Rubicon-regulated beta-1 adrenergic receptor recycling protects the heart from pressure overload.
ABSTRACT: Heart failure has high morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Autophagy is important for the quality control of proteins and organelles in the heart. Rubicon (Run domain Beclin-1-interacting and cysteine-rich domain-containing protein) has been identified as a potent negative regulator of autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo role of Rubicon-mediated autophagy and endosomal trafficking in the heart. We generated cardiomyocyte-specific Rubicon-deficient mice and subjected the mice to pressure overload by means of transverse aortic constriction. Rubicon-deficient mice showed heart failure with left ventricular dilatation, systolic dysfunction and lung congestion one week after pressure overload. While autophagic activity was unchanged, the protein amount of beta-1 adrenergic receptor was decreased in the pressure-overloaded Rubicon-deficient hearts. The increases in heart rate and systolic function by beta-1 adrenergic stimulation were significantly attenuated in pressure-overloaded Rubicon-deficient hearts. In isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the downregulation of the receptor by beta-1 adrenergic agonist was accelerated by knockdown of Rubicon through the inhibition of recycling of the receptor. Taken together, Rubicon protects the heart from pressure overload. Rubicon maintains the intracellular recycling of beta-1 adrenergic receptor, which might contribute to its cardioprotective effect.
Project description:Congestive heart failure is associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the levels of these cytokines correlate with heart failure severity and prognosis. Chronic interleukin 6 (IL-6) stimulation leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction, and deletion of IL-6 reduces LV hypertrophy after angiotensin II infusion. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-6 deletion has favorable effects on pressure-overloaded hearts. We performed transverse aortic constriction on IL-6-deleted (IL6KO) mice and C57BL/6J mice (CON) to induce pressure overload. Pressure overload was associated with similar LV hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction in CON and IL6KO mice. Re-activation of the fetal gene program was also similar in pressure-overloaded CON and IL6KO mice. There were no differences between CON and IL6KO mice in LV fibrosis or expression of extracellular matrix proteins after pressure overload. In addition, no group differences in apoptosis or autophagy were seen. These data indicate that IL-6 deletion does not block LV remodeling and dysfunction induced by pressure overload. Attenuated content of IL-11 appears to be a compensatory mechanism for IL-6 deletion in pressure-overloaded hearts. We infer from these data that limiting availability of IL-6 alone is not sufficient to attenuate LV remodeling and dysfunction in failing hearts.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Cardiotoxic β<sub>1</sub> adrenergic receptor (β<sub>1</sub>AR)-CaMKII (calmodulin-dependent kinase II) signaling is a major and critical feature associated with development of heart failure. SAP97 (synapse-associated protein 97) is a multifunctional scaffold protein that binds directly to the C-terminus of β<sub>1</sub>AR and organizes a receptor signalosome.<h4>Objective</h4>We aim to elucidate the dynamics of β<sub>1</sub>AR-SAP97 signalosome and its potential role in chronic cardiotoxic β<sub>1</sub>AR-CaMKII signaling that contributes to development of heart failure.<h4>Methods and results</h4>The integrity of cardiac β<sub>1</sub>AR-SAP97 complex was examined in heart failure. Cardiac-specific deletion of SAP97 was developed to examine β<sub>1</sub>AR signaling in aging mice, after chronic adrenergic stimulation, and in pressure overload hypertrophic heart failure. We show that the β<sub>1</sub>AR-SAP97 signaling complex is reduced in heart failure. Cardiac-specific deletion of SAP97 yields an aging-dependent cardiomyopathy and exacerbates cardiac dysfunction induced by chronic adrenergic stimulation and pressure overload, which are associated with elevated CaMKII activity. Loss of SAP97 promotes PKA (protein kinase A)-dependent association of β<sub>1</sub>AR with arrestin2 and CaMKII and turns on an Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP)-dependent activation of CaMKII, which drives detrimental functional and structural remodeling in myocardium. Moreover, we have identified that GRK5 (G-protein receptor kinase-5) is necessary to promote agonist-induced dissociation of SAP97 from β<sub>1</sub>AR. Cardiac deletion of GRK5 prevents adrenergic-induced dissociation of β<sub>1</sub>AR-SAP97 complex and increases in CaMKII activity in hearts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data reveal a critical role of SAP97 in maintaining the integrity of cardiac β<sub>1</sub>AR signaling and a detrimental cardiac GRK5-CaMKII axis that can be potentially targeted in heart failure therapy. Graphical Abstract: A graphical abstract is available for this article.
