Gallium-Indium-Tin Eutectic as a Self-Healing Room-Temperature Liquid Metal Anode for High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries.
ABSTRACT: Owing to their intrinsic properties, such as deformability, high electrical conductivity, and superior electrochemical performance, room-temperature liquid metals and liquid metal alloys have attracted the attention of researchers for a wide variety of applications, including portable and large-scale energy storage applications. In this study, novel gallium-indium-tin eutectic (EGaInSn) room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles synthesized using a facile and scalable probe-ultrasonication method were used as anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The morphology, geometry, and self-healing properties of the synthesized room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS). The synthesized room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles delivered a specific capacity of 474 mAh g-1 and retained 77% of the stable reversible capacity after 500 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a constant current density of 0.1 A g-1. The high theoretical specific capacity, combined with its self-healing and fluidic features, make EGaInSn room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles a potential anode material for large-scale energy storage applications.
Project description:Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG) using copper sulphate as a precursor and vanadium sulfate as an atypical reductant being active at room temperature. We have described a technique for a relatively simple preparation of such a reagent, which has been electrolytically produced without using standard procedures requiring an inert atmosphere and a mercury cathode. Several stabilizing agents have been tested and cationic capping agents have been discarded owing to the formation of complex compounds with copper ions leading to insoluble phases contaminating the metallic nanoparticles. The elemental copper nanoparticles, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), have been characterized for composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and for size by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), giving a size distribution in the range of 40-50 nm for both stabilizing agents. From a methodological point of view, the process described here may represent an alternative to other wet-chemical techniques for metal nanoparticle synthesis in non-aqueous media based on conventional organic or inorganic reductants.
Project description:In this work, a series of heptaphenyl siloxane trisilanol/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (T₇-POSS) modified by polyols with different molecular weights were synthesized into liquid-like nanoparticle⁻organic hybrid materials using the grafted-from method. All grafted POSS nanoparticles changed from solid powders to liquid at room temperature. Polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites with POSS contents ranging from 1.75 to 9.72 wt % were prepared from these liquefied polyols-terminated POSS with polyepichlorohydrin (POSS–PECH). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the morphology of the POSS–PECH/PU nanocomposites. The results showed that the polyol-terminated POSS particles overcame the nanoagglomeration effect and evenly disperse in the polymeric matrix. The damping factor (tan <i>δ</i>) of resultant nanocomposites increased from 0.90 to 1.16, while the glass transition temperature decreased from 15.8 to 9.4 °C when POSS contents increased from 0 to 9.75 wt %. The gel content, tensile strength and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses demonstrated that the molecular thermal movement ability of the polyurethane (PU) matrix increased with increasing POSS hybrid content. Therefore, the improvement of the damping properties of the composites was mainly due to the friction-related losses occurring in the interface region between the nanoparticles and the matrix.
Project description:Copper-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different oxidation states and near-uniform particle sizes have been successfully synthesized. Mixed-matrix polyimide membranes incorporating 0.1-7 wt% of Cu(II) benzene-1,2,5-tricarboxylic acid (Cu(II)BTC), Cu(I/II)BTC and Cu(I) 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid (EDS) (Cu(I)EDS) MOFs were fabricated via non-solvent-induced phase inversion process. These membranes are found to be solvent resistant and mechanically stable. Liquid phase nanofiltration experiments were performed to separate toluene from n-heptane at room temperature. These membranes demonstrate preferential adsorption and permeation of the aromatic toluene over aliphatic n-heptane. The amount of MOF particles incorporated, the oxidation state of the Cu ion and membrane, and barrier layer thickness have a significant impact on the separation factor. Toluene/heptane separation factor at 1.47, 1.67 and 1.79 can be obtained for membranes incorporating 7 wt% Cu(II)BTC, Cu(I/II)BTC and Cu(I)EDS respectively at room temperature.
Project description:This paper presents a new route to one-step fabrication and in situ application of hydrogen tungsten and molybdenum bronze (H <sub><i>x</i></sub> MO<sub>3</sub>) at room temperature and triggers the interdisciplinary research of multifunctional materials between liquid metal and transition-metal oxides (TMOs). Gallium-based liquid metal (GBLM) enables the discoloration effect on TMOs in acid electrolytes at ambient temperature. The underlying mechanism behind this phenomenon can be ascribed to the redox effect at the interface of liquid metal and TMOs in acid electrolytes. Both the theoretical calculations and the experimental results demonstrate that the increasing intercalation of H<sup>+</sup> ions into the lattice of WO<sub>3</sub> raises the electron density at the Fermi level and charge carriers. H<sup>+</sup> ion content in the obtained H <sub><i>x</i></sub> MO<sub>3</sub> can be controlled in our approach to meet different requirements. Taking advantage of the one-step fabrication and room-temperature liquid phase nature of the liquid metal, H <sub><i>x</i></sub> MO<sub>3</sub> is synthesized under ambient conditions in a very short time, which is inaccessible with conventional solution-processed mechanical alloying, or other methods. The H <sub><i>x</i></sub> MO<sub>3</sub> obtained in this one-step approach enables convenient and simple applications for biomimetic camouflage, cost-effective energy storage, H<sup>+</sup> ion sensor, and electronic switch.
