Genetic Distribution of Five Spinocerebellar Ataxia Microsatellite Loci in Mexican Native American Populations and Its Impact on Contemporary Mestizo Populations.
ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) conform a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance. Five of the most frequent SCAs are caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the exons of specific genes. The SCAs incidence and the distribution of polymorphic CAG alleles vary among populations and ethnicities. Thus, characterization of the genetic architecture of ethnically diverse populations, which have undergone recent admixture and demographic events, could facilitate the identification of genetic risk factors. Owing to the great ethnic diversity of the Mexican population, this study aimed to analyze the allele frequencies of five SCA microsatellite loci (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, and SCA7) in eleven Mexican Native American (MNA) populations. Data from the literature were used to compare the allelic distribution of SCA loci with worldwide populations. The SCA loci allelic frequencies evidenced a certain genetic homogeneity in the MNA populations, except for Mayans, who exhibited distinctive genetic profiles. Neither pathological nor large normal alleles were found in MNA populations, except for the SCA2 pre-mutated allele in the Zapotec population. Collectively, our findings demonstrated the contribution of the MNA ancestry in shaping the genetic structure of contemporary Mexican Mestizo populations. Our results also suggest that Native American ancestry has no impact on the origin of SCAs in the Mexican population. Instead, the acquisition of pathological SCA alleles could be associated with European migration.
Project description:Dystonia is a common feature in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). Whether the presence of dystonia is associated with different rate of ataxia progression is not known.To study clinical characteristics and ataxia progression in SCAs with and without dystonia.We studied 334 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3 and 6 from the Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (CRC-SCA) and compared the clinical characteristics of SCAs with and without dystonia. We repeatedly measured ataxia progression by the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia every 6 months for 2 years. Regression models were employed to study the association between dystonia and ataxia progression after adjusting for age, sex and pathological CAG repeats. We used logistic regression to analyze the impact of different repeat expansion genes on dystonia in SCAs.Dystonia was most commonly observed in SCA3, followed by SCA2, SCA1, and SCA6. Dystonia was associated with longer CAG repeats in SCA3. The CAG repeat number in TBP normal alleles appeared to modify the presence of dystonia in SCA1. The presence of dystonia was associated with higher SARA scores in SCA1, 2, and 3. Although relatively rare in SCA6, the presence of dystonia was associated with slower progression of ataxia.The presence of dystonia is associated with greater severity of ataxia in SCA1, 2, and 3, but predictive of a slower progression in SCA6. Complex genetic interactions among repeat expansion genes can lead to diverse clinical symptoms and progression in SCAs.
Project description:Postural tremor can sometimes occur in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). However, the prevalence and clinical characteristics of postural tremor in SCAs are poorly understood, and whether SCA patients with postural tremor have different ataxia progression is not known.We studied postural tremor in 315 patients with SCA1, 2, 3, and 6 recruited from the Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (CRC-SCA), which consists of 12 participating centers in the United States, and we evaluated ataxia progression in these patients from January 2010 to August 2012.Among 315 SCA patients, postural tremor was most common in SCA2 patients (SCA1, 5.8%; SCA2, 27.5%; SCA3, 12.4%; SCA6, 16.9%; p = 0.007). SCA3 patients with postural tremor had longer CAG repeat expansions than SCA3 patients without postural tremor (73.67 ± 3.12 vs. 70.42 ± 3.96, p = 0.003). Interestingly, SCA1 and SCA6 patients with postural tremor had a slower rate of ataxia progression (SCA1, β = -0.91, p < 0.001; SCA6, β = -1.28, p = 0.025), while SCA2 patients with postural tremor had a faster rate of ataxia progression (β = 1.54, p = 0.034). We also found that the presence of postural tremor in SCA2 patients could be influenced by repeat expansions of ATXN1 (β = -1.53, p = 0.037) and ATXN3 (β = 0.57, p = 0.018), whereas postural tremor in SCA3 was associated with repeat lengths in TBP (β = 0.63, p = 0.041) and PPP2R2B (β = -0.40, p = 0.032).Postural tremor could be a clinical feature of SCAs, and the presence of postural tremor could be associated with different rates of ataxia progression. Genetic interactions between ataxia genes might influence the brain circuitry and thus affect the clinical presentation of postural tremor.
