Dietary Intake of the Italian PHIME Infant Cohort: How We Are Getting Diet Wrong from as Early as Infancy.
ABSTRACT: Unhealthy dietary habits established in early infancy may lead to under or over nutrition later in life. This paper describes the energy, nutrients and food-type intake of 18-month-old infants belonging to the Italian PHIME cohort (n = 389) and evaluates adherence to the Italian dietary reference values (DRVs). Infant dietary data were collected using 7-day dietary records. Mean energy, macro and micronutrient intakes were estimated and compared with the DRVs. The percentage contribution of 19 selected food groups to total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake was determined with the aim of establishing the main food sources. Most infants' diet shared common characteristics: poor variety, excessive intake of proteins (16.5 E% vs. 8-12 E% DRV) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (13.8 E% vs. <10 E% DRV), mainly derived from milk and dairy products, and low intake of total fats (33.2 E% vs. 35-40 E% DRV), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (3.1 E% vs. 5-10 E% DRV), vitamin D (1.1 vs. 15 µg/day DRV) and iron (4.5 vs. 8 mg/day DRV). The unbalanced distribution of macronutrients was reflected in energy intakes outside DRV ranges for more than half the infants. Public health interventions promoting healthy eating habits from early on, even from pregnancy, could yield significant short- and long-term health benefits.
Project description:Few studies provide a detailed description of dietary habits during pregnancy, despite the central role of nutrition for the health of the mother and offspring. This paper describes the dietary habits, energy and nutrient intake in pregnant women from four countries belonging to the Mediterranean PHIME cohort (Croatia, Greece, Italy and Slovenia) and evaluates their adherence to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. A total of 1436 women were included in the present analysis. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean macro and micronutrient intakes were estimated and compared with the dietary reference values (DRVs). The percentage distribution of the 16 food groups in the total intake of each macronutrient was estimated. All women shared a similar diet during pregnancy; almost all the women in the four countries exceeded the DRV for sugars, and the total fat intake was above the DRV in most women in all the countries, as was the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to the total energy intake. In all four countries, we observed an increased risk of micronutrient deficiency for iron, folate and vitamin D. Shared guidelines, implemented at both the national and European level, are essential to improve the maternal nutritional status during pregnancy.
Project description:Suboptimal intake of nutrients is associated with adverse health outcomes. The current study investigated the risk of suboptimal macro and micronutrient intake and their potential determinants in a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older Danish adults (65?81 years). Nutrient intake was obtained through a 3-day weighted dietary record and information on personal characteristics and attitudes towards specific foods and dietary habits and nutrition through questionnaires. Dietary Reference Values (DRV) from the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations were used for the assessment. Among 157 participants, 68% and 66% had risk of suboptimal intake of dietary fiber and saturated fatty acids (SFA). For mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the numbers were 47% and 62%, respectively. Increased risk of suboptimal protein intake was estimated in 3 to 45% of the participants, depending on the criteria used for the DRV and of the mode of expressing protein intake. Fifty percent had intakes of alcohol above the maximum recommended intake. Risk of micronutrient inadequacy was particularly high for vitamin D and thiamine (80 and 45%, respectively). Total energy intake and attitude regarding healthy eating were associated with lower nutrient intake. The current study illustrates that there is room for improvements in the dietary quality of community dwelling older Danish adults.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In many low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence of energy and nutrient deficiencies is high among pregnant women. Balanced energy-protein (BEP) supplements are a promising strategy to cover nutritional requirements during pregnancy and improve birth outcomes. However, the displacement of nutrient-dense foods by BEP might attenuate the efficacy of supplementation.<h4>Objective</h4>This cross-sectional study of participants in a randomized controlled trial evaluated the difference in energy and macro- and micronutrient intakes, food groups, and nutrient adequacy between a control and intervention group receiving either a daily iron-folic acid (IFA) tablet or IFA and BEP supplement during pregnancy, respectively.