Project description:The room-temperature controlled crystallization of monodispersed ZnS nanoparticles (average size of 5 nm) doped with luminescent ions (such as Mn<sup>2+</sup>, Eu<sup>3+</sup>, Sm<sup>3+</sup>, Nd<sup>3+</sup>, and Yb<sup>3+</sup>) was achieved via a microfluidic approach. The preparation did not require any stabilizing ligands or surfactants, minimizing potential sources of impurities. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized from a structural (XRD and XAS at lanthanide L<sub>3</sub> edges), morphological (TEM), and compositional (XPS, ICP-MS) perspective, giving complementary information on the materials' features. In view of potential applications in the field of optical bioimaging, the optical emission properties of the doped nanoparticles were assessed, and samples showed strong luminescent properties while being less affected by self-quenching mechanisms. Furthermore, <i>in vitro</i> cytotoxicity experiments were conducted, showing no negative effects and evidencing the appeal of the synthesized materials for potential applications in the field of optical bioimaging.
Project description:The present paper reports a facile and selective colorimetric method for the detection of potential environmental and health hazardous metal ions using green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Here the organic functional groups present in the plant extract (Mentha arvensis) are used as reductants and stabilizers in the synthesis of AgNPs. They also provide a suitable binding site to the (Al(III)) analyte in the detection mechanism. The leaf extract of Mentha arvensis was used to synthesize AgNPs at room-temperature and at 80 °C. The AgNPs synthesized at 80 °C exhibit excellent selective colorimetric detection of Al(III). The as-synthesized AgNPs have been characterized, and the synthesis, stabilization of NPs and detection mechanism has also been illustrated by using UV-vis, XPS, FTIR, TEM, EDX, SEM, AAS, and TGA analytical tools and techniques. The selectivity of detection probe was supported by the reaction between probe and metal ions followed first-order kinetics having the highest value of the regression coefficient (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.99) for Al(III) and the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The prepared sensor showed a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nM (S/N = 3.2) in real water samples. The proposed method can be successfully utilized for the detection of Al(III) from both drinking and real water samples at the nanomolar level.
Project description:The development of new nanomaterials is gaining increasing attention due to their extensive applications in fields ranging from medicine to food and cultural heritage. Green nanoparticles provide advantages compared to conventional nanoparticles as their synthesis is environmentally-friendly and does not require the use of high temperatures, pressure, or toxic chemicals. In this paper, green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized according to a new method using quercetin as a reducing agent at room temperature. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques and successively tested for biocide activity by studying their effects in the inhibition of bacterial growth. The results demonstrated that the smaller the AgNPs size, the greater their biocide activity. In particular, AgNPs with a diameter of 8 nm showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.0 ?g/mL against Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Candida sp. microorganisms, while AgNPs with a larger diameter of about 20 nm were able to inhibit microbial of all selected pathogens at a higher MIC value of 2.5 ?g/mL.
Project description:Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.
Project description:A new method for synthesizing gold, nickel, and cobalt metal nanoparticles at room temperature from metal salts employing plasmid DNA in a toroidal topology as a sacrificial mold is presented. The diameter of the toroidal DNA drives the formation and size of the nanoparticle, and UV light initiates the oxidation of the DNA and concomitant reduction of the DNA bound metal ions. The nanoparticles were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron diffraction (ED).
Project description:Methanol, which contains 12.6 weight percent hydrogen, is a good hydrogen storage medium because it is a liquid at room temperature. However, by releasing the hydrogen, undesirable CO and/or CO<sub>2</sub> byproducts are formed during catalytic fuel reforming. We show that alkaline earth metal oxides, in our case MgO nanocrystals, exhibit stable photocatalytic activity for CO/CO<sub>2</sub>-free H<sub>2</sub> production from liquid methanol at room temperature. The performance of MgO nanocrystals toward methanol dehydrogenation increases with time and approaches ~320 ?mol g<sup>-1</sup> hour<sup>-1</sup> after a 2-day photocatalytic reaction. The CO <sub><i>x</i></sub> -free H<sub>2</sub> production is attributed to methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde, photocatalyzed by surface electronic states of unique monodispersed, porous MgO nanocrystals, which were synthesized with a novel facile colloidal chemical strategy. An oxygen plasma treatment allows for the removal of organic surfactants, producing MgO nanocrystals that are well dispersible in methanol.