Chk2 activation dependence on Nbs1 after DNA damage.
ABSTRACT: The checkpoint kinase Chk2 has a key role in delaying cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Upon activation by low-dose ionizing radiation (IR), which occurs in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner, Chk2 can phosphorylate the mitosis-inducing phosphatase Cdc25C on an inhibitory site, blocking entry into mitosis, and p53 on a regulatory site, causing G(1) arrest. Here we show that the ATM-dependent activation of Chk2 by gamma- radiation requires Nbs1, the gene product involved in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a disorder that shares with AT a variety of phenotypic defects including chromosome fragility, radiosensitivity, and radioresistant DNA synthesis. Thus, whereas in normal cells Chk2 undergoes a time-dependent increased phosphorylation and induction of catalytic activity against Cdc25C, in NBS cells null for Nbs1 protein, Chk2 phosphorylation and activation are both defective. Importantly, these defects in NBS cells can be complemented by reintroduction of wild-type Nbs1, but neither by a carboxy-terminal deletion mutant of Nbs1 at amino acid 590, unable to form a complex with and to transport Mre11 and Rad50 in the nucleus, nor by an Nbs1 mutated at Ser343 (S343A), the ATM phosphorylation site. Chk2 nuclear expression is unaffected in NBS cells, hence excluding a mislocalization as the cause of failed Chk2 activation in Nbs1-null cells. Interestingly, the impaired Chk2 function in NBS cells correlates with the inability, unlike normal cells, to stop entry into mitosis immediately after irradiation, a checkpoint abnormality that can be corrected by introduction of the wild-type but not the S343A mutant form of Nbs1. Altogether, these findings underscore the crucial role of a functional Nbs1 complex in Chk2 activation and suggest that checkpoint defects in NBS cells may result from the inability to activate Chk2.
Project description:Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins (SMC1, SMC3) are evolutionarily conserved chromosomal proteins that are components of the cohesin complex, necessary for sister chromatid cohesion. These proteins may also function in DNA repair. Here we report that SMC1 is a component of the DNA damage response network that functions as an effector in the ATM/NBS1-dependent S-phase checkpoint pathway. SMC1 associates with BRCA1 and is phosphorylated in response to IR in an ATM- and NBS1-dependent manner. Using mass spectrometry, we established that ATM phosphorylates S957 and S966 of SMC1 in vivo. Phosphorylation of S957 and/or S966 of SMC1 is required for activation of the S-phase checkpoint in response to IR. We also discovered that the phosphorylation of NBS1 by ATM is required for the phosphorylation of SMC1, establishing the role of NBS1 as an adaptor in the ATM/NBS1/SMC1 pathway. The ATM/CHK2/CDC25A pathway is also involved in the S-phase checkpoint activation, but this pathway is intact in NBS cells. Our results indicate that the ATM/NBS1/SMC1 pathway is a separate branch of the S-phase checkpoint pathway, distinct from the ATM/CHK2/CDC25A branch. Therefore, this work establishes the ATM/NBS1/SMC1 branch, and provides a molecular basis for the S-phase checkpoint defect in NBS cells.
Project description:The MRE11 complex (MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1) and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase function in the same DNA damage response pathway to effect cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. The functional interaction between the MRE11 complex and ATM has been proposed to require a conserved C-terminal domain of NBS1 for recruitment of ATM to sites of DNA damage. Human Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells and those derived from multiple mouse models of NBS express a hypomorphic NBS1 allele that exhibits impaired ATM activity despite having an intact C-terminal domain. This indicates that the NBS1 C terminus is not sufficient for ATM function. We derived Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice in which the C-terminal ATM interaction domain is deleted. Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) cells exhibit intra-S-phase checkpoint defects, but are otherwise indistinguishable from wild-type cells with respect to other checkpoint functions, ionizing radiation sensitivity and chromosome stability. However, multiple tissues of Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice showed a severe apoptotic defect, comparable to that of ATM- or CHK2-deficient animals. Analysis of p53 transcriptional targets and ATM substrates showed that, in contrast to the phenotype of Chk2(-/-) mice, NBS1(DeltaC) does not impair the induction of proapoptotic genes. Instead, the defects observed in Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) result from impaired phosphorylation of ATM targets including SMC1 and the proapoptotic factor, BID.
