adhesion factor genes and exoproteins. If translating findings to the clinical treatment of <i>S. aureus</i>, the therapeutic regimen should be adapted depending on antibiotic, the virulence factor and strain type.