Project description:Microvascular dysfunction in the heart and its association with periarteriolar fibrosis may contribute to the diastolic dysfunction seen in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) prevents global myocardial fibrosis in a pressure overloaded left ventricle by acting via its receptor, ST2 (encoded by the gene, Il1rl1); however, whether this cytokine can also modulate periarteriolar fibrosis remains unclear. We utilized two approaches to explore the role of IL-33/ST2 in periarteriolar fibrosis. First, we studied young and old wild type mice to test the hypothesis that IL-33 and ST2 expression change with age. Second, we produced pressure overload in mice deficient in IL-33 or ST2 by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). With age, IL-33 expression increased and ST2 expression decreased. These alterations accompanied increased periarteriolar fibrosis in aged mice. Mice deficient in ST2 but not IL-33 had a significant increase in periarteriolar fibrosis following TAC compared to wild type mice. Thus, loss of ST2 signaling rather than changes in IL-33 expression may contribute to periarteriolar fibrosis during aging or pressure overload, but manipulating this pathway alone may not prevent or reverse fibrosis.
Project description:Autophagy is an endogenous protective process; the loss of autophagy could destabilize proteostasis and elevate intracellular oxidative stress, which is critically involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Oridonin, a natural tetracycline diterpenoid from the Chinese herb Rabdosia, has autophagy activation properties. In this study, we tested whether oridonin protects against cardiac hypertrophy in mice and cardiomyocytes. We implemented aortic banding to induce a cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, and oridonin was given by gavage for 4 weeks. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II to simulate neurohumoural stress. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that oridonin treatment mitigated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and also preserved heart function. Mice that received oridonin exhibited increased antioxidase activities and suppressed oxidative injury compared with the aortic banding group. Moreover, oridonin enhanced myocardial autophagy in pressure-overloaded hearts and angiotensin II-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, we discovered that oridonin administration regulated myocardial P21, and cytoplasmic P21 activated autophagy via regulating Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. These findings were further corroborated in a P21 knockout mouse model. Collectively, pressure overload-induced autophagy dysfunction causes intracellular protein accumulation, resulting in ROS injury while aggravating cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, our data show that oridonin promoted P21-related autophagic lysosomal degradation, hence attenuating oxidative injury and cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tenascin-C (TNC) is a highly conserved matricellular protein with a distinct expression pattern during development and disease. Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in response to pressure overload leads to the re-expression of the fetal gene program. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the function of TNC in cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. METHODS:Pressure overload was induced in TNC knockout and wild-type mice by constricting their abdominal aorta or by infusion of angiotensin II. Echocardiography, immunostaining, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and reciprocal bone marrow transplantation were used to evaluate the effect of TNC deficiency. RESULTS:Echocardiographic analysis of pressure overloaded hearts revealed that all LV parameters (LV end-diastolic and -systolic dimensions, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening) deteriorated in TNC-deficient mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. Cardiomyocyte size and collagen accumulation were significantly greater in the absence of TNC. Mechanistically, TNC deficiency promoted rapid accumulation of the CCR2+/Ly6Chi monocyte/macrophage subset into the myocardium in response to pressure overload. Further, echocardiographic and immunohistochemical analyses of recipient hearts showed that expression of TNC in the bone marrow, but not the myocardium, protected the myocardium against excessive remodeling of the pressure-overloaded heart. CONCLUSIONS:TNC deficiency further impaired cardiac function in response to pressure overload and exacerbated fibrosis by enhancing inflammation. In addition, expression of TNC in the bone marrow, but not the myocardium, protected the myocardium against excessive remodeling in response to mild pressure overload.