Project description:The checkpoint kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) transduces genomic stress signals to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Here, we report the characterisation of an essential cofactor for ATM, ATMIN (ATM INteracting protein). ATMIN interacts with ATM through a C-terminal motif, which is also present in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1. ATMIN and ATM co-localised in response to ATM activation by chloroquine and hypotonic stress, but not after induction of double-strand breaks by ionising radiation (IR). ATM/ATMIN complex disruption by IR was attenuated in cells with impaired NBS1 function, suggesting competition of NBS1 and ATMIN for ATM binding. ATMIN protein levels were reduced in ataxia telangiectasia cells and ATM protein levels were low in primary murine fibroblasts lacking ATMIN, indicating reciprocal stabilisation. Whereas phosphorylation of Smc1, Chk2 and p53 was normal after IR in ATMIN-deficient cells, basal ATM activity and ATM activation by hypotonic stress and inhibition of DNA replication was impaired. Thus, ATMIN defines a novel NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling.
Project description:Post-translational phosphorylation of proteins provides a mechanism for cells to switch on or off many diverse processes, including responses to replication stress. Replication-stress-induced phosphorylation enables the rapid activation of numerous proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, including replication protein A (RPA). Here, we report that hydroxyurea (HU)-induced RPA phosphorylation requires both NBS1 (NBN) and NBS1 phosphorylation. Transfection of both phosphospecific and nonphosphospecific anti-NBS1 antibodies blocked hyperphosphorylation of RPA in HeLa cells. Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells stably transfected with an empty vector or with S343A-NBS1 or S278A/S343A phospho-mutants were unable to hyperphosphorylate RPA in DNA-damage-associated foci following HU treatment. The stable transfection of fully functional NBS1 in NBS cells restored RPA hyperphosphorylation. Retention of ATR on chromatin in both NBS cells and in NBS cells expressing S278A/S343A NBS1 mutants decreased after DNA damage, suggesting that ATR is the kinase responsible for RPA phosphorylation. The importance of RPA hyperphosphorylation is demonstrated by the ability of cells expressing a phospho-mutant form of RPA32 (RPA2) to suppress and delay HU-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that RPA hyperphosphorylation requires NBS1 and is important for the cellular response to DNA damage.
Project description:Shelterin component TRF2 prevents ATM activation, while POT1 represses ATR signalling at telomeres. Here, we investigate the mechanism of G2/M arrest triggered by telomeres uncapped through TRF2 or POT1 inhibition in human cells. We find that telomere damage-activated ATR and ATM phosphorylate p53, as well as CHK1 and CHK2, thus activating two independent pathways to prevent progression into mitosis with uncapped telomeres. Surprisingly, telomere damage targets the CDC25C phosphatase for proteasome degradation in G2/M. CHK1/CHK2-dependent phosphorylation of CDC25C at Ser 216 is required for CDC25C nuclear export and destruction, which in turn acts to sustain the G2/M arrest elicited by TRF2- or POT1-depleted telomeres. In addition, CDC25C is transcriptionally downregulated by p53 in response to telomere damage. These mechanisms are distinct from the canonical DNA damage response to ionizing radiation, which triggers cell-cycle arrest through CDC25A destruction. Thus, dysfunctional telomeres promote ATM/ATR-dependent degradation of CDC25C phosphatase to block mitotic entry, thereby preventing telomere dysfunction-driven genomic instability.
Project description:Nbs1, a member of the Mre11-RAD50-Nbs1 complex, is phosphorylated by ATM, the product of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene and a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family of serine-threonine kinases, in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to regulate DNA damage checkpoints. Here we show that BCR/ABL stimulated Nbs1 expression by induction of c-Myc-dependent transactivation and protection from caspase-dependent degradation. BCR/ABL-related fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) such as TEL/JAK2, TEL/PDGFbetaR, TEL/ABL, TEL/TRKC, BCR/FGFR1, and NPM/ALK as well as interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) also stimulated Nbs1 expression. Enhanced ATM kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Nbs1 on serine 343 (S343) in response to genotoxic treatment was detected in leukemia cells expressing BCR/ABL and other FTKs in comparison to normal counterparts stimulated with IL-3, GM-CSF, and SCF. Expression of Nbs1-S343A mutant disrupted the intra-S-phase checkpoint, decreased homologous recombinational repair (HRR) activity, down-regulated XIAP expression, and sensitized BCR/ABL-positive cells to cytotoxic drugs. Interestingly, inhibition of Nbs1 phosphorylation by S343A mutant enhanced the antileukemia effect of the combination of imatinib and genotoxic agent.
