ABSTRACT: Since nuclear factor of κ-light chain of enhancer-activated B cells (NF-κB) was discovered in 1986, extraordinary efforts have been made to understand the function and regulating mechanism of NF-κB for 35 years, which lead to significant progress. Meanwhile, the molecular mechanisms regulating NF-κB activation have also been illuminated, the cascades of signaling events leading to NF-κB activity and key components of the NF-κB pathway are also identified. It has been suggested NF-κB plays an important role in human diseases, especially inflammation-related diseases. These studies make the NF-κB an attractive target for disease treatment. This review aims to summarize the knowledge of the family members of NF-κB, as well as the basic mechanisms of NF-κB signaling pathway activation. We will also review the effects of dysregulated NF-κB on inflammation, tumorigenesis, and tumor microenvironment. The progression of the translational study and drug development targeting NF-κB for inflammatory diseases and cancer treatment and the potential obstacles will be discussed. Further investigations on the precise functions of NF-κB in the physiological and pathological settings and underlying mechanisms are in the urgent need to develop drugs targeting NF-κB for inflammatory diseases and cancer treatment, with minimal side effects.
Project description:The IκB kinase/NF-κB signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. Increased activation of NF-κB is often detected in both immune and non-immune cells in tissues affected by chronic inflammation, where it is believed to exert detrimental functions by inducing the expression of proinflammatory mediators that orchestrate and sustain the inflammatory response and cause tissue damage. Thus, increased NF-κB activation is considered an important pathogenic factor in many acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, raising hopes that NF-κB inhibitors could be effective for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, ample evidence has accumulated that NF-κB inhibition can also be harmful for the organism, and in some cases trigger the development of inflammation and disease. These findings suggested that NF-κB signaling has important functions for the maintenance of physiological immune homeostasis and for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in many tissues. This beneficial function of NF-κB has been predominantly observed in epithelial cells, indicating that NF-κB signaling has a particularly important role for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in epithelial tissues. It seems therefore that NF-κB displays two faces in chronic inflammation: on the one hand increased and sustained NF-κB activation induces inflammation and tissue damage, but on the other hand inhibition of NF-κB signaling can also disturb immune homeostasis, triggering inflammation and disease. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that control these apparently opposing functions of NF-κB signaling, focusing particularly on the role of NF-κB in the regulation of immune homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine and the skin.
Project description:Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of multiple biological functions including innate and adaptive immunity and cell survival. Activation of NF-κB is tightly regulated to preclude chronic signaling that may lead to persistent inflammation and cancer. Ubiquitination of key signaling molecules by E3 ubiquitin ligases has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for NF-κB signaling. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) counteract E3 ligases and therefore play a prominent role in the downregulation of NF-κB signaling and homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of NF-κB downregulation by specific DUBs such as A20 and CYLD may provide therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Project description:Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDAC) have been shown to drive innate immune cell-mediated inflammation in the peripheral system, but their roles in cerebral inflammatory responses remain largely unknown. Here, we elucidate that HDAC7 is selectively elevated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged astrocytes both in vivo and in vitro. We identify that HDAC7 binds to the inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK) to promote IKKα and IKKβ deacetylation and subsequent activation, leading to the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Astrocyte-specific overexpression of HDAC7 results in NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory gene upregulation and anxiety-like behaviors in mice, while downregulating HDAC7 reserves LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of HDAC7 by a class IIa HDAC inhibitor attenuates LPS-induced NF-κB activation, inflammatory responses and anxiety-like behaviors both in vivo and in vitro. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism of HDAC7 in astrocyte-mediated inflammation and suggest that targeting HDAC7 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of anxiety and other inflammation-related diseases.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activates NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory gene expression, but also induces cell death by triggering apoptosis and necroptosis. Inhibition of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in keratinocytes paradoxically unleashed spontaneous TNFR1-mediated skin inflammation in mice, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that TNFR1 causes skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific knockout of IKK2 by inducing receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-dependent necroptosis, and to a lesser extent also apoptosis, of keratinocytes. Combined epidermis-specific ablation of the NF-κB subunits RelA and c-Rel also caused skin inflammation by inducing TNFR1-mediated keratinocyte necroptosis. Contrary to the currently established model that inhibition of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription causes RIPK1-independent cell death, keratinocyte necroptosis, and skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific RelA and c-Rel deficiency also depended on RIPK1 kinase activity. These results advance our understanding of the mechanisms regulating TNFR1-induced cell death and identify RIPK1-mediated necroptosis as a potent driver of skin inflammation.
