Characterization of Bioactive Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Edible Bean Extracts of 50 Fabaceae Populations Grown in Thailand.
ABSTRACT: Fabaceae is the third largest family containing great variation among populations. However, previous studies mainly focus on single species, and phytochemicals at population level have never been reported. This work aims to complete this knowledge with 50 populations from throughout Thailand by (1) determining total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and anthocyanin (TAC) contents; and (2) investigating in vitro and cellular antioxidant potentials. Phytochemicals of 50 populations from different localities are differed, illustrating high heterogeneity occurring in polyphenols accumulations. Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis populations showed low variability in TPC ranging from 628.3 to 717.3 mg/100 g DW gallic acid equivalent, whereas the high variability found in TFC and TAC range from 786.9 to 1536.1 mg/100 g DW quercetin equivalent, and 13.4 to 41.6 mg/100 g DW cyanidin equivalent. Red cultivar population #16 had the greatest TAC, but surprisingly the cream cultivars were relatively high in anthocyanins. HPLC quantification of genistein and daidzein showed great variations among populations. In vitro antioxidant results indicated that antioxidant capacity mediated by electron transfer. Cellular antioxidants ranged from 59.7% to 87.9% of ROS/RNS in yeast model. This study investigated at the population level contributing to better and frontier knowledge for nutraceutical/phytopharmaceutical sectors to seek potential raw plant material.
Project description:A. blitum is good sources of abundant natural antioxidant phytopigments such as anthocyanin, betalain, betaxanthin, and betacyanin and antioxidant phytochemicals of interest in the food industry. The chances of utilizing amaranth pigments and phytochemicals had been evaluated for extracting colorful juice as drink purposes. Hence, the presence of nutrients, phytopigments, phytochemicals, and radical scavenging activity of selected A. blitum leafy vegetables were evaluated. Leaves of A. blitum have considerable fiber, moisture, protein, and carbohydrates. It has considerable magnesium, calcium, potassium (30.42, 24.74, 10.24?mg?g-1), zinc, iron, copper, manganese, (878.98, 1153.83, 26.13, 207.50?µg?g-1), phytopigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll ab, chlorophyll b, (63.69, 90.60, 29.32?mg 100?g-1), betalain, betaxanthin, betacyanin (112.01, 58.38, 53.63?µg 100?g-1), vitamin C (1848.15?µg?g-1), total carotenoids, ?-carotene (1675.38, 1281.66?µg?g-1), TPC, TFC (253.45 GAE and 162.97 RE µg g-1 DW), and TAC (29.46, 55.72?µg?g-1 DW in Tolax equivalent DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity) in A. blitum. The accessions DS3, DS6, DS8, and DS12 exhibited the highest TAC in Trolox equivalent DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity, flavonoids, and considerable phytopigments. These accessions had excellent antioxidant profiles along with high yielding potentiality. Hence, A. blitum provides an excellent source of proximate, phenolics, minerals, flavonoids, vitamins, and phytopigments to address the nutritional and antioxidant deficiency in daily diet.
Project description:We evaluated 17 genotypes of stem amaranth (Amaranthus lividus) in terms of dietary fiber, moisture, carbohydrates, fat, ash, gross energy, protein, minerals, phytopigments, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamins, total flavonoids (TFC), total polyphenols (TPC) and their variations. Stem amaranth leaves have abundant dietary fiber, moisture, carbohydrates, and protein. We found significant amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium (9.61, 24.40, and 29.77?mg?g-1 DW), iron, manganese, copper, zinc, (1131.98, 269.89, 25.03, and 1006.53?µg?g-1 DW), phytopigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll ab chlorophyll b, (27.76, 42.06, and 14.30?mg 100?g-1 FW), betalain, betaxanthin, betacyanin (62.92, 31.81, 31.12?µg 100?g-1 FW), total carotenoids, beta-carotene (1675.38, 1289.26?µg?g-1 FW), vitamin C (1355.46?µg?g-1 FW), TPC, TFC (228.63 GAE and 157.42 RE µg g-1 DW), and TAC (DPPH, ABTS+) (26.61, 51.73 TEAC µg g-1 DW) in the leaves of stem amaranth. Genotypes exhibited a wide range of variations. Three genotypes DS40, DS30, and DS26 could be used as an antioxidant profile enriched stem amaranth. Phenolics, phytopigments, flavonoids, and vitamins of stem amaranth leaves exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Stem amaranth could be a potential source of dietary fiber, moisture, carbohydrates, protein, minerals, phenolics, phytopigments, flavonoids, and vitamins in our daily diet for attaining nutritional and antioxidant sufficiency.