Project description:The aim of this study is to determine whether the initial symptom associates with motor progression in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). SCAs are clinically heterogeneous and the initial presentation may represent different subtypes of SCA with different motor progression. We studied 317 participants with SCAs1, 2, 3, and 6 from the Clinical Research Consortium for SCAs (CRC-SCA) and repeatedly measured the severity of ataxia for 2 years. SCA patients were divided into gait-onset and non-gait-onset (speech, vision, and hand dexterity) groups based on the initial presentation. In addition to demographic comparison, we employed regression models to study ataxia progression in these two groups after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. The majority of SCA patients had gait abnormality as an initial presentation. The pathological CAG repeat expansions were similar between the gait-onset and non-gait-onset groups. In SCA1, gait-onset group progressed slower than non-gait-onset group, while gait-onset SCA6 group progressed faster than their counterpart. In addition, the disease presented 9 years later for SCA2 gait-onset group than non-gait-onset group. Initial symptoms of SCA3 did not influence age of onset or disease progression. The initial symptom in each SCA has a different influence on age of onset and motor progression. Therefore, gait and non-gait-onset groups of SCAs might represent different subtypes of the diseases.
Project description:Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are rare types of cerebellar ataxia with a dominant mode of inheritance. To date, 47 SCA subtypes have been identified, and the number of genes implicated in SCAs is continually increasing. Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion diseases ( ATXN1/SCA1, ATXN2/SCA2, ATXN3/SCA3, CACNA1A/SCA6, ATXN7/SCA7, TBP/SCA17, and ATN1/DRPLA) are the most common group of SCAs. No preventive or curative treatments are currently available, but various therapeutic approaches, including RNA-targeting treatments, such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), are being developed. Clinical trials of ASOs in SCA patients are already planned. There is, therefore, a need to identify valid outcome measures for such studies. In this review, we describe recent advances towards identifying appropriate biomarkers, which are essential for monitoring disease progression and treatment efficacy. Neuroimaging biomarkers are the most powerful markers identified to date, making it possible to reduce sample sizes for clinical trials. Changes on brain MRI are already evident at the premanifest stage in SCA1 and SCA2 carriers and are correlated with CAG repeat size. Other potential biomarkers have also been developed, based on neurological examination, oculomotor study, cognitive assessment, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Longitudinal studies based on multimodal approaches are required to establish the relationships between parameters and to validate the biomarkers identified.
Project description:Polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias (polyQ SCAs) include SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, SCA7, and SCA17 and constitute a group of adult onset neurodegenerative disorders caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat sequence located within the coding region of specific genes, which translates into polyglutamine tract in the corresponding proteins. PolyQ SCAs are characterized by degeneration of the cerebellum and its associated structures and lead to progressive ataxia and other diverse symptoms. In recent years, gene and epigenetic deregulations have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of polyQ SCAs. Here, we provide an overview of the functions of wild type and pathogenic polyQ SCA proteins in gene regulation, describe the extent and nature of gene expression changes and their pathological consequences in diseases, and discuss potential avenues to further investigate converging and distinct disease pathways and to develop therapeutic strategies.
Project description:About 50 % of Thai patients with adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) was Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), SCA1, SCA2 and SCA6. The author investigated further on less common SCAs in the patients without any known mutations.DNA samples of 82 index patients who were genetically excluded MJD, SCA1, SCA2, SCA6, SCA7 and dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) were examined. Analysis of SCA8, SCA10, SCA12, SCA17 and SCA19 genes were comprehensively performed. Normal range of trinucleotide repeat expansion sizes of TATA-box-binding protein gene (TBP) were also determined in 374 control subjects.Eight patients carried ?42 CAG/CAA repeat allele in the TBP consistent with SCA17. The pathological repeat alleles ranged from 42 to 57 repeats. All patients had significant degree of cognitive dysfunction. Other non-ataxic phenotypes comprised of parkinsonism, chorea, dystonia and myoclonus. A sporadic patient carried a heterozygous 41-repeat allele developed chronic progressive cerebellar degeneration commenced at the age of 28 years. Whilst, 2 % of the control subjects (8/374) carried the 41-repeat allele. Five of the carriers were re-examined, and revealed that four of them had parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment without cerebellar signs. Analysis of other types of SCAs was all negative.This is the first study of SCA8, SCA10, SCA12, SCA17 and SCA19 in Thais. SCA17 appears to be an important cause of ataxia in Thailand. Although, the pathological cut-off point of the TBP repeat allele remains unclear, the finding suggests that the 41-repeat may be a pathological allele resulting late-onset or mild phenotype. Apart from ataxia, cognitive impairment and parkinsonism may be clinical presentations in these carriers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA)--SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6--are caused by (CAG)n repeat expansion. While the number of repeats of the coding (CAG)n expansions is correlated with the age at onset, there are no appropriate models that include both affected and preclinical carriers allowing for the prediction of age at onset.