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected a single multiple-pass 24-h recall from 470 pregnant women from the MIcronutriments pour la SAnté de la Mère et de l'Enfant (MISAME) III study that investigates the efficacy of BEP supplementation on birth outcomes and infant growth. Dietary intake (median and IQR) and nutrient adequacy were assessed using individual recipes and preparation methods of mixed dishes for each participant. Linear regression models were fitted to compare energy and nutrient intakes.<h4>Results</h4>Dietary energy, and macro- and micronutrient intakes were significantly higher among women in the intervention group when including BEP [2329 kcal/d (1855, 3008 kcal/d) compared with 1942 kcal/d (1575, 2405 kcal/d) in the control group (all P < 0.001)]. The difference in median energy intake (448 kcal/d; 95% CI: 291, 605 kcal/d) was approximately equivalent to a daily dose of the BEP supplement (393 kcal). Nutrient adequacy ratios for both groups were low for all micronutrients (between 0.02 and 0.66), when excluding BEP (except iron and folic acid, due to standard supplemental doses) from analysis. However, nutrient intakes increased to the Estimated Average Requirement for pregnant women when including BEP supplements.<h4>Conclusions</h4>BEP supplementation increases energy and macro- and micronutrient intakes among pregnant women and fills nutrient gaps without displacing food intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03533712 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03533712).
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the changes in dietary patterns of adult Saudis with prediabetes who underwent a six-month lifestyle modification program. A total of 160 Saudis with prediabetes (baseline fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L), aged 20-60 years, were enrolled in one of the two arms: A one-time general advice about lifestyle modification (GA group) at orientation or a well-structured and monitored nutrition and lifestyle counseling for six months (guidance group). Fasting blood samples and a dietary recall for daily intakes of macro/micronutrients using a validated computerized food database "ESHA-the Food Processor Nutrition Analysis program" were collected pre- and post-intervention. Compliance to reference daily intake (RDI) was also calculated at both time points. At baseline, overall, severe deficiencies in the majority of micronutrient intakes were observed. Post intervention, clinically significant improvements in the glycemic indices (fasting glucose and insulin resistance) were seen over time in the guidance group. Also, significant improvements in dietary habits and physical activity levels were more apparent in the guidance group than the GA group, particularly in the daily intakes of total carbohydrate (46.9% compliance post vs. 20.3% at baseline); dietary fiber (21.9% vs. 3.1%); and some micronutrients like vitamin B6 (21.3% vs. 6.7%), vitamin B12 (45.3% vs. 28%), vitamin C (21.9% vs. 7.8%), riboflavin (40% vs. 10.7%), niacin (41.3% vs. 14.7%), magnesium (18.8% vs. 4.7%), iron (54.7% vs. 34.4%), and copper (37.3% vs. 13.3%). The study highlights the effects of a six-month lifestyle modification program in improving dietary micronutrient intakes of Saudis with prediabetes. Since micronutrient intake was observed to be low, fortification of these micronutrients in the Saudi diet is recommended.
Project description:Eating habits of lactating women can influence the nutrient composition of human milk, which in turn influences nutrient intake of breastfed infants. The aim of the present study was to identify food patterns and nutritional adequacy among lactating women in Europe. Data from a multicentre European longitudinal cohort (ATLAS study) were analysed to identify dietary patterns using cluster analysis. Dietary information from 180 lactating women was obtained using 3-d food diaries over the first 4 months of lactation. Four dietary patterns were identified: 'vege-oils', 'fish-poultry', 'confectionery-salads' and 'mixed dishes'. Nutrition adequacy was not significantly different between clusters, but the 'vege-oils' cluster tended to yield the highest nutrition adequacy measured by Mean Adequacy Ratio. Compared with European dietary reference values (DRVs) for lactating women, women in all clusters had inadequate intakes of energy, pantothenic acid, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, iodine, potassium and linoleic acid. Adequate intake for fibre and α-linolenic acid was only achieved in the 'vege-oils' cluster. Overall, fat intake was above DRVs. The present study showed that various dietary patterns do not adequately supply all nutrients, indicating a need to promote overall healthy dietary habits for European lactating women.