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining sterile inflammation within failing hearts remain poorly defined. Although transcriptional control is important for proinflammatory cytokine gene expression, the stability of mRNA also contributes to the kinetics of immune responses. Regnase-1 is an RNase involved in the degradation of a set of proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs in immune cells. The role of Regnase-1 in nonimmune cells such as cardiomyocytes remains to be elucidated.<h4>Methods</h4>To examine the role of proinflammatory cytokine degradation by Regnase-1 in cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocyte-specific Regnase-1-deficient mice were generated. The mice were subjected to pressure overload by means of transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by echocardiography as well as histological and molecular analyses 4 weeks after operation. Inflammatory cell infiltration was examined by immunostaining. Interleukin-6 signaling was inhibited by administration with its receptor antibody. Overexpression of Regnase-1 in the heart was performed by adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer.<h4>Results</h4>Cardiomyocyte-specific Regnase-1-deficient mice showed no cardiac phenotypes under baseline conditions, but exhibited severe inflammation and dilated cardiomyopathy after 4 weeks of pressure overload compared with control littermates. Four weeks after transverse aortic constriction, the <i>Il6</i> mRNA level was upregulated, but not other cytokine mRNAs, including tumor necrosis factor-?, in Regnase-1-deficient hearts. Although the <i>Il6</i> mRNA level increased 1 week after operation in both Regnase-1-deficient and control hearts, it showed no increase in control hearts 4 weeks after operation. Administration of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody attenuated the development of inflammation and cardiomyopathy in cardiomyocyte-specific Regnase-1-deficient mice. In severe pressure overloaded wild-type mouse hearts, sustained induction of <i>Il6</i> mRNA was observed, even though the protein level of Regnase-1 increased. Adeno-associated virus 9-mediated cardiomyocyte-targeted gene delivery of Regnase-1 or administration of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody attenuated the development of cardiomyopathy induced by severe pressure overload in wild-type mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The degradation of cytokine mRNA by Regnase-1 in cardiomyocytes plays an important role in restraining sterile inflammation in failing hearts and the Regnase-1-mediated pathway might be a therapeutic target to treat patients with heart failure.
Project description:The matricellular protein thrombospondin (TSP) 1 is induced after tissue injury and may regulate reparative responses by activating transforming growth factor-?, by suppressing angiogenesis and by modulating inflammation and matrix metabolism. We hypothesized that endogenous TSP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling in the pressure-overloaded heart. Myocardial TSP-1 expression was increased in a mouse model of pressure overload because of transverse aortic constriction. TSP-1(-/-) mice exhibited increased early hypertrophy and enhanced late dilation in response to pressure overload. Pressure-overloaded TSP-1 null mice had intense degenerative cardiomyocyte changes, exhibiting more extensive sarcomeric loss and sarcolemmal disruption when compared with wild-type hearts. Accentuated hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte injury in TSP-1(-/-) hearts was accompanied by increased myofibroblast density. However, despite a 2-fold higher infiltration of the cardiac interstitium with myofibroblasts, pressure-overloaded TSP-1 null hearts did not exhibit significantly increased collagen content when compared with wild-type hearts. The disproportionately low collagen content in TSP-1 null hearts was attributed to infiltration with abundant, but functionally defective, fibroblasts that exhibited impaired myofibroblast differentiation and reduced collagen expression in comparison with wild-type fibroblasts. Impaired myofibroblast activation in TSP-1 null hearts was associated with reduced Smad2 phosphorylation reflecting defective transforming growth factor-? signaling. Moreover, TSP-1 null hearts had increased myocardial matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression and enhanced matrix metalloproteinase 9 activation after pressure overload. TSP-1 upregulation in the pressure-overloaded heart critically regulates fibroblast phenotype and matrix remodeling by activating transforming growth factor-? signaling and by promoting matrix preservation, thus preventing chamber dilation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hyperleptinemia is known to participate in cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension, but the relationship between pressure overload and leptin