Project description:Flavonoid profile and antioxidant activity of citrus peels, pulps, and juices from 27 local citrus cultivars in China were investigated. Flavonoid composition and content were determined using UPLC-PDA. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured using a Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Al(NO3)-NaNO2 complexometry, respectively. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP method, respectively. Citrus peel not only exhibited better antioxidant potential, but also presented more composition diversity and contained higher concentrations of flavonoids than pulp and juice. Different citrus species were characterized by their individual predominant flavonoids, contributing largely to the antioxidant activity, such as mandarin was characterized by hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin, while pummelo and papeda were characterized by naringin. The peel of Guihuadinanfeng (Citrus reticulata) had the highest TPC of 23.46 mg equivalent gallic acid/g DW (dry weight) and TFC of 21.37 mg equivalent rutin/g DW. Shiyueju (C. reticulata) peel showed the highest antioxidant capacity based on the antioxidant potency composite (APC) analysis. Overall, mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits peel contained more TPC and TFC, exhibiting higher antioxidant capacities than other species, and were good natural sources of flavonoids and antioxidants.
Project description:<i>Juniperus procera</i> is a natural source of bioactive compounds with the potential of antitumor, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. An optimization method was developed for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total tannin content (TTC) in leaf and seed extract of <i>Juniperus procera.</i> Organic solvents (methanol (99.8%), ethanol (99%), and acetone (99.5%)), and deionized water (DI) were used for extraction. The estimation of TPC, TFC, and TTC in plant materials was carried out using UV-spectrophotometer and HPLC with the standards gallic acid, quercetin, and tannic acid. Recovery of TPC in leaf extract ranged from 2.9 to 9.7 mg GAE/g DW, TFC from 0.9 to 5.9 mg QE/g DW, and TTC ranged from 1.5 to 4.3 mg TA/g DW while the TPC value in the seed extract ranged from 0.53 to 2.6 mg GAE/g DW, TFC from 0.5 to 1.6 mg QE/g DW, and TTC ranged from 0.5 to 1.4 mg TA/g DW. This result revealed that methanol is the best solvent for recovery of the TPC value (9.7 mg) from leaf extract in comparison to other solvents. Ethanol recorded the highest result of TFC (5.9 mg) in leaf extract among the solvents whereas acetone was the best for TTC yield recovery from leaf extract (4.3 mg). In the case of the seed extract, ethanol was the best solvent for both TPC (2.6 mg), and TFC (1.6 mg) recovery in comparison to other solvents. Total tannin content in methanol resulted in significant recovery from seed extract (1.4 mg). Separation and quantification of gallic acid, quercetin, and tannic acid in plant materials were undertaken using HPLC. Gallic acid in leaf and seed of <i>J. procera</i> ranged from 6.6 to 9.2, 6.5 to 7.2 µg/g DW, quercetin from 6.3 to 18.2, 0.9 to 4.2 µg/g DW, and tannic acid from 16.2 to 29.3, 6.6 to 9.3 µg/g DW, respectively. Solvents have shown a significant effect in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Moreover, phytochemicals in plant materials were identified using GC-MS and resulted in very important bioactive compounds, which include anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antitumor agents such as ferruginol, phenanthrene, and n-hexadecanoic acid. In conclusion, the optimal solvent for extraction depends on the part of the plant material and the compounds that are to be isolated.