Project description:High levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with obesity and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism has emerged as a potential target for several modern diseases including diabetes. Herein, we explored the underlying mechanisms of NAD metabolism associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Our study found that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) mRNA levels were significantly increased in the hearts of FFA-bound-albumin-overloaded mice and in H9C2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA). We studied the mechanisms underlining the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of 1-methylnicotinamide (1-MNA), a metabolite of NNMT. We found a significantly higher level of reactive oxygen species, inflammation, apoptosis, and cell hypertrophy in PA-treated H9C2 cells and this effect was inhibited by 1-MNA treatment. in vivo, 1-MNA improved inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis damage in mice and this inhibition was associated with inhibited NF-κB activity. In conclusion, our study revealed that 1-MNA may prevent high fatty diet and PA-induced heart injury by regulating Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Overexpressed inflammatory cytokines are the main factors causing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tissue damage and pathological deterioration, and lncRNAs has found to beinvolved in some autoinflammatory diseases.<h4>Methods</h4>We designed this study to investigate the effect of lncRNA linc00152 on rheumatoid arthritis inflammation and explore its molecular mechanism.<h4>Result</h4>We found that linc00152 was not only up-regulated in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLS), but also stimulated by TNF-α/IL-1β in adose- and time-dependent manner in RAFLS and this expression depends on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Conversely, linc00152 promoted TNF-α/IL-1β expression in RAFLS induced by TNF-α/IL-1β. In addition, we found that linc00152 promoted TAK1 expression by targeting inhibition of miR-103a and activated TAK1-mediated NF-κB pathway. NF-kB indirectly promotes linc00152 expression by promoting the transcription activity of YY1, and YY1 directly promotes linc00152 expression by binding the promoter of linc00152.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data suggested that the linc00152/NF-κB feedback loop promotes RAFLS inflammation via regulating miR-103a/TAK1 axis and YY1 expression. Thus, linc00152 acts as a switch to control this regulatory circuit and may serve as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for RA treatment.
Project description:Angiogenesis is essential during development and in pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Inhibition of angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blocks disease progression, but most patients eventually develop resistance which may result from compensatory signalling pathways. In endothelial cells (ECs), expression of the pro-angiogenic chemokine CXCL12 is regulated by non-canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling. Here, we report that NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) and subsequent non-canonical NF-κB signalling regulate both inflammation-induced and tumour-associated angiogenesis. NIK is highly expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) in tumour tissues and inflamed rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Furthermore, non-canonical NF-κB signalling in human microvascular ECs significantly enhanced vascular tube formation, which was completely blocked by siRNA targeting NIK. Interestingly, Nik(-/-) mice exhibited normal angiogenesis during development and unaltered TNFα- or VEGF-induced angiogenic responses, whereas angiogenesis induced by non-canonical NF-κB stimuli was significantly reduced. In addition, angiogenesis in experimental arthritis and a murine tumour model was severely impaired in these mice. These studies provide evidence for a role of non-canonical NF-κB signalling in pathological angiogenesis, and identify NIK as a potential therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory diseases and tumour neoangiogenesis.