is poorly understood. We therefore examined the expression of leptin (ob) and the leptin receptor (ob-R) in the pressure-overloaded rat heart. We also examined gene expressions in culture cardiac myocytes to clarify which hypertension-related stimulus induces these genes. RESULTS: Pressure overload was produced by ligation of the rat abdominal aorta, and ob and ob-R isoform mRNAs were measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We also measured these gene expressions in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes treated with angiotensin II (ANGII), endothelin-1 (ET-1), or cyclic mechanical stretch. Leptin and the long form of the leptin receptor (ob-Rb) gene were significantly increased 4 weeks after banding, but expression of the short form of the leptin receptor (ob-Ra) was unchanged. ob-Rb protein expression was also detected by immunohistochemistry in hypertrophied cardiac myocytes after banding. Meanwhile, plasma leptin concentrations were not different between the control and banding groups. In cultured myocytes, ANGII and ET-1 increased only ob mRNA expression. However, mechanical stretch activated both ob and ob-Rb mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner, but ob-Ra mRNA was unchanged by any stress. CONCLUSIONS: We first demonstrated that both pressure mediated hypertrophy and mechanical stretch up-regulate ob-Rb gene expression in heart and cardiac myocytes, which are thought to be important for leptin action in cardiac myocytes. These results suggest a new local mechanism by which leptin affects cardiac remodeling in pressure-overloaded hearts.
Project description:The myocardial response to pressure overload involves coordination of multiple transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and metabolic cues. The previous studies show that one such metabolic cue, O-GlcNAc, is elevated in the pressure-overloaded heart, and the increase in O-GlcNAcylation is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Yet, it is not clear whether and how O-GlcNAcylation participates in the hypertrophic response in vivo. Here, we addressed this question using patient samples and a preclinical model of heart failure. Protein O-GlcNAcylation levels were increased in myocardial tissue from heart failure patients compared with normal patients. To test the role of OGT in the heart, we subjected cardiomyocyte-specific, inducibly deficient Ogt (i-cmOgt -/-) mice and Ogt competent littermate wild-type (WT) mice to transverse aortic constriction. Deletion of cardiomyocyte Ogt significantly decreased O-GlcNAcylation and exacerbated ventricular dysfunction, without producing widespread changes in metabolic transcripts. Although some changes in hypertrophic and fibrotic signaling were noted, there were no histological differences in hypertrophy or fibrosis. We next determined whether significant differences were present in i-cmOgt -/- cardiomyocytes from surgically naïve mice. Interestingly, markers of cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation were elevated in Ogt-deficient cardiomyocytes. Although no significant differences in cardiac dysfunction were apparent after recombination, it is possible that such changes in dedifferentiation markers could reflect a larger phenotypic shift within the Ogt-deficient cardiomyocytes. We conclude that cardiomyocyte Ogt is not required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vivo; however, loss of Ogt may exert subtle phenotypic differences in cardiomyocytes that sensitize the heart to pressure overload-induced ventricular dysfunction.
Project description:Adenylyl cyclase (AC) types 5 and 6 (AC5 and AC6) are the two major AC isoforms expressed in the mammalian heart that mediate signals from beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Because of the unavailability of isoform-specific antibodies, it is difficult to ascertain the expression levels of AC5 protein in the heart. Here we demonstrated the successful generation of an AC5 isoform-specific mouse monoclonal antibody and studied the expression of AC5 protein during cardiac development in different mammalian species. The specificity of the antibody was confirmed using heart and brain tissues from AC5 knockout mice and from transgenic mice overexpressing AC5. In mice, the AC5 protein was highest in the brain but was also detectable in all organs studied, including the heart, brain, lung, liver, stomach, kidney, skeletal muscle, and vascular tissues. Western blot analysis showed that AC5 was most abundant in the neonatal heart and declined to basal levels in the adult heart. AC5 protein increased in the heart with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy. Thus this new AC5 antibody demonstrated that this AC isoform behaves similarly to fetal type genes, such as atrial natriuretic peptide; i.e., it declines with development and increases with pressure-overload hypertrophy.