Project description:The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of teas prepared from twenty-four commercially available berries and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. in relation to their phenolic profile, as reflected by the most representative phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic and syringic acids); flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and rutin); and total phenolic (TPC), phenolic acid (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents. The infusions prepared from elderflowers contained more abundant phenolic compounds than the elderberry infusions. The TPC of these infusions ranged from 19.81 to 23.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of sample (GAE/g DW) for elderberries and from 15.23 to 35.57 mg GAE/g DW for elderflowers, whereas the TFC ranged from 2.60 to 4.49 mg of rutin equivalents/g dry weight of sample (RUTE/g DW) in elderberry infusions and from 5.27 to 13.19 mg RUTE/g DW in elderflower infusions. Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, quercetin (2.07-9.48 mg/g DW) and myricetin (1.17-9.62 mg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the teas prepared from berries and flowers, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of elder infusions assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that the teas prepared from flowers had higher mean DPPH and FRAP activities than the teas prepared from berries. Therefore, elder beverages could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants that contribute to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Project description:<i>Luffa echinata</i> Roxb. is one of the neglected medicinal plants. It is an important source of bioactive metabolites and used in several Ayurvedic formulations. In the present analysis, mature leaves and fruits were extracted with acetone, ethanol, acetonitrile, methanol and water. Phytochemicals like total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), tannin (TTC), alkaloid (TAC) and terpenoid (TTEC) content were analysed. Further, antioxidant (AOX) activities like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethyl) benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging, metal chelating activity (MC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum assay (PMA) were studied. Highest TPC and TFC (189.57 ± 1.9 mg TAE/g extract, 30.48 ± 0.7 mg CE/g extract, respectively) were reported from acetone extract of the leaves. Ethanolic fruit extract showed the highest TTC (13.79 ± 0.2 mg CE/g extract). Acetone and acetonitrile fruit extract revealed maximum TTEC (602.79 ± 3.5 mg UAE/g extract) and moderate TAC (19.96 ± 0.9 mg GE/g extract), respectively. In AOX, highest DPPH (50.52 ± 0.03 mg AAE/g extract) and ABTS (26.78 ± 0.03 mg TE/g extract) radical scavenging reported in methanolic extract of fruit; however, acetone extract of leaf showed highest FRAP (376.89 ± 1.95 mg Fe(II)/g extract) and PMA (326.54 ± 4.73 mg AAE/g extract). In contrast, aqueous extract of leaf and fruit revealed highest metal chelating activity (41.67 ± 0.49 mg EDTA/g extract). In anti-diabetic studies, acetonitrile extract of leaves and fruits exhibited appreciable inhibition of α-amylase (83.33%) and α-glycosidase (77.42%) enzymes. Similarly, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was highest in water (88.91%) and acetone (81.87%) extracts of leaf and fruits. Fruit extracts showed potent anticancer activity against breast (MCF-7) and colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines (LC<sub>50</sub> 329.36 and 385.17 µg/mL, respectively). RP-HPLC analysis revealed highest cucurbitacin B (CuB) (196.24 ± 1.4 mg/g DW), followed by cucurbitacin I (CuI) and cucurbitacin E (CuE) in the fruits (57.14 ± 4.9 and 2.03 ± 0.03 mg/g DW, respectively). RP-HPLC analysis of extracts revealed presence of gallic acid (GA), catechin (CA), vanillic acid (VA), chlorogenic acid (CHLA) and coumaric acid (COA), in which highest GA found in the fruits (1.26 ± 0.07 mg/g DW). Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed presence of bioactive compounds from various groups. Based on the present findings, it was revealed that the fruit and leaf of <i>L. echinata</i> can be used as potent bioresource for natural antioxidants, anti-diabetic, and anticancer drug.
Project description:This study evaluates the application of eco-friendly deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in the extraction of phenolic antioxidants from dogbane leaf-tea (DLT). The results showed DESs with lower viscosity allowed an efficient extraction of significantly higher contents of total phenolics or flavonoids. An innovative and high-efficient solvent, choline chloride-levulinic acid (ChCl-LevA), was screened and used in ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from DLT. According to full factorial design experimental results, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, and anti-<i>α</i>-glucosidase activity (<i>α</i>-GIA) of the DLT extracts were simultaneously optimized by response surface methodology. Sonication temperature and water content in ChCl-LevA were found to be the major factors affecting the TPC, TFC, antioxidant activity, and <i>α</i>-GIA of DLT extracts. Under the optimum parameters (water content in ChCl-LevA was 45%, sonication temperature was 50 °C, and extraction time was 30 min), the measured results for all the responses were obtained as follows: TPC-91.38 ± 7.20 mg GAE/g DW, TFC-84.12 ± 3.47 mg RE/g DW, ABTS<sup>+</sup>-492 ± 7.33 mmol TE/g DW, FRAP-6235 ± 121 μmol Fe(II)/g DW and <i>α</i>-GIA-230 ± 7.59 mmol AE/g DW, which were consistent with the predicted values. In addition, strongly significant positive correlations were observed between TPC/TFC and bio-activities of the DLT extracts. HPLC results indicated high contents of (-)-epigallocatechin (4272 ± 84.86 μg/g DW), catechin (5268 ± 24.53 μg/g DW), isoquercitrin (3500 ± 86.07 μg/g DW), kaempferol 3-<i>O</i>-rutinoside (3717 ± 97.71 μg/g DW), and protocatechuic acid (644 ± 1.65 μg/g DW) were observed in the DLT extracts. In contrast to other extraction methods, ChCl-LevA-based UAE yielded higher TPC, TFC, individual phenolic contents, stronger antioxidant activity, and <i>α</i>-GIA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis further confirmed that ChCl-LevA-based UAE enhanced the disruption of cell wall structure, thereby making more phenolic antioxidants released from DLT. In short, ChCl-LevA-based UAE was confirmed to be an innovative and high-efficient method for extraction of phenolic antioxidants from DLT. Dogbane leaves can be considered as a good tea source rich in natural antioxidants.