<h4>Methods</h4>We combined data from two major European cohorts of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 mutation carriers: 1187 affected individuals from the EUROSCA registry and 123 preclinical individuals from the RISCA cohort. For each SCA genotype, a regression model was fitted using a log-normal distribution for age at onset with the repeat length of the alleles as covariates. From these models, we calculated expected age at onset from birth and conditionally that this age is greater than the current age.<h4>Results</h4>For SCA2 and SCA3 genotypes, the expanded allele was a significant predictor of age at onset (-0.105±0.005 and -0.056±0.003) while for SCA1 and SCA6 genotypes both the size of the expanded and normal alleles were significant (expanded: -0.049±0.002 and -0.090±0.009, respectively; normal: +0.013±0.005 and -0.029±0.010, respectively). According to the model, we indicated the median values (90% critical region) and the expectancy (SD) of the predicted age at onset for each SCA genotype according to the CAG repeat size and current age.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These estimations can be valuable in clinical and research. However, results need to be confirmed in other independent cohorts and in future longitudinal studies.<h4>Clinicaltrialsgov, number</h4>NCT01037777 and NCT00136630 for the French patients.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are the most common form of hereditary ataxias. Extracerebellar signs have been well described and are helpful in differentiating the SCA subtypes. However, there are few reports on the early-stage extracerebellar signs in various SCA subtypes. This study explored the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of early-stage SCAs in the Korean population.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of genetically confirmed SCA patients with a disease duration of <5 years. Data on baseline characteristics, extracerebellar signs, and initial MRI findings were organized based on SCA subtypes.<h4>Results</h4>This study included 117 SCA patients with a median age at onset of 40.6 years. The family history was positive in 71.8% of the patients, and the median disease duration and the score on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia at the initial visit were 2.6 years and 5.0, respectively. SCA3 was the most prevalent subtype, and oculomotor abnormalities were the most frequent extracerebellar signs in early-stage SCAs. Saccadic slowing was characteristic of SCA2 and SCA7, and gaze-evoked nystagmus was prominent in SCA6. Parkinsonism was relatively frequent in SCA8 and SCA3. Decreased visual acuity was specific for SCA7. Dementia was not an early manifestation of SCAs. Brain MRI revealed a pattern of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2 and SCA7, while SCA6 demonstrated only cerebellar cortical atrophy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SCA patients exhibited diverse extracerebellar signs even in the early stage. Specific extracerebellar signs were characteristic of specific subtypes, which could facilitate differential diagnoses of early-stage SCAs.
Project description:Pathogenic CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-2 gene (ATXN2) is the genetic cause of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Recently, it has been associated with Parkinsonism and increased genetic risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report the association of de novo mutations in ATXN2 with autosomal dominant ALS. These findings support our previous conjectures based on population studies on the role of large normal ATXN2 alleles as the source for new mutations being involved in neurodegenerative pathologies associated with CAG expansions. The de novo mutations expanded from ALS/SCA2 non-risk alleles as proven by meta-analysis method. The ALS risk was associated with SCA2 alleles as well as with intermediate CAG lengths in the ATXN2. Higher risk for ALS was associated with pathogenic CAG repeat as revealed by meta-analysis.
Project description:SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 are the most common forms of SCAs among the polyglutamine disorders, which include Huntington's Disease (HD). We investigated the relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and the phenotype of SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3, comparing them with HD. The results showed that LTL was significantly reduced in SCA1 and SCA3 patients, while LTL was significantly longer in SCA2 patients. A significant negative relationship between LTL and age was observed in SCA1 but not in SCA2 subjects. LTL of SCA3 patients depend on both patient's age and disease duration. The number of CAG repeats did not affect LTL in the three SCAs. Since LTL is considered an indirect marker of an inflammatory response and oxidative damage, our data suggest that in SCA1 inflammation is present already at an early stage of disease similar to in HD, while in SCA3 inflammation and impaired antioxidative processes are associated with disease progression. Interestingly, in SCA2, contrary to SCA1 and SCA3, the length of leukocyte telomeres does not reduce with age. We have observed that SCAs and HD show a differing behavior in LTL for each subtype, which could constitute relevant biomarkers if confirmed in larger cohorts and longitudinal studies.