Project description:Cells must adapt to changes in their environment to maintain cell, tissue and organismal integrity in the face of mechanical, chemical or microbiological stress. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is one of the most important transcription factors that controls inducible gene expression as cells attempt to restore homeostasis. It plays critical roles in the immune system, from acute inflammation to the development of secondary lymphoid organs, and also has roles in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Given its role in such critical processes, NF-κB signalling must be subject to strict spatiotemporal control to ensure measured and context-specific cellular responses. Indeed, deregulation of NF-κB signalling can result in debilitating and even lethal inflammation and also underpins some forms of cancer. In this review, we describe the homeostatic feedback mechanisms that limit and 're-set' inducible activation of NF-κB. We first describe the key components of the signalling pathways leading to activation of NF-κB, including the prominent role of protein phosphorylation and protein ubiquitylation, before briefly introducing the key features of feedback control mechanisms. We then describe the array of negative feedback loops targeting different components of the NF-κB signalling cascade including controls at the receptor level, post-receptor signalosome complexes, direct regulation of the critical 'inhibitor of κB kinases' (IKKs) and inhibitory feedforward regulation of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses. We also review post-transcriptional feedback controls affecting RNA stability and translation. Finally, we describe the deregulation of these feedback controls in human disease and consider how feedback may be a challenge to the efficacy of inhibitors.
Project description:Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a critical transcription factor involved in regulating cell activation, inflammation, and survival. The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) which consists of HOIL1, HOIP, and SHARPIN, catalyzes the linear ubiquitination of target proteins—a post-translational modification that is essential for NF-κB activation. Human germline pathogenic variants that dysregulate linear ubiquitination and NF-κB signaling are associated with immunodeficiency and/or autoinflammation including dermatitis, recurrent fevers, systemic inflammation and enteropathy. We previously identified MALT1 paracaspase as a novel negative regulator of LUBAC by proteolytic cleavage of HOIL1. To directly investigate the impact of HOIL1 cleavage activity on the inflammatory response, we employed a stable transduction system to express and directly compare non-cleavable HOIL1 with wild-type HOIL1 in primary HOIL1-deficient patient skin fibroblasts. We discovered that non-cleavable HOIL1 resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling in response to innate stimuli. Transcriptomics revealed enrichment of inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine-related pathways after stimulation. Multiplexed cytokine assays confirmed a ‘hyperinflammatory’ phenotype in these cells. This work highlights the physiological importance of MALT1-dependent cleavage and modulation of HOIL1 on NF-κB signaling and inflammation, provides a mechanism for the autoinflammation observed in MALT1-deficient patients, and will inform the development of therapeutics that target MALT1 paracaspase and LUBAC function in treating autoinflammatory skin diseases.
Project description:Mallory-Denk-bodies (MDBs) are hepatic protein aggregates associated with inflammation both clinically and in MDB-inducing models. Similar protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases also triggers inflammation and NF-κB activation. However, the precise mechanism that links protein aggregation to NF-κB-activation and inflammatory response remains unclear. Herein we find that treating primary hepatocytes with MDB-inducing agents (N-methylprotoporphyrin (NMPP), protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), or Zinc-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP)) elicited an IκBα-loss with consequent NF-κB activation. Four known mechanisms of IκBα-loss <i>i.e.</i> the canonical ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation (UPD), autophagic-lysosomal degradation, calpain degradation and translational inhibition, were all probed and excluded. Immunofluorescence analyses of ZnPP-treated cells coupled with 8 M urea/CHAPS-extraction revealed that this IκBα-loss was due to its sequestration along with IκBβ into insoluble aggregates, thereby releasing NF-κB. Through affinity pulldown, proximity biotinylation by antibody recognition, and other proteomic analyses, we verified that NF-κB subunit p65, which stably interacts with IκBα under normal conditions, no longer binds to it upon ZnPP-treatment. Additionally, we identified 10 proteins that interact with IκBα under baseline conditions, aggregate upon ZnPP-treatment, and maintain the interaction with IκBα after ZnPP-treatment, either by cosequestering into insoluble aggregates or through a different mechanism. Of these 10 proteins, the nucleoporins Nup153 and Nup358/RanBP2 were identified through RNA-interference, as mediators of IκBα-nuclear import. The concurrent aggregation of IκBα, NUP153, and RanBP2 upon ZnPP-treatment, synergistically precluded the nuclear entry of IκBα and its consequent binding and termination of NF-κB activation. This novel mechanism may account for the protein aggregate-induced inflammation observed in liver diseases, thus identifying novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Because of inherent commonalities this MDB cell model is a <i>bona fide</i> protoporphyric model, making these findings equally relevant to the liver inflammation associated with clinical protoporphyria.