Project description:Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly lethal brain tumours with current therapies limited to palliation due to therapeutic resistance. We previously demonstrated that GBM stem cells (GSCs) display a preferential activation of DNA damage checkpoint and are relatively resistant to radiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the preferential checkpoint response in GSCs remain undefined. Here, we show that L1CAM (CD171) regulates DNA damage checkpoint responses and radiosensitivity of GSCs through nuclear translocation of L1CAM intracellular domain (L1-ICD). Targeting L1CAM by RNA interference attenuated DNA damage checkpoint activation and repair, and sensitized GSCs to radiation. L1CAM regulates expression of NBS1, a critical component of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex that activates ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and early checkpoint response. Ectopic expression of NBS1 in GSCs rescued the decreased checkpoint activation and radioresistance caused by L1CAM knockdown, demonstrating that L1CAM signals through NBS1 to regulate DNA damage checkpoint responses. Mechanistically, nuclear translocation of L1-ICD mediates NBS1 upregulation via c-Myc. These data demonstrate that L1CAM augments DNA damage checkpoint activation and radioresistance of GSCs through L1-ICD-mediated NBS1 upregulation and the enhanced MRN-ATM-Chk2 signalling.
Project description:Genetic and cytologic data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals implicate the Mre11 complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1, as a sensor of DNA damage, and indicate that the complex influences the activity of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in the DNA damage response. Rad50(S/S) mice exhibit precipitous apoptotic attrition of hematopoietic cells. We generated ATM- and Chk2-deficient Rad50(S/S) mice and found that Rad50(S/S) cellular attrition was strongly ATM and Chk2 dependent. The hypomorphic Mre11(ATLD1) and Nbs1(Delta)(B) alleles conferred similar rescue of Rad50(S/S)-dependent hematopoietic failure. These data indicate that the Mre11 complex activates an ATM-Chk2-dependent apoptotic pathway. We find that apoptosis and cell cycle checkpoint activation are parallel outcomes of the Mre11 complex-ATM pathway. Conversely, the Rad50(S) mutation mitigated several phenotypic features of ATM deficiency. We propose that the Rad50(S) allele is hypermorphic for DNA damage signaling, and that the resulting constitutive low-level activation of the DNA damage response accounts for the partial suppression of ATM deficiency in Rad50(S/S) Atm(-/-) mice.
Project description:The chromosomal instability syndromes Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) share many overlapping phenotypes, including cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, cell-cycle checkpoint defects, immunodeficiency, and gonadal dysfunction. The NBS protein Nbs1 is not only a downstream target of AT mutated (ATM) kinase but also acts upstream, promoting optimal ATM activation, ATM recruitment to breaks, and ATM accessibility to substrates. By reconstituting Nbs1 knockout mice with bacterial artificial chromosomes, we have assessed the contribution of distinct regions of Nbs1 to the ATM-dependent DNA damage response. We find that T cell and oocyte development, as well as DNA damage-induced G2/M and S phase checkpoint arrest and radiation survival are dependent on the N-terminal forkhead-associated domain, but not on the principal residues phosphorylated by ATM (S278 and S343) or on the evolutionarily conserved C-terminal region of Nbs1. However, the C-terminal region regulates irradiation-induced apoptosis. These studies provide insight into the complex interplay between Nbs1 and ATM in the DNA damage response.
Project description:The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) and Chk2 have been implicated in the DNA damage response, an inducible process required for the suppression of malignancy. The Mre11 complex is predominantly required for repair and checkpoint activation in S phase, while Chk2 governs apoptosis. We examined the relationship between the Mre11 complex and Chk2 in the DNA damage response via the establishment of Nbs1∆B/∆B Chk2-/- and Mre11ATLD1/ATLD1 Chk2-/- mice. Chk2 deficiency did not modify the checkpoint defects or chromosomal instability of Mre11 complex mutants; however, the double mutant mice exhibited synergistic defects in DNA damage-induced p53 regulation and apoptosis. Nbs1∆B/∆B Chk2-/- and Mre11ATLD1/ATLD1 Chk2-/- mice were also predisposed to tumors. In contrast, DNA-PKcs deficient mice, in which G1-specific chromosome breaks are present, did not exhibit synergy with Chk2-/- mutants. These data suggest that Chk2 suppresses the oncogenic potential of DNA damage arising during S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Keywords: Global gene expression analysis, response to radiation, Nbs1∆B/∆B Chk2-/- and Mre11ATLD1/ATLD1 Chk2-/- mutant mice Overall design: Thymocytes from Wild type (Wt), Atm-/- and Chk2-/- mice were exposed to mock 5 Gy radiation (IR). The RNA was harvested 8 hours post treatment.