Reduced cleavage of von willebrand factor by ADAMTS13 is associated with microangiopathic acute kidney injury following trauma.
ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after trauma, but contributory factors are incompletely understood. Increases in plasma von Willebrand Factor (vWF) with concurrent decreases in ADAMTS13 are associated with renal microvascular thrombosis in other disease states, but similar findings have not been shown in trauma. We hypothesized that molecular changes in circulating vWF and ADAMTS13 promote AKI following traumatic injury. VWF antigen, vWF multimer composition and ADAMTS13 levels were compared in plasma samples from 16 trauma patients with and without trauma-induced AKI, obtained from the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) biorepository. Renal histopathology and function, vWF and ADAMTS13 levels were assessed in parallel in a murine model of polytrauma and haemorrhage. VWF antigen was higher in trauma patients when compared with healthy controls [314% (253-349) vs. 100% (87-117)] [median (IQR)], while ADAMTS13 activity was lower [36.0% (30.1-44.7) vs. 100.0% (83.1-121.0)]. Patients who developed AKI showed significantly higher levels of high molecular weight multimeric vWF at 72-h when compared with non-AKI counterparts [32.9% (30.4-35.3) vs. 27.8% (24.6-30.8)]. Murine plasma cystatin C and vWF were elevated postpolytrauma model in mice, with associated decreases in ADAMTS13, and immunohistologic analysis demonstrated renal injury with small vessel plugs positive for fibrinogen and vWF. Following traumatic injury, the vWF-ADAMTS13 axis shifted towards a prothrombotic state in both trauma patients and a murine model. We further demonstrated that vWF-containing, microangiopathic deposits were concurrently produced as the prothrombotic changes were sustained during the days following trauma, potentially contributing to AKI development.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Severe COVID-19 is often compounded by a prothrombotic state that is associated with poor outcomes. In this investigation, we aimed to evaluate ADAMTS13 activity, von Willebrand factor level (VWF:Ag), and the corresponding ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag ratio, in patients with COVID-19 and for associations with disease progression and acute kidney injury (AKI).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19 were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag were measured at index ED visit. The primary endpoint was severe AKI defined by KDIGO stage 2 + 3 criteria, while the secondary endpoint was peak 30-day COVID-19 severity.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 52 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Overall, we observed that 23.1% of the cohort had a relative deficiency in ADAMTS13 activity, while 80.8% had elevated VWF:Ag. The ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag ratio was significantly lower in patients with severe AKI (P = .002) and those who developed the severe form of COVID-19 (P = .020). The ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag ratio was negatively correlated with age (P < .001) and LDH (P < .001), while positively correlated with hemoglobin (P = .041). After controlling for confounders, a one-unit increase in ADAMTS13/VWF:Ag ratio was associated with 20% decreased odds of severe AKI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A low ADAMTS13 activity:VWF:Ag ratio at ED presentation is associated with progression to severe COVID-19 disease and severe AKI, with a pattern suggestive of a secondary microangiopathy. Further interventional studies should be conducted to assess the restoration of ADAMTS13:VWF:Ag ratio in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
Project description:ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13) prevents microvascular thrombosis by cleaving prothrombogenic ultralarge von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers. Clinical studies have found association between reduced ADAMTS13-specific activity, ultralarge VWF multimers, and thrombotic angiopathy in patients with diabetic nephropathy. It remains unknown, however, whether ADAMTS13 deficiency or ultralarge VWF multimers have a causative effect in diabetic nephropathy.The extent of renal injury was evaluated in wild-type (WT), Adamts13-/- and Adamts13-/-Vwf-/- mice after 26 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. We found that WT diabetic mice exhibited low plasma ADAMTS13-specific activity and increased VWF levels (P<0.05 versus WT nondiabetic mice). Adamts13-/- diabetic mice exhibited deterioration of kidney function (increased albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and urea; P<0.05 versus WT diabetic mice), independent of hyperglycemia and hypertension. Deterioration of kidney function in Adamts13-/- diabetic mice was concomitant with aggravated intrarenal thrombosis (assessed by plasminogen activator inhibitor, VWF, fibrin(ogen), and CD41-positive microthrombi), increased mesangial cell expansion, and extracellular matrix deposition (P<0.05 versus WT diabetic mice). Genetic deletion of VWF in Adamts13-/- diabetic mice improved kidney function, inhibited intrarenal thrombosis, and alleviated histological changes in glomeruli, suggesting that exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy in the setting of ADAMTS13 deficiency is VWF dependent.ADAMTS13 retards progression of diabetic nephropathy, most likely by inhibiting VWF-dependent intrarenal thrombosis. Alteration in ADAMTS13-VWF balance may be one of the key pathophysiological mechanisms of thrombotic angiopathy in diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Sepsis is a life-threatening disease characterized by excessive host response to infection that can lead to activation of the coagulation system. Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) and ADAMTS13 are important regulators of hemostasis and their dysregulation during sepsis progression is not well understood. Herein we characterize ADAMTS13 and VWF in septic and non-septic patients. ADAMTS13 activity, ADAMTS13 antigen, VWF antigen, myeloperoxidase, and protein C, were measured in plasma collected from 40 septic patients (20 non-survivors and 20 survivors) and 40 non-septic patients on the first and last day of their ICU stay. ADAMTS13 activity and ADAMTS13 antigen were reduced, whereas VWF antigen was elevated among septic patients compared to non-septic patients and healthy controls. Non-septic patients also exhibited elevated VWF antigen and reduced ADAMTS13 activity, but to a lesser extent than septic patients. Non-survivor septic patients exhibited the lowest levels of ADAMTS13 activity. ADAMTS13 activity:antigen ratio was similar across all patient cohorts suggesting that the specific activity of ADAMTS13 remains unchanged. Therefore, reduced ADAMTS13 function in circulation is likely due to a reduction in circulating levels. We suggest that massive release