Project description:Biotechnological strategies are needed to produce larger quantities of biomass and phytochemicals. In this study, callus cultures of Fagonia indica were elicited with different concentrations of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (chem- and bioAgNPs) to compare their effects on biomass, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of the extracts from callus. The results revealed that bioAgNPs being more biocompatible produced the highest biomass initially on day 10 (FW = 4.2152 ± 0.13 g; DW = 0.18527 ± 0.01 g) and day 20 (FW = 7.6558 ± 0.10 g; DW = 0.3489 ± 0.01 g) when supplemented in media as 62.5 µg/mL and 250 µg/mL, respectively. Initially, the highest TPC (319.32 ± 8.28 µg GAE/g of DW) was recorded on day 20 in chemAgNPs (31.25 µg/mL) induced callus as compared to TPC = 302.85 ± 3.002 µg GAE/g of DW in bioAgNPs-induced callus. Compared to the highest values of TFC (108.15 ± 2.10 µg QE/g of DW) produced in 15.6 µg/mL chemAgNPs-induced callus on day 20, TFC produced in bioAgNPs (62.5 µg/mL) was 168.61 ± 3.17 µg GAE/g of DW on day 10. Similarly, chemAgNPs-induced callus (62.5 µg/mL) showed the highest free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) i.e. 87.18% on day 20 while bioAgNPs (125 µg/mL) showed 81.69% FRSA on day 20 compared to highest among control callus (63.98% on day 40). The highest total antioxidant capacity of chemAgNPs-(125 µg/mL) induced callus was 330.42 ± 13.65 µg AAE/g of DW on day 20 compared to bioAgNPs-(62.5 µg/mL) induced callus (312.96 ± 1.73 µg AAE/g of DW) on day 10. Conclusively, bioAgNPs are potent elicitors of callus cultures of F. indica.
Project description:Medicinal importance of <i>Embelia ribes</i> Burm f. is known since ancient time. Its berries are the main ingredient in Vidanga' or 'Baibidanga'-a component of ayurvedic formulations and possess medicinal properties such as antihelmintic, anticancer, neuroprotective and antidiabetic. Studies were conducted on phytochemicals, antioxidant activities, extraction efficiency of embelin from ten genotypes. Methanolic extract of berries from Nagavelli accession exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.18 ± 0.14 mg GAE/g DW); whereas, ethanolic extract showed highest total flavonoid content (8.35 ± 0.20 mg RE/g DW). The antioxidant activities (AOA) were assessed and noted that ethanolic and methanolic extracts of berries from Nagavelli (NAG) accession revealed highest activities in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity (67.48 ± 0.17%) and FRAP (66.73 ± 0.60 mg Fe(II)/g DW), respectively. In AOA analysis, berries extracted with different solvents were positively correlated with TPC. Principal component analysis revealed TPC and TFC were the most influencing components for strong antioxidant activities in <i>E</i>. <i>ribes.</i> Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to quantify embelin content and its optimize extraction using various methods. In the preliminary studies, berries from NAG accession revealed highest (1.770%) embelin content. Further, berries from NAG accession were subjected to various extraction methods and found three fold increase (5.08%) in embelin content in microwave assisted extraction (90 s). Present study suggested that NAG accession found to be a promising source of natural antioxidants and embelin that can be used in pharmaceutical industries.
Project description:Blueberries production has increased in the last few years boosted somehow by the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for a healthier nutrition and their recognized potential to treat several diseases. The production increase lead to high amounts of discarded leaves that could be very valuable. In this context, the antioxidant activity of Vaccinium spp. leaves, by means of the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined. Adult leaves of twenty-seven Vaccinium cultivars collected in three geographic regions and three seasons of the year were included. The antioxidant activity was additionally estimated with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and data transferability across the regions and seasons was evaluated. The TPC, TFC and TAC ranged from 39.6-272.8 mg gallic acid, 41.2-269.1 mg catechin and 22.6-124.8 mM Trolox per g of dry leaf, respectively. Globally through the seasons, the higher values of the three parameters were obtained in December. Regarding the geographic region, region A provided the cultivars with the higher antioxidant content. Titan was the cultivar with higher TPC and TAC and Misty the one with the higher TFC. NIR spectroscopy combined with the partial least squares analysis was able to successfully predict the antioxidant activity with coefficients of determination and range error ratios ranging from 0.84-0.99 and 11.2-26.8. Despite some identified limitations on data transferability, NIR spectroscopy proved to be a reliable, low cost and quick method to predict the antioxidant activity of the considered cultivar leaves.