Project description:During the nutritional vulnerable period of 1-3 years of age, nutrient intake is often inadequate due to an unbalanced diet. Young child formula (YCF) has been proposed as a means of improving nutrition in this age group. We compared the food consumption and nutrient intake of 241 YCF consumers (YCF-C) to those of 206 non-consumers (YCF-NC), selected from among the children enrolled in the Nutri-Bébé survey, an observational cross-sectional survey, conducted from 3 January to 21 April 2013. Food consumption and nutrient intake were analyzed from a three-day dietary record. The YCF-C < 2 years group had a protein (-8 g/d; p < 0.0001) and sodium (-18%; p = 0.0003) intake that was lower than that of YCF-NC, but still above the respective EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Average Requirement (AR) or Adequate Intake (AI). At all ages, the YCF-C group had higher intakes of essential fatty acids (p < 0.0001), vitamins C (p < 0.0001), A, D, and E (p < 0.0001), all B vitamins (p < 0.001) except B12, iron (9 vs. 5 mg/d, p < 0.0001), reaching the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs, AR or AI), but similar DHA and ARA intakes. Getting closer to the reference values proposed by EFSA required at least 360 mL/d of YCF. The consumption of YCF may help infants and children at risk of nutrient deficiencies to meet their nutritional requirements. However, protein, sodium, and vitamin A intakes remained above the EFSA DRVs, and DHA, ARA, and vitamin D remained below.
Project description:Poor dietary intake during pregnancy remains a significant public health concern, affecting the health of the mother and fetus. This study examines the adequacy of energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes among self-declared lacto-vegetarian and non-vegetarian pregnant women. We analyzed dietary data from 627 pregnant women in Uttar Pradesh, India, using a multiple-pass 24 h diet recall. Compared to non-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians (~46%) were less likely to report excessive carbohydrate (78% vs. 63%) and inadequate fat intakes (70% vs. 52%). In unadjusted analyses, lacto-vegetarians had a slightly higher mean PA for micronutrients (20% vs. 17%), but these differences were no longer significant after controlling for caste, education, and other demographic characteristics. In both groups, the median intake of 9 out of 11 micronutrients was below the Estimated Average Requirement. In conclusion, the energy and micronutrient intakes were inadequate, and the macronutrient intakes were imbalanced, regardless of stated dietary preferences. Since diets are poor across the board, a range of policies and interventions that address the household food environment, nutrition counseling, behavior change, and supplementation are needed in order to achieve adequate nutrient intake for pregnant women in this population.
Project description:The present study aimed to characterize dietary intake and diet quality from late pregnancy to six months postpartum. Participants (n = 28) completed 2-3 Web-based 24 h recalls at three distinct periods: (1) during the third trimester of pregnancy; (2) three months and (3) six months after delivery. Energy, macro-and micronutrient intakes (from foods and supplements), as well as the Canadian healthy eating index (C-HEI) were derived from the dietary recalls. No significant variation in energy and macronutrient intakes was observed between time points. The proportion of women taking at least one supplement decreased over time (p = 0.003). The total intake of several micronutrients (vitamins A, C, D, group B vitamins, iron, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, and copper) decreased significantly over time (p < 0.05 for all micronutrients). The total C-HEI score and its components did not change, except for the total vegetables and fruit subscore, which decreased over time (8.2 ± 2.0 in the 3rd trimester, 7.1 ± 2.2 at three months postpartum, 6.9 ± 2.4 at 6 months postpartum, p = 0.04). In conclusion, we observed a general stability in diet quality, energy, and macronutrient intakes from the third trimester of pregnancy to six months postpartum. However, several micronutrient intakes decreased over time, mostly due to changes in supplement use.
Project description:Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0-24 months. Data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0-11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.
Project description:Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n?=?298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet.