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Association of fibroblast growth factor 21 with metabolic syndrome and endothelial function in children: a prospective cross-sectional study on novel biomarkers.


ABSTRACT:

Purpose

Metabolic and cardiovascular disease prevention starting in childhood is critical for reducing morbidity later in life. In the present study, the association of novel biomarkers with metabolic syndrome (MS) and vascular function/structure indices of early atherosclerosis in children was investigated.

Methods

This was a prospective study of 78 children (8-16 years of age) grouped based on the presence or absence of MS. The serum biomarkers investigated included fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), leptin, adiponectin, and insulinlike growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP1). Endothelial function and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed based on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness, respectively.

Results

Children with MS (n=12) had higher levels of FGF21 (median [interquartile range]: 128 [76-189] pg/mL vs. 60 [20-98] pg/mL, P=0.003) and leptin (18.1 [11-34.8] pg/mL vs. 7.5 [1.9-16.5] ng/mL, P=0.003), and lower levels of IGFBP1 (1.5 [1.2-2.1] ng/mL vs. 2.3 [1.5-6] ng/mL, P=0.028) compared with children without MS. FMD inversely correlated with FGF21 (Spearman rho= -0.24, P=0.035) and leptin (rho= -0.24, P=0.002) in all children. The best cutoff value of FGF21 levels for MS diagnosis was above 121.3 pg/mL (sensitivity/specificity, 58/86%). Only FGF21 was significantly associated with the presence of MS after adjustment for body mass index, age, and sex (odds ratio per 10 pg/mL increase: 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.22]; P=0.043).

Conclusion

Increased FGF21 levels were associated with the presence of MS and worse endothelial function in children. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the potential value of FGF21 as a biomarker that could predict future metabolic/cardiovascular disease at an early stage.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8749025 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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